What is the definition for attachment?
•Forms over time
•It’s an emotional bond.
•Once an attachment is formed the person will exhibit certain behaviours to show their attachment e.g. seeking contact with them.
what is the definition for interactional synchrony?
•Babies may imitate the caregiver as part of this exchange learning facial expressions or speech as they go.
• Can manifest itself in imitating emotions.
• Example if a parent is upset a baby might cry as well as they are imitating the emotions they see.
What is the definition for reciprocity?
•How babies first start to interact with their care givers. • Like a conservation a caregiver interacts with the baby a the baby responds or the opposite way round.
What was the method of Meltzoff and Moore study on infant interactions?
• Adult model displayed one of three facial expressions or head movements where the fingers moved in a sequence.
• A dummy was placed in the infant’s mouth during the initial display to prevent any response.
•After the dummy was removed and the expression was filmed.
•Recorded observations then watched the videotapes in real time, slow motion and slow motion.
• Then independent observers who had no knowledge of what the infant had just seen judged the video.
•Asked to note all instances of infant tongue protrusions and head movements
•Each scored taps twice so that the intra observer and inter observer reliability could be calculated.
What were the results of Meltzoff and Moore study on infant interactions?
•There was an association between the infant behaviour and that of the model.
•All scores greater than 92.
What was the conclusion of Meltzoff and Moore study on infant interactions?
•The fact that the infants as young as this were displaying the behaviour.
•Appears to rule out the possibility that the imitation behaviours are learned
•The behavioural response is innate.
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Who did a study that demonstrated that infants coordinated their action with caregivers in a kind of conversation?
Jaffe et al
From birth babies move in a rhythm when interacting with an adult almost as if they were taking turns as people do when having a conservation.
•Example of reciprocity: one persons leans forward and speaks and then it is the other persons turn.
•Brazelton suggested the basic rhythm is an important precursor to later communications.
•Regularity of an infants signals allows a caregiver to anticipate the infants behaviour and respond appropriately
• This sensitivity to infant behaviour lays the foundation for later attachment between caregiver and infant.
What do Psychologists say about real or pseudo imitation for infant interactions?
•Meltzoff and Moor proposed imitation was international
•Jean Piaget believed true imitation develops towards the end of the 1st year
•Anything before was response training- what’s the infants doing is repeating for a reward
•Example: Infant sticks its tong see a caregiver a consequence would be smiling seen as a reward encourage the behaviour again
•Murry and Trevarthen supported Meltzoff and Moore
•They studied two month olds interacted via a video monitor played a tape with their mother. Screen not reacting to infants d=facial and bodily gesture.
•Result= acute distress so the infant tired to attract their mothers attention they gained no response turned away
•Conclusion infants are actively electing a response turned away rather than displaying a behaviour that has been rewarded. Shows a infant is an active and international partner in the mother infant reaction
•Supports the notion that such behaviours are innate rather than learned
What is said about the evaluation point of caregiver-infant interaction for infant interactions?
•Difficult to test babies and make clear judgments from the finding.
•Babies don’t talk and are still learning everything you can never be sure if they are truly interacting with the care giver or if they are making noises to amuse themselves.
•They constantly move and in early infancy have little control over there movements.
•We don’t know if there actions really the result of caregiver interactions or simply experimenting with their ability to move.
what are the problems with testing infant behaviour for infant interactions?
• It is difficulties in testing infant behaviour. As there mouths are in fairly constant motion and the expressions that are tested occur frequently e.g. tongue, sticking out. Makes it difficult to observe between general activity and specific limited behaviour
• To over come this Meltzoff and Moore infant responses by filming infants then asking an observer to judge the infants behaviour from the video. This increased the validity of the data, as the judge had no idea what behaviour was being imitated.
What is said about the failure to replicate for infant interactions?
•Other studies have failed to replicate the studies of the facing page.
•For example a study by Koepke et al failed to replicate Meltzoff and Moore they argued that Koepke study was less controlled and that’s why it failed
•Marian et al replicated the study by Murray and Trevarthen and found that the infants couldn’t distinguish live video tape interactions with there mothers.
