INTRODUCTION & HISTORY OF BANKING BANKING [pic] Introduction India cannot have a healthy economy without a sound and effective banking system. The banking system should be hassle free and able to meet the new challenges posed by technology and other factors, both internal and external. In the past three decades, India’s banking system has earned several outstanding achievements to its credit.
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The most striking is its extensive reach. It is no longer confined to metropolises or cities in India.
In fact, Indian banking system has reached even to the remote corners of the country. This is one of the main aspects of India’s growth story. The government’s regulation policy for banks has paid rich dividends with the nationalization of 14 major private banks in 1969. Banking today has become convenient and instant, with the account holder not having to wait for hours at the bank counter for getting a draft or for withdrawing money from his account. Banking in India in the modern sense originated in the last decades of the 18th century.
The first banks were The General Bank of India, which started in 1786, and Bank of Hindustan, which started in 1770; both are now defunct. The oldest bank still in existence in India is the State Bank of India, which originated in the Bank of Calcutta in June 1806, which almost immediately became the Bank of Bengal. This was one of the three presidency banks, the other two being the Bank of Bombay and the Bank of Madras, all three of which were established under charters from the British East India Company. For many years the presidency banks acted as quasi-central banks, as did their successors.
The three banks merged in 1921 to form the Imperial Bank of India, which, upon India’s independence, became the State Bank of India in 1955. 1. History of Banking in India The first bank in India, though conservative, was established in 1786. From 1786 till today, the journey of Indian Banking System can be segregated into three distinct phases: • Early phase of Indian banks, from 1786 to 1969 • Nationalization of banks and the banking sector reforms, from 1969 to 1991 • New phase of Indian banking system, with the reforms after 1991 Phase1
The first bank in India, the General Bank of India, was set up in 1786. Bank of Hindustan and Bengal Bank followed. The East India Company established Bank of Bengal (1809), Bank of Bombay (1840), and Bank of Madras (1843) as independent units and called them Presidency banks. These three banks were amalgamated in 1920 and the Imperial Bank of India, a bank of private shareholders, mostly Europeans, was established. Allahabad Bank was established, exclusively by Indians, in 1865. Punjab National Bank was set up in 1894 with headquarters in Lahore.
Between 1906 and 1913, Bank of India, Central Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank, Indian Bank, and Bank of Mysore were set up. The Reserve Bank of India came in 1935. During the first phase, the growth was very slow and banks also experienced periodic failures between 1913 and 1948. There were approximately 1,100 banks, mostly small. To streamline the functioning and activities of commercial banks, the Government of India came up with the Banking Companies Act, 1949, which was later changed to the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 as per amending Act of 1965 (Act No. 3 of 1965). The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) was vested with extensive powers for the supervision of banking in India as the Central banking authority. During those days, the general public had lesser confidence in banks. As an aftermath, deposit mobilization was slow. Moreover, the savings bank facility provided by the Postal department was comparatively safer, and funds were largely given to traders. Phase2 The government took major initiatives in banking sector reforms after Independence.
In 1955, it nationalized the Imperial Bank of India and started offering extensive banking facilities, especially in rural and semi-urban areas. The government constituted the State Bank of India to act as the principal agent of the RBI and to handle banking transactions of the Union government and state governments all over the country. Seven banks owned by the Princely states were nationalized in 1959 and they became subsidiaries of the State Bank of India. In 1969, 14 commercial banks in the country were nationalized. In the second phase of banking sector reforms, seven more banks were nationalized in 1980.
With this, 80 percent of the banking sector in India came under the government ownership. Phase3 This phase has introduced many more products and facilities in the banking sector as part of the reforms process. In 1991, under the chairmanship of M Narasimham, a committee was set up, which worked for the liberalization of banking practices. Now, the country is flooded with foreign banks and their ATM stations. Efforts are being put to give a satisfactory service to customers. Phone banking and net banking are introduced. The entire system became more convenient and swift.
Time is given importance in all money transactions. The financial system of India has shown a great deal of resilience. It is sheltered from crises triggered by external macroeconomic shocks, which other East Asian countries often suffered. This is all due to a flexible exchange rate regime, the high foreign exchange reserve, the not-yet fully convertible capital account, and the limited foreign exchange exposure of banks and their customers. In ancient India there is evidence of loans from the Vedic period (beginning 1750 BC).
Later during the Maurya dynasty (321 to 185 BC), an instrument called adesha was in use, which was an order on a banker desiring him to pay the money of the note to a third person, which corresponds to the definition of a bill of exchange as we understand it today. During the Buddhist period, there was considerable use of these instruments. Merchants in large towns gave letters of credit to one another. Colonial era During the colonial era merchants in Calcutta established the Union Bank in 1839, but it failed in 1840 as a consequence of the economic crisis of 1848-49.
The Allahabad Bank, established in 1865 and still functioning today, is the oldest Joint Stock bank in India, it was not the first though. That honor belongs to the Bank of Upper India, which was established in 1863, and which survived until 1913, when it failed, with some of its assets and liabilities being transferred to the Alliance Bank of Shimla. Foreign banks too started to appear, particularly in Calcutta, in the 1860s. The Comptoir d’Escompte de Paris opened a branch in Calcutta in 1860, and another in Bombay in 1862; branches in Madras and Pondicherry, then a French possession, followed. HSBCestablished itself in Bengal in 1869.
Calcutta was the most active trading port in India, mainly due to the trade of the British Empire, and so became a banking center. The first entirely Indian joint stock bank was the Oudh Commercial Bank, established in 1881 in Faizabad. It failed in 1958. The next was the Punjab National Bank, established in Lahore in 1895, which has survived to the present and is now one of the largest banks in India. Around the turn of the 20th Century, the Indian economy was passing through a relative period of stability. Around five decades had elapsed since the Indian Mutiny, and the social, industrial and other infrastructure had improved.
