Baroque Part One
The Baroque Era is a period that existed in European art in the latter 16th, 17th Century, as well as the first half of the 18th Century.Baroque refers primarily to the free style of architecture that formed a restrained and balanced style of the earlier Renaissance.It was later applied to the same tendencies in music, painting sculpture, and literature.
The Baroque style stems from the dramatic, large, ornate. It is full of motifs and forms expressions of energy and conflict.
It originated in Italy and Spain and spread throughout Europe and is identified in architecture, with Catholic Europe and was the official style of the COUNTERREFORMATION. Of all the many subjects which arose during the Baroque Period, the landscape genre is the most decisive marking a change in Western thinking.
In Annibale Carracci (1560-1609) a pupil of Lodovico, Carracci was a versatile painter with unusual skill. He spent seven years studying the works of the masters. He particularly studied the works of Carreggio and Parmigiano in Venice and Parma. He aided in the conducting of the academy school until 1595, when he went to Rome to assist in the Farnese gallery. The ceiling, in which he made dozen drawings for, was rich in illusionistic elements.
It included fake architectural and sculptural forms that inspired many of the later painters. Among his numerous well-known works include Flight into Egypt (Doria Gall. Rome) This archetypical classical landscape, was later worshiped with various versions by Domenichino, Poussin, and Claude.
The Holy family stands out because they are placed in the middle of the painting, the small measure of the figures in relation to the large natural setting first establishes a new precedence in which landscape takes is first and history is second. Order#11112799 Baroque Era Pg. 2 Carriacci brings to life an ideal nature in the painting to which
its theme tells of the nature enriched and completed by man and the works of man. And yet one assume with this underlying theme an authentic Baroque one; Carriacci implication acknowledges man is no longer the unassailable center of creation and that other forces of the world have more of a claim to his attention.
The figure and the story of the painting are inconsequential to the landscape. Joseph, in the painting has dreamed that king Herod is searching for the baby Jesus to kill him, and runs away to Egypt with Mary and the child to stay there until after Herod’s death. However, the landscape is hardly Egypt instead, Carriacci has changed
the story to a high-civilized Italian setting. This is the peaceful, simple life. A middle ground that is between civilization and wilderness where people live free of both the decadence and crime of city life and the uncontrollable forces of nature.
Annibale Carracci’s Landscape with flight into Egypt is Considered his masterpiece. I like the rich colors in the landscape, on The lush trees and grass that surrounds Mary, Joseph, the baby Jesus and the horse standing in the center of the painting. It is familiar and pleasing sense of Italian landscape painting. 3Claude Lorrain, has a place in art history as a pioneer in landscape painting.
He like Carracci, was widely respected and imitated for two centuries and often produces in the popular feeling of de’ja’- vu, especially in his best-known paintings. Lorrain’s power of invention was limited. He concentrated on a very narrow range of tones inside a narrow range of tone of colors inside a narrow landscape.
Lorrain did not develop much further deliberately, after he had Order#11112799 Baroque Era Pg. 3 perfected his technique, because his work was too eagerly wanted by powerful supporters. His most idyllic of all his landscape paintings where he casts the world and its people, though small in a poetic light. In his
A Pastoral Landscape he works in an atmospheric point of view to soften all sense of tension and resistance to bring us to a world of harmony and peace. In A Pastoral Landscape, as well as many like it represents the best civilization has to offer and has melded with the best of a good and gentle nature.
Landscape paintings played on the concept that because God created the Earth, one could sense its soul and majesty in his work, similar to one who is able to sense emotion in a painter’s movement on the canvas. The majesty of God’s vision symbolically suggests in a panoramic sweep of the longer view to give up two thirds of the canvas
to the infinite depth of the heavens. A Pastoral Landscape like many of Claude Lorrain’s include large leafy trees, a three arched bride over and large tree branch. The figures in the center of the painting also appear in the right foreground of Lorrain’s River Landscape. The countryside around Rome is the source of most of his inspiration.
The Roman Campagna is a countryside haunted by the remains appear in the foreground of Lorrain’s River Landscape. The countryside around Rome is the source of most of his inspiration. The Roman Campagna is a countryside haunted by the remains and the association of antiques.