•suggests the infants aren’t actually responding to the adult.
•Marian et al did acknowledge that the problem may lie with the procedure rather than the ability of the infants to imitate their care givers.
What is the evaluation points for is the behavioural intentional for infant interactions?
•Another method used to test the internationally of infant behaviour is to observe how they respond to inanimate objects
•Abravanel and De yong observed infant behaviour when interacting with 2 objects, one stimulating tongue movements and the other month opening/closing.
•Found that infants of median age 5-12 weeks made little response to the objects.
•concluded that this shows that infants don’t just inmate everything they see. It’s a specific social response to humans.
How do individual differences say about infants and there care givers for infant interactions?
•Babies in early stages so sometimes difficult to see their personality but all have individual differences.
•Babies attach to their givers in different ways depending on the experiences they have with them.
•For example: if a baby is left to cry they know not to cry if they want attention.
•Important of interactional synchrony is there some variation between infants,
•Isabella et al found that more strongly attached infant- caregiver Paris showed greater interactional synchrony . a relationship between the closeness of synchrony and strength of attachment
•Heimann showed that infants who demonstrate a lot of imitation from birth onwards have found to have a better quality relationship at 3 months.
What does value of reserach impact on the caregivers for infant interactions?
•Importance of imitative behaviour as it forms the basis of social development
•Meltzoff developed ” a like me hypothesis” based on his research on interactional synchrony.
•He proposes the 1st there’s a connection between what a infant see and there imitation of this.
•2nd infants associate there own acts and there own underlying mental states
•3rd infants project their own internal experiences onto performing similar acts
•As a result infants begin to get an understanding of what other people are thinking/feeling
•Relates to ‘ theory of mind” understanding the mental sates of other people. It was fundamental for conducting relationships
•strength: explains how children begin to understand what others think and feel
Give a definition of multiple attachment?
•Having more than one attachment figure.
Give a definition of primary attachment figure?
•The person who has formed the closet bond with a child demonstrated by the intensity of the relationship. Usually a child’s biological mother
Give a definition of separation anxiety?
•The distress shown by an infant when separated from there caregiver.
Give a definition of stranger anxiety?
•The distress shown by an infant when approached or picked up by someone who is unfamiliar
Who developed a description on how attachment works?
•Rudolph Schaffer and Peggy Emerson
Give the name and what it involves of stage 1?
Indiscriminate attachments
•Birth to 2 months infants produce similar to responses to all objects.
•Towards the end of the period infants are showing a greater preference for social stimuli e.g. smiling face and more content when they are with people
•During the period interactional synchrony and reciprocity play a role in establishing the relationships with others.
Give the name and what it involves of stage 2?
The beginning of attachment
•Age of four months infants become more social.
•They prefer human company to inanimate objects and can distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people.
•Still relatively easily comforted by anyone and don’t show stranger anxiety
•Most distinctive feature of phase: general sociability.
Give the name and what it involves of stage 3?
Discriminate attachment
•At 7 months old infants begin to show a distinctive different sort of protest when one particular person puts them down. (Separation anxiety)
• They show especial joy at reunion with that person and are most comforted by this person.
• They have formed a specific attachment to one person their primary attachment figure,
• Beginning to display stranger anxiety – another sigh of a specific attachment having formed
who did a study on discriminate attachment and what did they find?
Schaffer and Emerson
•Found that primary attachment were not always formed with the person who spent most time with the child
•Observe that instantly attached infants had mother who responded who responded quickly and sensitivity to the signals and who offered their child the most interaction.
•Children who were poorly attached had mothers who failed to interact.
•Concluded: It is quality of the relationship not quantity that mattered most in the formation of attachment
•Result: 65% of the children the 1st specific were to mother and 30% the mother was the 1st joint object of attachment.
•Father were rarely the 1st sole object of attachment 3% but 27% were the joint 1st object
Give the name and what it involves of stage 4?