Indians had established small banks, most of which served particular ethnic and religious communities. The presidency banks dominated banking in India but there were also some exchange banks and a number of Indian joint stock banks. All these banks operated in different segments of the economy. The exchange banks, mostly owned by Europeans, concentrated on financing foreign trade. Indian joint stock banks were generally under capitalized and lacked the experience and maturity to compete with the presidency and exchange banks.
This segmentation let Lord Curzon to observe, “In respect of banking it seems we are behind the times. We are like some old fashioned sailing ship, divided by solid wooden bulkheads into separate and cumbersome compartments. ” The period between 1906 and 1911, saw the establishment of banks inspired by the Swadeshi movement. The Swadeshi movement inspired local businessmen and political figures to found banks of and for the Indian community. A number of banks established then have survived to the present such as Bank of India, Corporation Bank, Indian Bank, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank and Central Bank of India.
The fervour of Swadeshi movement lead to establishing of many private banks in Dakshina Kannada and Udupi district which were unified earlier and known by the name South Canara ( South Kanara ) district. Four nationalised banks started in this district and also a leading private sector bank. Hence undivided Dakshina Kannada district is known as “Cradle of Indian Banking”. During the First World War (1914–1918) through the end of the Second World War (1939–1945), and two years thereafter until the independence of India were challenging for Indian banking.
The years of the First World War were turbulent, and it took its toll with banks simply collapsing despite the Indian economy gaining indirect boost due to war-related economic activities. At least 94 banks in India failed between 1913 and 1918 as indicated in the following table: |Years |Number of banks |Authorised capital |Paid-up Capital | | |that failed |(Rs. Lakhs) |(Rs.
Lakhs) | |1913 |12 |274 |35 | |1914 |42 |710 |109 | |1915 |11 |56 |5 | |1916 |13 |231 |4 | |1917 |9 |76 |25 | |1918 |7 |209 |1 | Post-Independence The partition of India in 1947 adversely impacted the economies of Punjab and West Bengal, paralyzing banking activities for months. India’s independence marked the end of a regime of the Laissez-faire for the Indian banking. The Government of India initiated measures to play an active role in the economic life of the nation, and the Industrial Policy Resolution adopted by the government in 1948 envisaged a mixed economy. This resulted into greater involvement of the state in different segments of the economy including banking and finance.
The major steps to regulate banking included: ? The Reserve Bank of India, India’s central banking authority, was established in April 1935, but was nationalized on January 1, 1949 under the terms of the Reserve Bank of India (Transfer to Public Ownership) Act, 1948 (RBI, 2005b). ? In 1949, the Banking Regulation Act was enacted which empowered the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) “to regulate, control, and inspect the banks in India”. ? The Banking Regulation Act also provided that no new bank or branch of an existing bank could be opened without a license from the RBI, and no two banks could have common directors. Nationalization in the 1960s
Despite the provisions, control and regulations of Reserve Bank of India, banks in India except the State Bank of India or SBI, continued to be owned and operated by private persons. By the 1960s, the Indian banking industry had become an important tool to facilitate the development of the Indian economy. At the same time, it had emerged as a large employer, and a debate had ensued about the nationalization of the banking industry. Indra Gandhi, then Prime Minister of India, expressed the intention of the Government of India in the annual conference of the All India Congress Meeting in a paper entitled “Stray thoughts on Bank Nationalization. ” The meeting received the paper with enthusiasm. Thereafter, her move was swift and sudden.
The Government of India issued an ordinance (‘Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertakings) Ordinance, 1969’)) and nationalized the 14 largest commercial banks with effect from the midnight of July 19, 1969. These banks contained 85 percent of bank deposits in the country.  Jayaprakash Narayan, a national leader of India, described the step as a “masterstroke of political sagacity. ” Within two weeks of the issue of the ordinance, the Parliament passed the Banking Companies (Acquisition and Transfer of Undertaking) Bill, and it received the presidential approval on 9 August 1969. A second dose of nationalization of 6 more commercial banks followed in 1980.
The stated reason for the nationalization was to give the government more control of credit delivery. With the second dose of nationalization, the Government of India controlled around 91% of the banking business of India. Later on, in the year 1993, the government merged New Bank of India with Punjab National Bank. It was the only merger between nationalized banks and resulted in the reduction of the number of nationalized banks from 20 to 19. After this, until the 1990s, the nationalized banks grew at a pace of around 4%, closer to the average growth rate of the Indian economy. Liberalization in the 1990s In the early 1990s, the then Narasimha Rao government embarked on a policy of liberalization, licensing a small number of private banks.
These came to be known as New Generation tech-savvy banks, and included Global Trust Bank (the first of such new generation banks to be set up), which later amalgamated with Oriental Bank of Commerce, UTI Bank (since renamed Axis Bank), ICICI Bank and HDFC Bank. This move, along with the rapid growth in the economy of India, revitalized the banking sector in India, which has seen rapid growth with strong contribution from all the three sectors of banks, namely, government banks, private banks and foreign banks. The next stage for the Indian banking has been set up with the proposed relaxation in the norms for Foreign Direct Investment, where all Foreign Investors in banks may be given voting rights which could exceed the present cap of 10%,at present it has gone up to 74% with some restrictions. The new policy shook the Banking sector in India completely.
Bankers, till this time, were used to the 4-6-4 method (Borrow at 4%; Lend at 6%; Go home at 4) of functioning. The new wave ushered in a modern outlook and tech-savvy methods of working for traditional banks. All this led to the retail boom in India. People not just demanded more from their banks but also received more. Current period By 2010, banking in India was generally fairly mature in terms of supply, product range and reach-even though reach in rural India still remains a challenge for the private sector and foreign banks. In terms of quality of assets and capital adequacy, Indian banks are considered to have clean, strong and transparent balance sheets relative to other banks in comparable economies in its region.
