bcis 1305

Software installed with another program that generates advertising revenue for the program’s creator by displaying targeted ads to the program’s user. (ECC 24)
analog signal
A continuous wave signal (sound wave) that can traverse ordinary phone lines. (ECC 22)
anti-spyware software
Software that detects and removes spyware. (ECC 24)
antivirus software
Software that searches executable files for the sequences of characters that may cause harm and disinfects the files by erasing or disabling those commands. Also called virus protection software. (ECC 24)
application software
Software that enables you to perform specific computer tasks, such as document production, spreadsheet calculations, database management, and presentation preparation. (ECC 26)
The design and construction of a computer; also called configuration. (ECC 6)
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ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
The number system that personal computers use to represent character data. (ECC 7)
BIOS Stands for basic input/output system
the set of instructions stored in ROM that the computer uses to check its components to ensure they are working and to activate the software that provides the basic functionality of the computer when you turn on the computer. (ECC 10)
binary digit (bit)
The representation of data as a 1 or 0. (ECC 7)
bits per second (bps)
The unit of measurement for the speed of data transmission. (ECC 22)
A wireless technology standard that allows electronic devices to use short range radio waves to communicate with one another or connect to the Internet; the radio waves can be transmitted around corners and through walls. (ECC 22)
A disc used for storing high-definition video that stores 25 GB of data per layer. (ECC 13)
boot process
The set of events that occurs between the moment you turn on the computer and the moment you can begin to use the computer. (ECC 10)
broadband connection
A high-speed connection to the Internet. (ECC 22)
A series of eight bits. (ECC 7)
Plastic-enclosed wires that attach a peripheral device to a computer port. (ECC 19)
cache memory
Special high-speed memory chips on the motherboard or CPU that store frequently-accessed and recently-accessed data and commands; also called RAM cache or CPU cache. (ECC 10)
A removable circuit board that is inserted into a slot in the motherboard to expand the capabilities of the motherboard. (ECC 9)
CD (compact disc)
An optical storage device that can store 700 MB of data. (ECC 13)
CD-R (compact disc recordable)
A CD that on which you can record data with a laser that changes the reflectivity of a dye layer on the blank disk, creating dark spots on the disk’s surface that represent the data; once the data is recorded, you cannot erase or modify it. (ECC 13)
CD-ROM (compact disc read-only memory)
A CD that contains software or music when you purchase it, but you cannot record additional data on it. (ECC 13)
CD-RW (compact disc rewritable)
A CD on which you can record data as on a CD-R, and then delete or re-record data on it as needed. (ECC 13)
The medium, such as telephone or coaxial cable, over which a message is sent in data communications. (ECC 19)
An integrated circuit embedded in semiconductor material. (ECC 9)
A path along which an electric current travels. (ECC 8)
circuit board
A rigid piece of insulating material with circuits on it that control specific functions. (ECC 8)
A computer networked to and dependent on a server. (ECC 21)
client/server network
A network with a server and computers dependent on the server. (ECC 21)
clock speed
The pulse of the processor measured in megahertz or gigahertz. (ECC 9)
cloud computing
When data, applications, and resources are stored on servers accessed over the Internet or a company’s internal network rather than on user’s computers. (ECC 32)
A type of input that instructs the computer how to process data. (ECC 8)
complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) memory
A chip installed on the motherboard powered by a battery whose content changes every time you add or remove hardware on your computer system and that is activated during the boot process so it can identify where essential software is stored. Also called semi permanent memory.