Multiple attachments
•Soon after primary attachment is formed the infant also develop a wider circle of multiple attachments depending on how many consistent relationships he/she has had.
Who did a study on multiple attachments and what did they find?
Schaffer and Emerson
•Found that within one month of 1st becoming attached 29% of the infants had multiple attachments to someone else e.g. grandparents. Secondary attachments
•Infants also display separation anxiety in these relationships.
•Within 6 months had risen to 78%. By the age of 1 majority of infants had developed multiple attachments
•1/3 had formed 5 or more secondary attachments.
What is the role of a father as a primary attachment figure?
•Schaffer and Emerson found that fathers were far less likely to be primary attachment figures.
• May be because they spend less time with their infants
•Lamb reported that studies have shown little relationship between father accessibility and infant father attachment.
•Possible that most men are just not psychologically equipped to form an intense attachment because they lack emotional sensitively that woman offer.
•Cultural expectations continue to be sex stereotypes that affect male behaviour though as rather feminine to be sensitive to be needs of others.
•Is evidence that men are indeeped less sensitive to infant cues mothers e.g. Heermann et al
•Men do form secure attachments with their children as in the case of single male parent families.
•In 2 parent families where the father is the primary caregiver both parents share the role of primary attachment figures but biological and social factors discourage this.
What is the role of the father as a secondary attachment figure?
•Fathers have a role to play as important secondary attachment figures
•Research has consistently highlighted that fathers are more playful, physical active and better for providing challenging situations for their children
•May be a lack of sensitivity from fathers can be seen as positive because it fosters problems solving by making greater communicative and cognitive demands on children (white and Wollett)
Give an evaluation point on unreliable data?
•Schaffer and Emerson may be unreliable as it was based on mothers reports of their infants.
•Some mothers may have been less sensitive to their infants protests so less likely to report them
•This would create a systematic bias, which would challenge the validity of the data.
Give an evaluation point on a biased point?
•From a working class population and so the finding may apply to that social group and not others.
•Sample was from the 1960’s parental care of children has changed considerable since this time.
•More woman go out to work so many children cared for outside of the home or fathers stay at home and become main carer.
•Research shows that the number of dads who choose to stay at home has quadrupled over the past 25 years.
•Schaffer and Emerson would have conducted this today the finding may be different.
Give an evaluation point for a multiple attachments equivalent?
•Main discussion relating to multiple attachment is all attachments equivalent
•Or if one or two of them have special significant
•Bowlby’s view was that an infant forms one special emotional relationship.
•Many other secondary attachments which are important as an emotional safety net also important for other needs.
•Example: fathers may offer a special kind of care and relationships with sibling are important in learning to negotiate with peers
•However Rutter argued that all attachment figures are equivalent. All attachments are integrated to produce an infant’s attachment type.
Give an evaluation point for cultural differences?
•The stage of attachment is a western idea and based on individualist cultures
•Psychologists identify 2 different kinds of cultures
•Individualists culture which focus on the individual
•Britain and the US example of individualist cultures
•Each person in the society is first and only concerned with their own needs of their immediate family group
•Collectivists are more focused on the needs of the group rather than the individualists.
•In these cultures people share many things such as possessions and childcare. In these societies you would suspect multiple attachment to be more common
Give an evaluation point for who supports cultural variations?
•Research supports Sagi et al compared attachments in infants raised in communal environments with infants raised in family based sleeping arrangements
•Kibbutz children spend their time in a community children home cared for by a metapelet this includes night time.
•Clones of attachment with mothers was almost twice as common in family based arrangements than in the communal environment.
Give an evaluation on stage theories?
•Developmental psychologists often use stage theories to describe how children behaviour changes as they age
•In the case of stage theory attachment for example it suggests that normally single attachments must come before multiple attachments
•Problem is that is becomes standard by which families are judged and may be classed as abnormal
Give a definition of imprinting?
•It’s a process that binds a young animal to a care giver in a special relationship.