The Reserve Bank of India is an autonomous body, with minimal pressure from the government. The stated policy of the Bank on the Indian Rupee is to manage volatility but without any fixed exchange rate-and this has mostly been true. With the growth in the Indian economy expected to be strong for quite some time-especially in its services sector-the demand for banking services, especially retail banking, mortgages and investment services are expected to be strong. One may also expect M, takeovers, and asset sales. In March 2006, the Reserve Bank of India allowed Warburg Pincus to increase its stake in Kotak Mahindra Bank (a private sector bank) to 10%.
This is the first time an investor has been allowed to hold more than 5% in a private sector bank since the RBI announced norms in 2005 that any stake exceeding 5% in the private sector banks would need to be vetted by them. In recent years critics have charged that the non-government owned banks are too aggressive in their loan recovery efforts in connection with housing, vehicle and personal loans. There are press reports that the banks’ loan recovery efforts have driven defaulting borrowers to suicide. State Bank of India & Its Subordinates [pic] 1. Introduction State Bank of India (SBI) is a banking and financial services company based in India.
It is a state-owned corporation with its headquarters in Mumbai, Maharashtra. As of March 2012, it had assets of US$360 billion and 14,119 branches, including 157 foreign offices in 32 countries across the globe making it the largest banking and financial services company in India. The bank traces its ancestry to British India, through the Imperial Bank of India, to the founding in 1806 of the Bank of Calcutta, making it the oldest commercial bank in the Indian Subcontinent. Bank of Madras merged into the other two presidencies banks—Bank of Calcutta and Bank of Bombay—to form the Imperial Bank of India, which in turn became the State Bank of India.
The Government of India nationalized the Imperial Bank of India in 1955, with the Reserve Bank of India taking a 60% stake, and renamed it the State Bank of India. In 2008, the government took over the stake held by the Reserve Bank of India. SBI has been ranked 285th in the Fortune Global 500 rankings of the world’s biggest corporations for the year 2012. SBI provides a range of banking products through its network of branches in India and overseas, including products aimed at non-resident Indians (NRIs). SBI has 14 regional hubs and 57 Zonal Offices that are located at important cities throughout the country. SBI is a regional banking behemoth and has 20% market share in deposits and loans among Indian commercial banks.
The State Bank of India was named the 29th most reputed company in the world according to Forbes 2009 rankings and was the only bank featured in the “top 10 brands of India” list in an annual survey conducted by Brand Finance and The Economic Times in 2010. History The roots of the State Bank of India lie in the first decade of 19th century, when the Bank of Calcutta, later renamed the Bank of Bengal, was established on 2 June 1806. The Bank of Bengal was one of three Presidency banks, the other two being the Bank of Bombay (incorporated on 15 April 1840) and the Bank of Madras (incorporated on 1 July 1843). All three Presidency banks were incorporated as joint stock companies and were the result of the royal charters. These three banks received the exclusive right to issue paper currency till 1861 when with the Paper Currency Act; the right was taken over by the Government of India.
The Presidency banks amalgamated on 27 January 1921, and the re-organized banking entity took as its name Imperial Bank of India. The Imperial Bank of India remained a joint stock company but without Government participation. Pursuant to the provisions of the State Bank of India Act of 1955, the Reserve Bank of India, which is India’s central bank, acquired a controlling interest in the Imperial Bank of India. On 30 April 1955, the Imperial Bank of India became the State Bank of India. The government of India recently acquired the Reserve Bank of India’s stake in SBI so as to remove any conflict of interest because the RBI is the country’s banking regulatory authority.
In 1959, the government passed the State Bank of India (Subsidiary Banks) Act, which made eight state banks associates of SBI. A process of consolidation began on 13 September 2008, when the State Bank of Saurashtra merged with SBI. SBI has acquired local banks in rescues. The first was the Bank of Behar (est. 1911), which SBI acquired in 1969, together with its 28 branches. The next year SBI acquired National Bank of Lahore (est. 1942), which had 24 branches. Five years later, in 1975, SBI acquired Krishnaram Baldeo Bank, which had been established in 1916 in Gwalior State, under the patronage of Maharaja Madho Rao Scindia. The bank had been the Dukan Pichadi, a small moneylender, owned by the Maharaja. The new banks first manager was Jall N. Broacha, a Parsi.
In 1985, SBI acquired the Bank of Cochin in Kerala, which had 120 branches. SBI was the acquirer as its affiliate, theState Bank of Travancore, already had an extensive network in Kerala. 2. Associate banks SBI has five associate banks; all use the State Bank of India logo, which is a blue circle, and all use the “State Bank of” name, followed by the regional headquarters’ name: ? State Bank of Bikaner & Jaipur ? State Bank of Hyderabad ? State Bank of Mysore ? State Bank of Patiala ? State Bank of Travancore Earlier SBI had seven associate banks, all of which had belonged to princely states until the government nationalised them between October 1959 and May 1960.
In tune with the first Five Year Plan, which prioritized the development of rural India, the government integrated these banks into State Bank of India system to expand its rural outreach. There has been a proposal to merge all the associate banks into SBI to create a “mega bank” and streamline the group’s operations. The first step towards unification occurred on 13 August 2008 when State Bank of Saurashtra merged with SBI, reducing the number of associate state banks from seven to six. Then on 19 June 2009 the SBI board approved the absorption of State Bank of Indore. SBI holds 98. 3% in State Bank of Indore. (Individuals who held the shares prior to its takeover by the government hold the balance of 1. 77%. ) The acquisition of State Bank of Indore added 470 branches to SBI’s existing network of branches.