(ECC 11)
An electronic device that accepts input, processes data, displays output, and stores data for retrieval later. (ECC 4)
computer system
A computer, its hardware, and software. (ECC 6)
controller card
A card that plugs into a slot on the motherboard and connects to a port to provide an electrical connection to a peripheral device. Also called expansion card or interface card. (ECC 19)
The words, numbers, figures, sounds, and graphics that describe people, events, things, and ideas. (ECC 7)
data bus
The path between the microprocessor, RAM, and the peripherals along which communication travels. (ECC 19)
data communications
The transmission of text, numeric, voice, or video data from one computer to another or to a peripheral device. (ECC 19)
data file
A file created by a user, usually with software, such as a report that you write with a word processing program. (ECC 11)
A collection of information stored on one or more computers organized in a uniform format of records and fields. (ECC 29)
database management software
Software you use to collect and manage data. (ECC 29)
desktop computer
A personal computer designed to sit compactly on a desk and run on power from an electrical wall outlet. (ECC 5)
device driver
A computer program that can establish communication between two devices because it contains information about the characteristics of your computer and of the device. Also called driver. (ECC 19)
digital signal
A stop-start signal that your computer outputs into analog, or continuous wave, signals (sound waves) that can traverse ordinary phone lines. (ECC 22)
document production software
Software, such as word processing software, desktop publishing software, e-mail editors, and Web authoring software, that assists you in writing and formatting documents, including changing the font and checking the spelling. (ECC 28)
dot pitch (dp)
The distance between pixels on a monitor. (ECC 18)
DSL (digital subscriber line)
A high-speed connection over phone lines. (ECC 22)
dual-core processor
A CPU that has two processors on the chip. (ECC 9)
An optical storage device that stores between 4.7 and 15.9 GB of data, depending on whether data is stored on one or both sides of the disc and how many layers of data each side contains; was originally an acronym for digital video disc and later digital versatile disc. (ECC 13)
A DVD on which you can record data once. (ECC 14)
A DVD on which you can record data as on a DVD-R, and then delete or re-record data on it as needed. (ECC 14)
The capability to send a message from one user’s computer to another user’s computer where it is stored until the recipient opens it. (ECC 22)
To copy and paste source data into a new file. (ECC 31)
Designed to fit the natural placement of the body to reduce the risk of repetitive-motion injuries. (ECC 15)
ethernet port
A port used to connect computers in a LAN or sometimes directly to the Internet; it allows for high-speed data transmission. (ECC 21)
executable file
A file that contains the instructions that tell a computer how to perform a specific task, such as the files that are used during the boot process. (ECC 11)
expansion port
The interface between a cable and a controller card. Also called port. (ECC 19)
expansion slot
An electrical connector on the motherboard into which a card is plugged. Also called slot. (ECC 19)
A named collection of stored data. (ECC 11)
Hardware or software that prevents other computers on the Internet from accessing a computer or prevents a program on a computer from accessing the Internet. (ECC 24)
flash memory
Memory that is similar to ROM except that it can be written to more than once. Also called solid state storage. (ECC 14)
flash memory card
A small, portable card encased in hard plastic to which data can be written and rewritten. (ECC 14)
flat panel monitor
A lightweight monitor that takes up very little room on the desktop and uses LCD technology to create the image on the screen. (ECC 17)
gigabyte (GB)
1,073,741,824 bytes, or about one billion bytes. (ECC 7)
gigahertz (GHz)
One billion cycles per second. (ECC 9)
graphical user interface (GUI)
A computer environment in which the user manipulates graphics, icons, and dialog boxes to execute commands. (ECC 26)
graphics card
A card installed on the motherboard that controls the signals the computer sends to the monitor. Also called video display adapter or video card. (ECC 18)
graphics display
A monitor that is capable of displaying graphics by dividing the screen into a matrix of pixels. (ECC 17)
graphics processor
A processor that controls the signals the computer sends to the monitor. Also called built-in graphics card. (ECC 18)
graphics software
Software that allows you to create illustrations, diagrams, graphs, and charts. (ECC 29)
handheld computer
A small computer designed to fit in the palm of your hand, generally has fewer capabilities than personal computers, and runs on battery. (ECC 5)