What was the procedure on Lorenz’s research on attachment on animals?
•Took a clutch of gosling eggs and divided them into 2 groups.
•One group left with natural mother
•Other group were placed in a incubator.
•When the incubator eggs hatched the living thing (moving) was Lorenz’s they soon started to follow him around.
•To test his effect of imprinting he marked the two groups to distinguish them and placed them together they had become imprinted on him.
•Both Lorenz and their natural mother was there.
What were the finding on Lorenz’s research on attachment on animals?
•Glossing quickly divided themselves up one following there natural mother and other group following Lorenz/.
•Lorenz body showed no recognition of there mother.
•He noted that the method of imprinting is restricted to a very definite period of the young animals life (Critical period)
•If a young animal isn’t exposed to a moving object during this early critical period the animal wont imprint.
•Suggests that animals can imprint on a persistently present moving object seen within its first 2 days.
•Did observe that imprinting to humans doesn’t occur in all animals e.g. curlews want imprint on a human.
What were the long lasting effects on Lorenz’s on attachment on animals?
Long lasting effects
•Noted several features of imprint
•The process is irreversible and long lasting
•Described how on of his geese that imprinted on him used to sleep on his bed every night.
•Early imprinting had an effect on later mate preferences called sexual imprinting.
•Animals especially will choose to mate with the kind of object upon which they were imprinted.
Give an evaluation point on research supporting imprinting for Lorenz’s research?
•Gluiton demonstrated that Leghorn chicks exposed to yellow rubber gloves for feeding them during there 1st few weeks became imprinted on the gloves.
•This supports the view that young animals aren’t born with a predisposition to imprint on a specific type of object but properly on any moving thing that is present during the critical window of development
•He also found that male chickens later tried to mate with the gloves showing that early imprinting is linked to later reproductive behaviour
Give an evaluation point on criticism of imprinting for Lorenz’s research?
•Some disputed over the characteristics of imprinting,
•original concept of imprinting that they encounter with an appriote object leads to an image of that object being somehow stamped irreversibly on the nervous system.
•Now it is understood that imprinting is a more plastic and forgiving mechanism (Hoffman 1996)
•For example Guiton found that he could reverse the imprinting in the chickens who had initially tried to mate with the rubber gloves. He found later after spending some time with their own species they were able to engage in normal sexual behaviour.
•Now thought that imprinting may not be so very different from any other kind of learning. It can take place rapidly with little conscious effort. Fairly reversible.
What was the procedure of Harlow’s research on attachment with animals?
•Created two wire mothers each with different heads.
•One wire mother was accidently wrapped in soft cloth.
•8 infants rhesus monkeys were studied for a period of 165 day.
•For 4 monkeys the milk bottle was on the cloth covered mother and pn the plain wire mother for the 4 other monkeys.
•During that time measurements were made of how much time the infants spent with the 2 other kinds of mother.
•Observations were also made of the monkeys infant responses when frightened by e.g. a mechanical teddy bear.
What were the fining of Harlow’s research on attachment with animals?
•All 8 monkeys spent the most time with the cloth-covered monkey whether or not this mother had the feeding bottle.
•The monkeys who fed from the wire mother only spent a short amount of time getting milk then returning to the cloth mother.
•When frightened all monkeys clung to the clothed covered mother and when playing with new objects the monkeys often kept one foot on the clothed covered monkey for reassurance
•The finding suggest that infant do not develop an attachment to the person who feeds them but to the person offering contact comfort
What were the long lasting effects of Harlow’s research on attachment with animals?
•He continued to study the rhesus monkeys as they grew up and noted many consequences of their early attachment experiences
•Reported that motherless monkeys even those who did have contact comfort developed abnormality.
•They were social abnormal they did not show normal mating behaviour and didn’t cradle their own babes
•He also found that there was a critical period for these effects.
•If the motherless monkeys spent time with their monkey peers they seemed to recover but only happened before they were 3 months old.
•Having more than 6 months with only a wire mother was something they didn’t appear able to recover.