Also, following the acquisition, SBI’s total assets will inch very close to the [pic]10 trillion marks. The total assets of SBI and the State Bank of Indore stood at [pic]9,981,190 million as of March 2009. The process of merging of State Bank of Indore was completed by April 2010, and the SBI Indore branches started functioning as SBI branches on 26 August 2010. Non-banking subsidiaries Apart from its five associate banks, SBI also has the following non-banking subsidiaries: ? SBI Capital Markets Ltd ? SBI Funds Management Pvt Ltd ? SBI Factors & Commercial Services Pvt Ltd ? SBI Cards & Payments Services Pvt. Ltd. (SBICPSL) ? SBI DFHI Ltd ? SBI Life Insurance Co. Ltd. ? SBI General Insurance
In March 2001, SBI (with 74% of the total capital), joined with BNP Paribas (with 26% of the remaining capital), to form a joint venture life insurance company named SBI Life Insurance company Ltd. Nowadays, SBI Life Insurance Co. Ltd ranks among the top and most trusted Life Insurance Companies in India and also abroad. In 2004, SBI DFHI Ltd. (DISCOUNT AND FINANCE HOUSE OF INDIA) was founded with its headquarters in MUMBAI, MAHARASHTRA. SBIDFHI Ltd. is a primary dealer that trades in Fixed income securities (treasury bills, state development loans, government securities, non SLR bonds, corporate bonds) and Short Term Money Market instruments (certificates of deposit, commercial papers, inter-corporate deposits, call and money notice deposits).
It is an institution formed by RBI to support the book building process in primary auctions of Government securities and to provide necessary depth and liquidity to the secondary market in Government securities. Reserve Bank of India [pic] The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India’s central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee. It was established on 1 April 1935 during the British Raj in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. The share capital was divided into shares of ? 100 each fully paid which was entirely owned by private shareholders in the beginning. Following India’s independence in 1947, the RBI was nationalised in the year 1949. The RBI plays an important part in the development strategy of theGovernment of India. It is a member bank of the Asian Clearing Union.
The general superintendence and direction of the RBI is entrusted with the 21-member-strong Central Board of Directors—the Governor (currently Duvvuri Subbarao), four Deputy Governors, two Finance Ministry representative, ten Government-nominated Directors to represent important elements from India’s economy, and four Directors to represent Local Boards headquartered at Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and New Delhi. Each of these Local Boards consist of five members who represent regional interests, as well as the interests of co-operative and indigenous banks. 1. Structure Central Board of Directors The Central Board of Directors is the main committee of the central bank. The Government of India appoints the directors for a four-year term. The Board consists of a governor, four deputy governors, fifteen directors to represent the regional boards, one from the Ministry of Finance and ten other directors from various fields. Governors The current Governor of RBI is Duvvuri Subbarao.
The RBI extended the period of the present governor up to 2013. There are four deputy governors. Supportive bodies The Reserve Bank of India has ten regional representations: North in New Delhi, South in Chennai, East in Kolkata and West in Mumbai. The representations are formed by five members, appointed for four years by the central government and serve—beside the advice of the Central Board of Directors—as a forum for regional banks and to deal with delegated tasks from the central board. The institution has 22 regional offices. The Board of Financial Supervision (BFS), formed in November 1994, serves as a CCBD committee to control the financial institutions.
It has four members, appointed for two years, and takes measures to strength the role of statutory auditors in the financial sector, external monitoring and internal controlling systems. Offices and branches The Reserve Bank of India has 4 zonal offices. It has 19 regional offices at most state capitals and at a few major cities in India. Few of them are located in Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Chandigarh, Chennai, Delhi, Guwahati, Hyderabad Jaipur,Jammu, Kanpur, Kolkata, Lucknow, Mumbai, Nagpur, Patna,and Thiruvananthapuram. Besides it has 09 sub-offices. 2. History 1935–1950 The Reserve Bank of India was founded on 1 April 1935 to respond to economic troubles after the First World War. It came into picture according to the guidelines laid down by Dr. Ambedkar.
RBI was conceptualized as per the guidelines, working style and outlook presented by Dr Ambedkar in front of the Hilton Young Commission. When this commission came to India under the name of “Royal Commission on Indian Currency & Finance”, each and every member of this commission were holding Dr Ambedkar’s book named “The Problem of the Rupee – It’s origin and it’s solution. ” The Bank was set up based on the recommendations of the 1926 Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance, also known as the Hilton–Young Commission. The original choice for the seal of RBI was The East India Company Double Mohur, with the sketch of the Lion and Palm Tree. However it was decided to replace the lion with the tiger, the national animal of India.
The Preamble of the RBI describes its basic functions to regulate the issue of bank notes, keep reserves to secure monetary stability in India, and generally to operate the currency and credit system in the best interests of the country. The Central Office of the RBI was initially established in Calcutta (now Kolkata), but was permanently moved to Bombay (now Mumbai) in 1937. The RBI also acted as Burma’s central bank, except during the years of the Japanese occupation of Burma (1942–45), until April 1947, even though Burma seceded from the Indian Union in 1937. After the Partition of India in 1947, the Bank served as the central bank for Pakistan until June 1948 when the State Bank of Pakistan commenced operations.
Though originally set up as a shareholders’ bank, the RBI has been fully owned by the Government of India since its nationalization in 1949. 1950–1960 In the 1950s, the Indian government, under its first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, developed a centrally planned economic policy that focused on the agricultural sector. The administration nationalized commercial banks and established, based on the Banking Companies Act of 1949 (later called the Banking Regulation Act), a central bank regulation as part of the RBI. Furthermore, the central bank was ordered to support the economic plan with loans. 1960–1969 As a result of bank crashes, the RBI was requested to establish and monitor a deposit insurance system.
It should restore the trust in the national bank system and was initialized on 7 December 1961. The Indian government founded funds to promote the economy and used the slogan Developing Banking. The Government of India restructured the national bank market and nationalized a lot of institutes. As a result, the RBI had to play the central part of control and support of this public banking sector. 1969–1985 In 1969, the Indira Gandhi-headed government nationalized 14 major commercial banks. Upon Gandhi’s return to power in 1980, a further six banks were nationalized. The regulation of the economy and especially the financial sector was reinforced by the Government of India in the 1970s and 1980s.