hard copy
A printed copy of computer output. (ECC 18)
hard disk
A magnetic storage device that contains several magnetic oxide-covered metal platters that are usually sealed in a case inside the computer. Also called hard disk drive. (ECC 12)
The physical components of a computer. (ECC 6)
A place on a Web page that is programmed to connect to a particular file on the same network server, or even on a network server on the other side of the globe. Also called link. (ECC 23)
infrared technology
A wireless technology in which devices communicate with one another using infrared light waves; the devices must be positioned so that the infrared ports are pointed directly at one another. (ECC 22)
inkjet printer
A printer that sprays ink onto paper and produces output whose quality is comparable to that of a laser printer. (ECC 18)
The data or instructions you type into the computer. (ECC 15)
input/output (I/O)
The flow of data from the microprocessor to memory to peripherals and back again. (ECC 26)
input device
An instrument, such as a keyboard or a mouse, that you use to enter data and issue commands to the computer. (ECC 15)
The seamless nature of OLE among some applications. (ECC 31)
The largest network in the world. (ECC 22)
The most frequently used input device; consists of three major parts: the main keyboard, the keypads, and the function keys. (ECC 2)
laser printer
A printer that produces high-quality output quickly and efficiently by transferring a temporary laser image onto paper with toner. (ECC 18)
LCD (liquid crystal display)
A display technology that creates images by manipulating light within a layer of liquid crystal. (ECC 17)
LED (light emmitting diode)
monitor A flat-panel monitor that uses LEDs to provide backlight. (ECC 17)
To create a connection between source data and the copy in a new file; the copy in the new file is updated every time a change is made to the source data. A place on a Webpage that is programmed to connect to a particular file on the same network server, or even on a network server on the other side of the globe. (ECC 23)
local area network (LAN)
A network in which the computers and peripheral devices are located relatively close to each other, generally in the same building, and are usually connected with cables. (ECC 22)
log in/log on
To sign in with a user name and password before being able to use a computer. (ECC 25)
magnetic storage
An object that stores data as magnetized particles on a surface. (ECC 12)
media mainframe computer
A computer used by larger business and government agencies that provides centralized storage, processing, and management for large amounts of data. (ECC 5)
A broad term that describes any program that is intended to cause harm or convey information to others without the owner’s permission. (ECC 23)
(MB) 1,048,576 bytes, or about one million bytes. (ECC 7)
(MHz) One million cycles per second. (ECC 9)
A set of storage locations on the main circuit board that store instructions and data. (ECC 9)
A silicon chip, located on the motherboard, that is responsible for executing instructions to process data; also called processor or central processing unit (CPU). (ECC 9)
A device that connects your computer to a standard telephone jack or to a cable connection). (ECC 21)
The TV-like peripheral device that displays the output from the computer. (ECC 2)
The main circuit board of the computer on which processing tasks occur. (ECC 8)
A pointing device that has a rolling ball on its underside and two or more buttons for clicking commands; you control the movement of the pointer by moving the entire mouse around on your desk. (ECC 2)
MP3 player
A hand-held computer that is used primarily to play and store music, but that can also be used to play digital movies or television shows, allow you to listen to FM radio stations, and access the Internet and email. (ECC 5)
multitasking 26)
The ability of computers of starting and running more than one program at a time. (ECC
A type of subnotebook computer that is primarily designed to allow isers to access the Internet and check email. (ECC 5)
Connects one computer to other computers and peripheral devices, enablingyou to share data and resources with others. (ECC 21)
network interface card (NIC)
The card in a computer on a network that creates a communications channel between the computer and the network. (ECC 21)
network software
Software that establishes the communications protocols that will be observed on the network and controls the “traffic flow” as data travels throughout the network. (ECC 21)
Any device connected to a network. (ECC 21)
A small, lightweight computer designed for portability. Also called laptop computer. (ECC 5)
computer object linking and embedding (OLE)
The ability to use data from a file created in one application in a file created by another application. (ECC 31)