Give an evaluation point on confounding variables for Harlow’s research?
•That the two stimulus objects varied in more ways than being clothed covered or not.
•The two heads were also different which acted as a confounding variable because it varied systematically with the independent variable.
•It is possible that the reason the infant monkeys preferred one mother to the other was because the cloth covered monkey had a more attractive head.
•This study may lack internal validity.
Give an evaluation point on generalising animal studies to human behaviour for Harlow’s and Lorenz’ study?
•Humans differ in important ways.
•Much more of their behaviour is governed by conscious decisions.
•Many studies have found that the observations made of an animal attachment behaviour are mirrored in studies of humans.
•Example Harlow’s research is supported by Schaffer and Emerson that infants were not most attached to the person who fed them.
•Animals studies can act as a useful pointer in understanding human behaviour but should always seek
Give an evaluation point for ethnics for Harlow’s research?
•His study couldn’t be done on humans but there is a question if it should be done on monkeys.
•The study created lasting emotional harm as the monkeys later found it difficult to form relationships with their peers.
•Other hand the experiment can be justified in terms of the significant effect it has had on our understanding of the process of attachment.
•The research derived from this study has been used to offer better care for human infants.
•Could be argued that the benefits outweigh the costs of the animals involved in the study.
Explaining attachment through classical conditioning?
•Learning through association.
•A neutral stimulus is consistently paired with an unconditioned response and it eventually takes on the properties of this stimulus is able to produce unconditioned response.
•In an infants early weeks/months certain things become associated with food as they are present when the infant is feed.
•Might be a mother as they sit to fee the infant. Neutral stimulus.
•If a neutral stimulus is regularly and consistently associated with an unconditioned stimulus and take on the properties so they will produce no response.
•Neutral response know becomes a learned or conditioned stimulus and will produce a conditioned response.
•When the infant sees the person feed them that has been a neutral stimulus to being a conditioned stimulus it gives them pleasure.
•Learning theorists call this a newly formed stimulus” mother love”
Explaining attachment through operant conditioning
•Learning through reinforcement
•John Dollard and Neal Miller offered an explanation of attachment based on operant condition and drive reduction theory.
•Drive: something that motivates behaviour. In the case of a hungry infant there drive is to reduce the accompanying discomfort.
•When an infant is fed the drive is reduced and this produces a feeling of pleasure and this is rewarding- positive reinforcement.
•That behaviour that led to being fed is more likely to be repeated in the future because it rewarding so food becomes a primary reinforce as it supplies the reward i.e. it reinforce the behaviour that avoided discomfort
•Through the process of classical conditioning the person who supplies the food is associated with avoiding discomfort and becomes a secondary reinforce and source of reward in there own right.
•Attachment occurs because the child seeks the person who can supply the reward.
What are the components of the social learning theory in attachment?
•Dale Hay and Jo Vespo
•Learning through observing and imitating others.
•Babies imitate their parents behaviour in the way that the parent is loving and affectionate towards them.
•Also as children grow up parents teach them how to behaviour kindly and loving to others and will reward such behaviour.
•Parents would also deliberately instruct their children about how to behave in relationships and reward aprroite attachment behaviours e.g. kissing, hugs.
Give an evaluation point on the learning theory is based on research with animals?
•Largely done studies on non humans e.g. Skinners research
•Behaviourist believe that humans are actually no different from other animals in the terms of how they learn
•Our behaviour patterns are constructed from the same basic blocks of stimulus and response and so they argue it is legitimate to generalise animal studies to human behaviour.
•Some aspects of human behaviour can be described by conditioning but not all especially a complex behaviour such as attachment.
•Non-behaviourists argue that attachment involves innate predispositions and mental activity that could be explained in terms of condition.
•Behaviourist explanations may lack validity because they present an oversimplified version of human behaviour.
Give an evaluation point on contact comfort is more important than food?
•Main limitation of learning theory as an explanation for attachment is that it suggests food is the key elements in the form of the attachment.