The central bank became the central player and increased its policies for a lot of tasks like interests, reserve ratio and visible deposits. These measures aimed at better economic development and had a huge effect on the company policy of the institutes. The banks lent money in selected sectors, like agri-business and small trade companies. The branch was forced to establish two new offices in the country for every newly established office in a town. The oil crises in 1973 resulted in increasing inflation, and the RBI restricted monetary policy to reduce the effects. 1985–1991 A lot of committees analysed the Indian economy between 1985 and 1991. Their results had an effect on the RBI. The Board for Industrial and Financial
Reconstruction, the Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research and the Security & Exchange Board of India investigated the national economy as a whole, and the security and exchange board proposed better methods for more effective markets and the protection of investor interests. The Indian financial market was a leading example for so-called “financial repression” (Mackinnon and Shaw). The Discount and Finance House of India began its operations on the monetary market in April 1988; theNational Housing Bank, founded in July 1988, was forced to invest in the property market and a new financial law improved the versatility of direct deposit by more security measures and liberalisation. 1991–2000 The national economy came down in July 1991 and the Indian rupee was devalued.
The currency lost 18% relative to the US dollar, and the Narsimahmam Committee advised restructuring the financial sector by a temporal reduced reserve ratio as well as the statutory liquidity ratio. New guidelines were published in 1993 to establish a private banking sector. This turning point should reinforce the market and was often called neo-liberal. The central bank deregulated bank interests and some sectors of the financial market like the trust and property markets. This first phase was a success and the central government forced a diversity liberalisation to diversify owner structures in 1998. The National Stock Exchange of India took the trade on in June 1994 and the RBI allowed nationalized banks in July to interact with the capital market to reinforce their capital base.
The central bank founded a subsidiary company—the Bharatiya Reserve Bank Note Mudran Limited—in February 1995 to produce banknotes. Since 2000 The Foreign Exchange Management Act from 1999 came into force in June 2000. It should improve the foreign exchange market, international investments in India and transactions. The RBI promoted the development of the financial market in the last years, allowedonline banking in 2001 and established a new payment system in 2004–2005 (National Electronic Fund Transfer). The Security Printing & Minting Corporation of India Ltd. , a merger of nine institutions, was founded in 2006 and produces banknotes and coins.
The national economy’s growth rate came down to 5. 8% in the last quarter of 2008–2009 and the central bank promotes the economic development. Main functions Bank of Issue Under Section 22 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, the Bank has the sole right to issue bank notes of all denominations. The distribution of one rupee notes and coins and small coins all over the country is undertaken by the Reserve Bank as agent of the Government. The Reserve Bank has a separate Issue Department which is entrusted with the issue of currency notes. The assets and liabilities of the Issue Department are kept separate from those of the Banking Department. Monetary authority
The Reserve Bank of India is the main monetary authority of the country and beside that the central bank acts as the bank of the national and state governments. It formulates implements and monitors the monetary policy as well as it has to ensure an adequate flow of credit to productive sectors. Regulator and supervisor of the financial system The institution is also the regulator and supervisor of the financial system and prescribes broad parameters of banking operations within which the country’s banking and financial system functions. Its objectives are to maintain public confidence in the system, protect depositors’ interest and provide cost-effective banking services to the public.
The Banking Ombudsman Scheme has been formulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for effective addressing of complaints by bank customers. The RBI controls the monetary supply, monitors economic indicators like the product and has to decide the design of the rupee banknotes as well as coins. Managerial of exchange control The central bank manages to reach the goals of the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999. Objective: to facilitate external trade and payment and promote orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange market in India. Issuer of currency The bank issues and exchanges or destroys currency notes and coins that are not fit for circulation.
The objectives are giving the public adequate supply of currency of good quality and to provide loans to commercial banks to maintain or improve the GDP. The basic objectives of RBI are to issue bank notes, to maintain the currency and credit system of the country to utilize it in its best advantage, and to maintain the reserves. RBI maintains the economic structure of the country so that it can achieve the objective of price stability as well as economic development, because both objectives are diverse in themselves. Banker of Banks RBI also works as a central bank where commercial banks are account holders and can deposit money. RBI maintains banking accounts of all scheduled banks. Commercial banks create credit.
It is the duty of the RBI to control the credit through the CRR, bank rate and open market operations. As banker’s bank, the RBI facilitates the clearing of cheques between the commercial banks and helps inter-bank transfer of funds. It can grant financial accommodation to schedule banks. It acts as the lender of the last resort by providing emergency advances to the banks. It supervises the functioning of the commercial banks and take action against it if need arises. Detection of Fake currency In order to curb the fake currency menace, RBI has launched a website to raise awareness among masses about fake notes in the market. [pic] [pic] Policy rates and reserve ratios
Bank Rate RBI lends to the commercial banks through its discount window to help the banks meet depositor’s demands and reserve requirements for long term. The Interest rate the RBI charges the banks for this purpose is called bank rate. If the RBI wants to increase the liquidity and money supply in the market, it will decrease the bank rate and if RBI wants to reduce the liquidity and money supply in the system, it will increase the bank rate. As of 25 June 2012 the bank rate was 8. 0%. latest bank rate is 7. 75% as on 29/01/2013. Reserve requirement cash reserve ratio (CRR) Every commercial bank has to keep certain minimum cash reserves with RBI.
Consequent upon amendment to sub-Section 42(1), the Reserve Bank, having regard to the needs of securing the monetary stability in the country, RBI can prescribe Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) for scheduled banks without any floor rate or ceiling rate, [Before the enactment of this amendment, in terms of Section 42(1) of the RBI Act, the Reserve Bank could prescribe CRR for scheduled banks between 5% and 20% of total of their demand and time liabilities]. RBI uses this tool to increase or decrease the reserve requirement depending on whether it wants to effect a decrease or an increase in the money supply. An increase in Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) will make it mandatory on the part of the banks to hold a large proportion of their deposits in the form of deposits with the RBI. This will reduce the size of their deposits and they will lend less. This will in turn decrease the money supply. The current rate is 4. 75%. ( As a Reduction in CRR by 0. 25% as on Date- 17 September 2012). -25 basis points cut in Cash Reserve
Ratio(CRR) on 17 September 2012, It will release Rs 17,000 crore into the system/Market. The RBI lowered the CRR by 25 basis points to 4. 25% on 30 October 2012, a move it said would inject about 175 billion rupees into the banking system in order to pre-empt potentially tightening liquidity. The latest CRR as on 29/01/13 is 4% Statutory Liquidity ratio (SLR) Apart from the CRR, banks are required to maintain liquid assets in the form of gold, cash and approved securities. Higher liquidity ratio forces commercial banks to maintain a larger proportion of their resources in liquid form and thus reduces their capacity to grant loans and advances, thus it is an anti-inflationary impact.