operating environment
An operating system, such as Microsoft Windows and MAC OS, that provides a graphical user interface that acts as a liaison between the user and all of the computer’s hardware and software. (ECC 26)
operating system
Software that allocates system resources, manages storage space, maintains security, detects equipment failure, and controls basic input and output. (ECC 3)
optical storage device
A polycarbonate disk coated with a reflective metal on which data is recorded using laser technology as a trail of tiny pits or dark spots in the surface of the disk; the data that these pits or spots represent can then be “read” with a beam of laser light. (ECC 13)
The result of the computer processing input. (ECC 15)
output device
A device, such as a monitor or printer, that displays the results of processing data. (ECC 17)
pages per minute (ppm)
The unit of measurement for the speed of laser and inkjet printers. (ECC 18)
peer-to-peer network
A network in which all the computers essentially are equal, and programs and data are distributed among them. (ECC 21)
peripheral device
The components of a computer that accomplish its input, output, and storage functions. (ECC 15)
personal computer (PC)
A computer typically used by a single user in the home or office for general computing tasks such as word processing, working with photographs or graphics, email, and Internet access. (ECC 4)
To break into a DNS server and redirect any attempts to access a particular Web site to a spoofed site. (ECC 25)
To send emails to customers or potential customers of a legitimate Web site asking them to click a link in the email and then “verify” their personal information; the link leads to a spoofed site. (ECC 25)
photo editing
Software that allows you to manipulate digital photos. (ECC 30)
One of the small dots in a matrix into which a graphics display is divided. (ECC 17)
software pointer
A small arrow or other symbol on the screen controlled by a pointing device. (ECC 15)
pointing device
A device, such as a mouse or trackball, that controls the pointer. (ECC 15)
pointing stick
A small, eraser-like device embedded among the typing keys that you push up, left, right, or down to move the pointer; buttons for clicking commands are located in front of the spacebar. (ECC 16)
presentation software
Software that allows you to display or project graphics and other information before a group, print them for quick reference, or transmit them to remote computers. (ECC 29)
The peripheral computer component that produces a hard copy of the text or graphics processed by the computer. (ECC 18)
To modify data in a computer. (ECC 8)
A list of instructions that the computer uses to perform a specific task. (ECC 6)
programming language
Software used to write computer instructions. (ECC 27)
The set of rules that establishes the orderly transfer of data between the sender and the receiver in data communications. (ECC 19)
quad-core processor
A CPU with four processors on the chip. (ECC 9)
random access memory (RAM)
Chips on cards plugged into the motherboard that temporarily hold programs and data while the computer is turned on. Also called volatile memory or temporary memory. (ECC 9)
read-only memory (ROM)
A chip on the motherboard that is prerecorded with and permanently stores the set of instructions that the computer uses when you turn it on. Also called nonvolatile memory or permanent memory. (ECC 10)
The computer or peripheral at the message’s destination in data communications. (ECC 19)
The number of pixels that a monitor displays. (ECC 17)
A device that controls traffic between network components and usually has a built-in firewall. (ECC 21)
A device that transfers the content on a piece of paper into memory; you place a piece of paper on the glass, a beam of light moves across the glass, similar to a photocopier, and stores the image or words on the piece of paper as digital information. (ECC 16)
screen size
The diagonal measurement from one corner of the screen to the other. (ECC 17)
scroll wheel
A wheel on a mouse that you roll to scroll the page on the screen. (ECC 15)
The steps a computer owner takes to prevent unauthorized use of or damage to the computer. (ECC 23)
The computer that originates the message in data communications. (ECC 19)
A computer on a network that acts as the central storage location for programs and provides mass storage for most of the data used on the network. (ECC 21)
single-core processor
A CPU with one processor on the chip. (ECC 9)
slate computer
A thin computer used to read electronic books, view video, and access the Internet, and that does not have a keyboard or a mouse; instead users touch the screen or use a stylus to accomplish tasks. (ECC 5)
A handheld computer used to make and received phone calles, maintain an address book, electronic appointment book, calculator, and notepad, send email, connect to the Internet, play music, take photos or video, and perform some of the same functions as a PC, such as word processing. (ECC 5)