•There is strong evidence to show that feeding has nothing to do with attachment.
•Harlow described on the previous spread showed that infant rhesus monkeys were most attached to the wire mother provided contact comfort not food.
Give an evaluation point on the learning theory has some explanatory power?
•Learning theory may not provide a complete explanation of attachment but it has some value.
•Infants do learn through association and reinforcement but food may not be the main reinforce.
•May be that attention and responsiveness from a caregiver are important rewards that assist in the formation of attachment.
•Such reinforces were not part of the learning theory account.
•May also be that responsiveness is something that infants imitate and thus learn about how to conduct relationships.
Give an evaluation point on the alternative explanation?
•Main reason why the learning theory was rejected as an account of attachment is that a better study appeared.
•Bowlbys it can explain why attachment form whereas learning theory can only explain how they might form
•The advantages include protection from harm and thus attachment evolved as behaviour which would enhance survival.
•Offers a better explanation of facts for example Schaffer and Emerson’s finding that infants aren’t always strongly attached to the person who feeds them.
Give an explanation point on the drive reduction theory is largely ignored today?
•Very popular in the 1940s but its no longer used.
•It can only explain a limited number of behaviours.
•There are many things that people do that have nothing to reducing comfort in fact there are some things that people do to increase discomfort e.g. bungee jumping.
•Doesn’t adequately explain how secondary reinforces work. Secondary reinforces do not directly reduce discomfort yet they are reinforcing.
•Example: money is a secondary reinforce it itself does not reduce discomfort but reinforcing ( we are motivated to do something when offered money)
Give the definition of Continuity hypothesis?
•The idea that emotionally secure infants go onto to be emotionally secure trusting and socially confident adults.
Give the definition of Critical period?
•A biological determined period of time during which certain characistices can develop. Outside of this time window such development will not be possible.
Give the definition of internal working model?
•A mental model of the world which enables individuals to predict and control their environment. In the case of this attachment the model relates to a persons expectations of a relationship
Give the definition of monotrophy?
•The idea that one relationship that the infant has with there primary attachment figure is of a special significance in emotional development.
Give the definition of social releaser?
• A social behaviour or characteristics that effects caregiving and leads to attachment.
Give the parts and what Bowlby’s Monotropic attachment theory found?
•Why attachment forms
•Lorenz’s research on imprinting led Bowlby to assume a similar process was operating in humans
•Attachment behaviour evolves because it serves an important survival function so an infant that is not as attached is less well protected
•Our distant infant ancestors would have been in danger if they did not remain close to an adult.
•Important attachments are formed in 2 directions
•Parent must also be attached to there infant in order to ensure they cared for survive
•It is only the parents who look after their offspring that are likely to produce subsequent generations.
How does attachment form through the critical period?
•Babies have an innate to become attached
•Innate (biological) behaviours usually have a special time period for development e.g. babies learn to walk at 11 months.
•The critical period for attachment is around 3-6 months
•Infants that don’t have the opportunity to form a attachment during this time tend to have difficulty forming attachments later on.
•Attachment is determined by sensitivity.
•His views were influenced by Mary Ainsworth whose observations of mothers lead her to suggest that the infants who seemed most strongly attached were the ones whose mothers were most responsive, more cooperative and more accessible than those less closely attached infants.
How does attachment form through social realisers?
•Are important during this time to ensure that attachments develop from parent to infant.
•He suggested one important mechanism in this process are social relaseres such as smiling and having a baby face all of which elicit caregiving.
•These social releasers are innate mechanisms that explain how attachments to infants are formed
How does attachment form through monitory?
•He proposed that infants have one special emotional bond the primary attachment relationship.
•This individual is often the infants biological mother but not always
•Infants also form many secondary attachments that provide an important emotional safety net and are important for healthy psychological and social development.
How does attachment form through the internal working model?