A higher liquidity ratio diverts the bank funds from loans and advances to investment in government and approved securities. IN OTHER WORDS ITS A TOOL SIMILAR TO CRR BUT AT HIGHER RATIO In well-developed economies, central banks use open market operations—buying and selling of eligible securities by central bank in the money market—to influence the volume of cash reserves with commercial banks and thus influence the volume of loans and advances they can make to the commercial and industrial sectors. In the open money market, government securities are traded at market related rates of interest. The RBI is resorting more to open market operations in the more recent years.
Generally RBI uses three kinds of selective credit controls: 1. Minimum margins for lending against specific securities. 2. Ceiling on the amounts of credit for certain purposes. 3. Discriminatory rate of interest charged on certain types of advances. Direct credit controls in India are of three types: 1. Part of the interest rate structure i. e. on small savings and provident funds, are administratively set. 2. Banks are mandatory required to keep 23% of their deposits in the form of government securities. 3. Banks are required to lend to the priority sectors to the extent of 40% of their advances. Punjab State Co-Operative Bank [pic] 1. Introduction [pic]
Welcome to The Punjab State Cooperative Bank Ltd. (PSCB) Experience a whole new Era of Banking Technology. Where banking is made easier and convenient for our customers. The Punjab State Cooperative Bank provides you with the New Generation banking architecture to progress in the future in an evolutionary manner. Punjab State Cooperative Bank (PSCB) is customer centric. 2. History The Punjab State Cooperative Bank was established on 31st August, 1949 at Shimla vide registration No. 720 has a principle financing institution of the cooperative movement in Punjab. In 1951 its Head Office was shifted to Jalandhar from where it moved in 1963 to its present building at Chandigarh.
In the cooperative Banking structure, the position of the Punjab State Cooperative Bank is extremely important as the whole credit system revolves around it. It has 19 branches and 1 extension counters in Chandigarh. There are 20 District Central Cooperative Banks having 804 branches all over Punjab, mostly in rural areas of the State. 3. Profile |THE PUNJAB STATE COOPERATIVE BANK LTD. CHANDIGARH | |ORGANISATION | | The Punjab State Cooperative Bank Chandigarh was established on 31 August 1949 at shimla vides Registration No. 720 as a | |principal financing institution of the cooperative movement in the state.
It has 19 branches and 1 extension counters in the | |city of Chandigarh. 20 Central Cooperative Banks having 786 branches and 18 Extension Counters in the State of Punjab are | |affiliated with the bank. In the Cooperative banking structure the position of the Punjab State Coop Bank is extremely | |important as a the whole short term credit system revolves around it. This bank ensures that its member central cooperative | |banks follow sound banking practices and observe strict financial discipline. The Central Cooperative Banks are financing the | |farmers through PACS at the village Level. There is no arena of life where this premier institution has not played its part. |From a farmer, artisan to traders/businessman, everybody has been covered in the fold of this institution. The green, white | |and sweet revolutions in the state of Punjab are some of the major achievement in which this institution has plays a vital | |role. | |The Punjab State Cooperative Bank has already been awarded “BEST PERFORMANCE AWARD” from NABARD and NAFSCOB. For the year | |2003-04, Punjab Cooperative Bank has been selected for NABARD’s “Best Performance Award “ which is based on performance of all| |the SCBs in the country. Similarly our Jalandhar DCCB has also been selected for NABARD’s “Best Performance Award” out of all | |the DCCBs in the country for the year 2003-04. |OBJECTIVES | |To serve as a Balancing Centre for Cooperative Societies in the State for Cooperative Societies in the State of Punjab | |registered under the Punjab Cooperative Societies Ac, 1961 for the time being in force. | |To promote the economic interest of the member banks and cooperative societies in the state in accordance with cooperative | |principles and to facilitate the development and funding of any cooperative society registered under the said act. | |To carry on banking and credit business. | |MANAGEMENT | |The present Board of Directors was constituted in May 2005. Now the management of the bank is being looking after by the | |elected BOD. | 4.
Organization [pic] 5. Board of Directors |SNO |Name |Designation |Contact No. |Address | |1. |Sh. Avtar Singh Zira |Chairman |0172-5067035 |Makhu Road, VPO: Zira, | | |S/o Sh. Hari Singh | | | Distt :Ferozepure | | |Zira | | | | |2. |Sh. Milap Singh S/o |Director |98147-83077 |Khajanewala house,Gobind Nagar,SW Road | | |Sh.
Jasbir Singh | | |Amritsar | |3. |Sh. Gurpreet Singh |Director |94172-3778 |95, Model Town ,Phase 3 ,Bhatinda | | |Maluka S/o Sh. | | | | | |Sikander Singh Maluka | | | | |4. |Sh. Baljit Singh |Director |97803-00916 |VPO Salempur P. O Bras, | | |Bhutta S/o Sh Baldev | | | Distt.
Fathegarh Sahib | | |Singh | | | | |5. |Sh. Ravikiran Singh |Director |97804-00002 |H. No 649, Basant Avenue, | | |Kahlon S/o Sh. | |97819-00001 |Amritsar | | |Nirmal Singh Kahlon | | | | |6. |Sh. Satwinderpal Singh|Director |98761-08332 |Village Ramdaspur, | | |Dhat S/o Sh. Mohan | | | The.