The intangible components of a computer system, particularly the programs that the computer needs to perform a specific task. (ECC 6)
The technical details about a hardware component. (ECC 3)
spoofed site
A Web site set up to look exactly like another Web site, such as a bank’s Web site, but which does not actually belong to the organization portrayed in the site, with the goal of stealing the information people enter. (ECC 24)
spreadsheet software
Software that helps you analyze numerical data. (ECC 28)
Software that tracks a computer user’s Internet usage and sends this data back to the company or person that created it, usually without the computer user’s permission or knowledge. (ECC 24)
standalone computer
A personal computer that is not connected to a network. (ECC 21)
Where the data you create and the instructions you use remain when you are not using them. (ECC 9)
strong password
A string of at least eight characters of upper and lowercase letters and numbers. (ECC 25)
subnotebook computers
Notebook computers that are smaller and lighter than ordinary notebooks. Also called ultraportable computer and mini notebook. (ECC 5)
supercomputer system
The largest and fastest type of computer used by large corporations and government agencies for processing a tremendous volume of data. (ECC 6)
synchronous dynamic RAM (SDRAM)
RAM that is synchronized with the CPU to allow faster access to its contents. (ECC 10)
system resource
Any part of the computer system, including memory, storage devices, and the microprocessor, that can be used by a computer program. (ECC 26)
system software
A collection of programs and data that helps the computer carry out its basic operating tasks. (ECC 26)
tablet PC
A computer designed for portability that includes the capability of recognizing ordinary handwriting on the screen. (ECC 5)
The transmission of data over a comparatively long distance using a phone line or some other data conduit. (ECC 22)
terabyte (TB)
1,024 GB, or approximately one trillion bytes. (ECC 7)
A powdery substance used by laser printers to transfer a laser image onto paper. (ECC 18)
A touch-sensitive device on a laptop computer that you drag your finger over to control the pointer; buttons for clicking commands are located in front of the touch pad. (ECC 16)
A display that shows you output and allows you to touch it with your finger or a stylus to input commands. (ECC 16)
The part of a desktop computer that stores the motherboard and the microprocessor, the hard disk, and the cards that expand the capabilities of the motherboard. (ECC 2)
A pointing device with a rolling ball on the top side and buttons for clicking commands; you control the movement of the pointer by moving the ball. (ECC 15)
An address on the Web. (ECC 24)
USB (Universal Serial Bus) port
A high-speed port to which you can connect a device with a USB connector to have the computer recognize the device and allow you to use it immediately. (ECC 20)
USB connector
A small, rectangular plug attached to a peripheral device and that you connect to a USB port. (ECC 20)
USB flash storage device
A popular type of flash memory most commonly used for secondary backup storage for data usually stored on a hard drive. Also called USB drive or flash drive. (ECC 14)
A category of system software that augments the operating system by taking over some of its responsibility for allocating hardware resources. (ECC 27)
virtual memory
Space on the computer’s storage devices that simulates additional RAM. (ECC 10)
A harmful program that instructs a computer to perform destructive activities, such as erasing a disk drive; variants are called worms and Trojan horses. (ECC 23)
Web browser
Communication software that you use to navigate the World Wide Web and display information on Web sites. (ECC 23)
Web page
Information is stored as a special type of text file, which can include text, graphics, sound, animation, and video, and is meant to be viewed with a Web browser. (ECC 23)
Web site
A collection of Web pages. (ECC 23)
Web site creation and management software
Software that allows you to create and manage Web sites and to see what the Web pages will look like as you create them. (ECC 28)
wide area network (WAN)
A network that connects one or more LAN. (ECC 22)
wireless local area network (WLAN)
A LAN connected using high frequency radio waves rather than cables. (ECC 22)
word size
Refers to the number of bits—the smallest unit of information in a computer—that are processed at one time; for example, a 32-bit processor processes 32 bits at a time. (ECC 9)
work station
A computer that is connected to a network. (ECC 21)
World Wide Web (Web)
A huge database of information that is stored on network servers in places that allow public access. (ECC 23)