The key period of its development were artists of many nationalities coming together in Rome. They formed and traveled to other countries. Claude Lorrain’s poetic contribution of rendering light is very influential, not only in his lifetime but also in England from the mid-18th to Order#11112799 Baroque Era Pg. 4 mid 19th Centuries. 4
Jacob Van Ruisdael is another Landscape artist who is considered the greatest Dutch landscape painter. It is not determined whether he worked as a pupil for his father; a frame maker and artist Issak de Goyer, a well-known Haarlem landscapist. Jacob Van Ruisdael is
the most celebrated of the Dutch painter. He first worked in Haarlem and moved to Amsterdam in 1656. He obtained a medical degree, late in life and practiced as a physician in Amsterdam. Ruisdael’s work consists of northern nature in a somber mood.
The many characteristics to his paintings are overcast skies that throw a restless flux of light over the countryside. Gnarled, knotted oak and beech trees are created with authentic accuracy. Ruisdael later work show great depth of stroke, which dramatize humanity’s insignificance amid the splendor of nature. His later important paintings include Jewish Cemetery (Detroit, Inst.
Of Art) and Wheatfield’s (Metropolitan Mus. ) He produced some very Etchings Ruisdael inspired many of the great French and English landscapists in the next two Centuries. One of the pupils he inspired was Meindert Hobbema who was an outstanding painter in his own right. In his painting View of Haarlem from the dunes at overveenc (1670) it is not so much landscape than sky and the light that comes from it, alternately casting the Earth in shadow and light, knowledge and ignorance.
Rising to importantly meet the light on the largest building in the landscape, the church. The beam of light in Caravaggio’s painting suggests a
spiritual presence of Christ becomes in landscape, a beam of light from the Sun/Son,” Popular among English poets of that period. The last half Order#11112799 Baroque Era Pg. 5 of the Seventeenth Century found the real space of the Dutch landscape became so idealized that it is almost like Eden.
An example of landscape offers viewers an important lesson in the direction of where art took from the late seventeenth Century down to present day. The spiritual is not found only in the church. It is found in nature light in form even as we move into the modern future in the artist’s very self.
The end of the seventeenth Century found the church no longer the major support of art as it had been for centuries from Spanish kings, to wealthy Dutch merchants, to a growing huge group of Middle-class rich with disposable incomes wanting to increase and refine their tastes. The patrons of art changed until the middle of the twentieth Century when art was bought and sold in an international “art market. ”
These brilliant Baroque landscapes painters were concerned with naturalism and space. The Dutch panoramic view, with its large, far-reaching expanse prospect offer a familiar example of spatial illusions in landscape paintings.
However, the continuity of space often suggests by other means, such as the implication presented presented to viewers is only part of an endless larger total. Viewers should not overlook, in this connection this effect on art and artists to expand the world of the seventeenth Century.
The taste of the exotic, in particular is understood as a mirror to geographical discoveries of the age of exploration, which served to wake up new interests in distant lands and people. And yet, Baroque landscape art though without a doubt open to picturesque motifs from non-European sources, was marked by intellectual depth affected by the spirit of
exoticism. These Painters also might include authentic details of costumes and settings in their paintings, all except Baroque landscape Order#11112799 Baroque Era Pg. 6 painters whose view was essentially unchanged. The element of virtue in the Baroque architect manipulations space should not allow to be not well known a more important fact, which is the first rule of coexistence space, applies to seventeenth Century architect to a painting and sculpture.
The principal many also be seen in brilliant form in church facades by Pietro de Cortona, Bernini and Borrommini, where the outside landscapes and inside space is marked.
It is this similar controlled movement of space that gives to the large insides of the Baroque period its unmistakable character. The idea of continued space is the basis to the art of the paintings designs, that looks to collect the point of view of real space of the auditorium.
The implication of movement is characteristic of many works of painting and sculpture of the seventeenth Century may come forth the sense of time as well as of space. The passing look, the momentary gesture of the changing aspects of nature tell of passing, inconstant undecided and times in swift flight. The constant cycle of day and
night and the continuation of the seasons offered artists another way of handling the landscape with the infinity of time. -Reference Site- 1. Questia Online Encyclopedia- Baroque book by John Rupert Martin; Unknown, 1977.
Annibale Carracci pgs 16,17,27,86,175,250. 3Clause Lorrain, 217,224. Pastoral Landscape, 335. 4Jacob Van Ruisdael view of Haarlem from the dunes at overweenc, 1670. Pg. 177 2. Benet’s Reader’s Encyclopedia Fourth Edition. Edited by Bruce Murphy. 1 The Baroque Period. Lorrain, Claude (Originally Claude Gelle’e, 1600-1682) pg. 614, Ruisdael, Jacob van (c 1629-1682) pg. 896.