Dasuha , | | |Singh | | | Distt. Hoshiarpur | |7. |Sh. Harjit Singh |Director |98140-57531 |Khothran Road , | | |Parmar S/o Sh. | | | Near J. C. T MillPhagwara , | | |Gurbachan Singh Parmar| | | Kapurthala | |8. |Sh. Tajinder Singh |Director |97806-00019 |VPO Mithukhera , | | |Mithukhera S/o Sh. | | Malot, | | |Gurnam Singh | | | Distt. Muktsar | |9. |Sh. Dildar Singh S/o |Director |95925-83101 |Vill. Majra Kalan, P. O. Jadlan , | | |Sh. Ranjit Singh | | |Distt. Nawanshahr | |10. |Sh. Jarnail Singh S/o |Director |97800-32206 |VPO Kartarpur, Charaso, Distt. Patiala | | |Sh. Hajara Singh | | | | |11. |Sh.
Baldev Singh S/o |Director |94631-47642 |VPO Chakla, Chamakaur Sahib, Distt. Ropar | | |Sh. Gurnam Singh | | | | |12. |Sh. Baljit Singh |Director |99889-10417 |H. NO. 621, WardNo. 11 , DerraBassi, Distt. | | |Karkaur S/o Sh. Gurdev| | |Mohali | | |Singh | | | | |13. |Sh. Kanwaljeet Singh |Director |97799-15100 |H.
No 7/250, Shastri Nagar , Batala , Distt. | | |S/o Sh. Raghbir Singh | | |Gurdaspur | |14. |Sh. Sukhdarshan Singh |Director |98765-61261 |The Punjab State cooperztive Agriculture | | |Marar, S/o Sh. Narayan| | |Development Bank Ltd. , Sec 17 B , | | |Singh | | |Chandigarh | |15. | |CGM, NABARD |5071431,2604608 |Plot No. 3 , | | | | | Sector-34 A , | | | | | | Candigarh. | |16. | |Financial |2742771 |Cooperation Dept. | | | |Commissioner | | Civil Sectt , | | | |Cooperation, Punjab | | Punjab Chandigarh | |17. | |Principal Sectary | | | | | |Finance | | | |18. |Registrar, |5046814 |RCS , Punjab , | | | |Cooperative | | Sector-17 Bays Building , | | | |Societies, Punjab | | Chandigarh | |19. |Sh. Kamaljeet Singh |Managing Director |5061404 |Punjab State Coop. Bank Ltd. | | |Sangha |PSCB Chandigarh | | SCO: 175-187, | | | | | | Sector-34A, | | | | | | Chandigarh. | 6. AWARDS & ACHIEVEMENTS AWARDS | |The Punjab State Cooperative Bank has already been awarded “BEST PERFORMANCE AWARD” from NABARD and NAFSCOB. For the year | |2003-04, Punjab Cooperative Bank has been selected for NABARD’s “Best Performance Award ” which is based on performance of | |all the SCBs in the country. Similarly our Jalandhar DCCB has also been selected for NABARD’s “Best Performance Award” out of| |all the DCCBs in the country for the year 2003-04. | | | |ACHIEVEMENTS | | | |S. T. AGRI.
LOAN | |The Cooperative Banks in the State have advanced Rs. 7536. 33 Crores as ST Agri. Loan during the year 2009-10 as compared to | |Rs. 5894. 28 crore during 2008-09. Similarly during 2010-11, Rs 8497. 15 crores stand disbursed. Against the target of | |Rs. 8300. 00 Crores. | | | |R. C. C. LIMIT | |During 2009-10 the Central Coop. Banks in Punjab have sanctioned R. C. C limits worth Rs. 2296. 62 crores as compared to | |Rs. 2091. 75 crore of 2008-09.
During the year 2010-11 the bank has sanctioned RCC limits worth Rs. 2460. 79 crore. | | | |TWO WHEELER LOANS TO AGRICULTURISTS | |Under Two Wheeler Loan Scheme the farmers can take loan up to 75% of two-wheeler’s cost or Rs. 50,000/- whichever is lower | |from the Central Cooperative Banks. During the year 2009-10, the Bank has advanced a sum of Rs. 32. 67 crore. Similarly, during| |2010-11, Rs. 29. 70 crore has been advanced against the target of Rs. 40. 00 crore. | | |HOUSING LOANS | |During the year 2008-09 Central Cooperative Banks in the State have advanced Rs. 90. 66 Crores against the target of Rs. 80. 00 | |crores. | |During 2009-10, Rs. 86. 64 crores has been disbursed against the target of Rs. 110. 00 crore. During 2010-11 Rs. 84. 56 crore has | |been disbursed . | | | |NON FARM SECTOR LOANS | |During 2008-09 Rs 47. 72 crores were advanced under the scheme by DCCBs in the State of Punjab. | |During the year 2009-10, Rs. 48. 84 crores has been advanced. | |Similarly during 2010-11, Rs. 41. 93 crore has been advanced against the target of Rs. 55. 00 crore. | | |LOAN FOR CONSUMER DURABLES | |Under Consumer Durables Loan Scheme, Rs. 79. 62 crores has been advanced during 2009-10. Similarly, during 2010-11, Rs. 78. 25 | |crore has been advanced against the target of Rs. 80. 00 Crores . | | | |PERSONAL LOAN SCHEME | |Under Personal Loan Scheme, the Bank has advanced Rs. 143. 58 crore during the year 2009-10 against the target of Rs. 125. 00 | |crore. During 2010-11, Rs. 62. 41 crore has been disbursed against the target of Rs. 150. 00 crore. | | | |DEPOSIT MOBILIZATION | |The deposit of Punjab State Coop. Bank and Central Cooperative Banks were Rs. 9819. 09 crores during the year 2009-10. During | |the year 2010-11 the deposits are Rs. 10684. 54 crore. | | | |PROFITS | |During 2010-11, there was a profit Rs. 65. 17 crore whereas 2 DCCB, namely; Faridkot and Mansa were in loss. | | |REDUCTION IN THE RATE OF INTEREST | |Rate of Interest on Crop Loan has been reduced to 7. 00% w. e. f. 01-04-2006. | 7. Future Planning and Vision | Future Perspective | |Cooperatives are not unaffected by structural adjustments and globalization of commodity market. As a result, Cooperative Banks| |are required to redesign their strategies for sustainability and growth. The economic reforms initiated by the government of | |India in 1991 have affected the Financial Institutions ncluding the Cooperative Financial Institutions. These reforms aim at | |liberalization and deregulation of Indian economy. | |The Cooperative Banks of Punjab have accepted the reforms in Indian economy, especially, the financial reforms in right spirit. | |Since these Banks have mainly been providing credit to agriculture sector, changes in agricultural economy affect them more | |closely. The Banks envisage following scenario as a result of liberalized agricultural policy : | |Liberalization of agricultural policy would result in greater capital intensity and borrowed capital requirements of | |agriculturists.
In order to induce diversification and produce quality products for international market. For this purpose, | |Punjab farmers would need greater credit support for improved technology, seeds and agro-inputs. | |Liberalized agricultural policy would reverse the process of fragmentation of land holdings and would result in exodus of | |employment opportunities from agricultural sector to other sectors of economy. Such as small business enterprises, services and | |industrial sector. | |Liberalization of agriculture would professionalize and modernize agriculture, thereby earning a status of industry attracting | |high skilled professionals in agriculture sector. |Liberalized agricultural economy would lead to a greater role of private research and development institutions in improving the | |productivity and quality of agricultural operations. | |The liberalized agricultural policy would result in greater thrust on value addition in agriculture. Therefore, a great deal of | |thrust would be on agro-processing units. | |The liberalized agricultural policy would bring greater thrust on export of raw and value added agro-products. | |The liberalized agricultural economy would lead to sowing/planting of new crops. Leading to a great deal of crop | |diversification. | |With this perspective, the Cooperative Credit Policy, both for short-term and long term requirements of the farmers, needs to | |be restructured.
Accordingly, the Cooperative Banks in the State resolve to pursue credit policy in keeping with the | |following. | Vision ? We will force the future challenges with grit and take every possible step for the development of our institution. ? More steps will be taken to provide efficient services. ? Present customers will be retained and other customers will be attracted to increase market share. ? Bank will attract maximum deposit (especially low cost deposit) to strengthen its financial resources so as to reduce its dependency upon NABARD. ? Bank while diversifying its loan portfolio will provide medium term and long term loans to the maximum extent. Every effort will be made to open account of all the farmers of the State. Bank will receive deposits from Farmers and meet all their credit needs. ? Bank, for the sake of development of State, will strive hard to provide maximum and better services to customers especially farmers and for this wherever necessary, every effort will be made to modify the schemes. ? Bank will prepare its business plan every year and by implementing it, goals set will be achieved. ? Bank will professionalize and modernize the business. 8. Training Center [pic] Introduction Agriculture cooperative Staff Training Institute in the State of Punjab was established in 1986 by the Punjab State Cooperative Bank Ltd.
With the Financial assistance from National Cooperative Development Corporation Under World Bank –NCDC Project. The main aim of setting up this institute was to provide training to the staff and committee members as well as education to the ordinary members of the Primary Agricultural Services Societies (PACS) during the project period of 5 years. After successfully completion of the Project the institute started catering to the training needs of the whole short term credit cooperative in Punjab [particularly cooperative banks from 2001. The institute is running various training programmed for different categories of staff of cooperative bank.
The Punjab State Cooperative Bank is giving high priority for the training of its staff as well as staff of its member banks. The institute is getting full support from the bank in the field of training. The institute is acting for the development of a cadre of professional bankers to meet the challenges of changing banking scenario. Since 1991, there has been tremendous change in banking sector which had affected cooperative bank to a great extent. The Tara pore Committee, Narsimham Committee and Vaidyanathan Committee recommendations have put profound challenges to cooperative banks. The technological changes in the banking sector are also affecting these banks.
This institute is aware of these transformations and has geared up its training plans. The training institute of Cooperative banks cannot remain passive but must play an active role in providing consultancy, latest knowledge and skills to cooperative banks. Acting as a catalyst in the change process, this institute has decided to diversify its activities to face the challenge of time. Objective ? Sensitizing the banks of the challenges ahead and to prep[are the employees to meet these challenges ? Improving the operational efficiency of cooperative bank. ? Building up the managerial and leadership abilities among the officers for organizational effectiveness. TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENT
This institute assesses the training needs of the staff in the following ways. 1. Anticipation of the latest Development – Latest developments in economic and banking sectors (Capital Adequacy Norms, Asset Liability Management, Prudential Norms, and Recommendation of various Committees) are considered as Training requirement. 2. Demand from Central Cooperative Banks – Various central cooperative banks at different occasions approach the institute to provide training to their staff in specific area. On the request of those banks the institute conducts field programmers as per the convenience of the client banks. 3. Policy matters of Management – The institute keeps in touch with the olicy decision of the Reserve Bank of India, NABARD central Government RCS and Apex Bank Management, Institute develops and organizes training programmed for effectives implementation of these decisions. 4. Faculty Members Visit – Faculty member of this institute frequently visit cooperative banks at different intervals to study operational problems of the banks and to identify the training needs of the staff. 5. Audit Reports and Inspection Reports – These reports do provide useful indication for the training needs in banks. We continuously study these reports to find out procedural gaps and problems of the banks. COURSE DESIGN The training programmers are designed by conducting a critical analysis of training needs of Bank Staff.
Each member of faculty is advised to design at least two training programmers in a year. The training programmed along with detailed course contents prepared by them is then discussed in a faculty meeting. In this meeting the members of faculty meeting. In this meeting the members of faculty share thei