•Through the Monotropic attachment the infant would form an internal working model
•This is a special mental schema for relationships. All the child’s future adult relationship will be based on this
•It is their ideas and thought on what relationships should be. If a child witnesses spousal abuse from a young age this will shape there opinion about how couples behave towards each other. As they age they can add information into their schemas and form a more well rounded view but their 1st attachment is the basis for this internal working model.
What are the consequences of attachment?
•The importance of monotropy is that an infant has one special relationship and forms a mental representation called an internal working model.
•This model has several consequences
•In the short term it gives the child a insight into the caregivers so a partnership[ can be formed
•In the long time it acts as a template for all future relationship because it generates expectations about what intimate loving relationships are like.
•The contuntiy hypothesis process that individuals who are strongly attached in infancy continue to be socially and emotionally competent whereas infants who are not strongly attached have more social and emotional difficulties in childhood and adulthood
•In other words there is continuity from infancy to adulthood in terms of emotional type.
Give an evaluation point for is attachment adaptive?
•It is clearly important for emotional development however may be less crucial for survival,
•Bowldy suggested that attachment develops when the infant is older than 3 months.
•This is very late as a mechanism to protect infants.
•In our distant ancestors it would have been vital for infants to become attached as soon as they are born e.g. young monkeys cling tenaciously to their mothers fur.
•The age of attachment is linked to features of a species life.
•Human infants don’t need to cling on as their mothers carry there babies.
•However when human infants start crawling from around 6 months attachment is vital and that is when attachments develop in humans supporting the view that attachment is adaptive.
Give an evaluation point for a sensitive period rather than critical?
•Psychologists have studied children who fail to form attachments during the important critical period between 3-6 months.
•Bowlby said it should not be possible to form attachments beyond this period.
•Evidence from Rutter et al shows this is true to an extent. It appears less likely that attachments will form after this period but not impossible
•For this reason researchers prefer to use the term sensitive period to reflect the fact that the development window is one where children are maximally receptive to the formation of certain characteristics or behaviours
•Nerveless such developments can take place outside of this window.
Give an evaluation point for multiple attachment versus monotropy?
• Multiple attachment model shows that there isn’t primary/secondary attachment ( the view of monotropy) but all attachments are simply integrated into one single internal working model
•Secondary attachment in Bowlby do contribute to social development but healthy development requires one central person higher than all the others in a hierarchy.
•Research on infant, father attachment for example suggests a key role for fathers as secondary attachments and in social developments Grossmann and Grossmann 1991
•Prior and Glaser conclude from a review of research that the evidence still points to the hierarchy model as suggested by Bowlbys concept of monotropy
Give an evaluation point for continuity hypothesis?
•Bowlbys suggested an outcome of attachments is the effect it has on subsequent relationships
•This has been tested by the Minnesota parent child study sroufe et al
•This study followed participants from infancy to late adolescence and found continuity between early attachment and later emotional social behaviours
•Individuals who were classified as securely attachment in infancy were highest rated for social competence later in childhood were less isolated and more popular and more empathetic,
•This supports the continuity hypothesis because there is a link between early and later attachments.
Give an evaluation point for the alternative explanation?
•The temperament hypothesis Kagan proposes that infants innate emotional personality called their temperament may explain attachment behaviour,
•Infants who have a easy temperament are more likely to become strongly attached because its easy to interact with them whereas those who are difficulty tend to be insecurely attached.
•There’s research support Belsky and Rovine found that infants between one and 3 days old who had sighs of behavioural instability were later judged to be more likely to have developed a insecure attachment.
•Bowlbys theory suggested that attachment type is due to the primary attachment figures sensitivity whereas kagans view is that attachment can be explained in terms of infant behaviour
•Belsky and Rovine proposes that there’s is an interaction between the two a suggestion supported by research that found mothers perceptions of their infants temperament influenced the mothers responsiveness. Spangler
What is the aim for Ainsworth strange situation?
Aim: was to see how infants aged between 9-18 months behave under conditions of mild stress and also novelty.
What is the procedure for Ainsworth strange situation?
•The research room is a novel environment a 9×9 foot space often marked off into 16 squares to help in recording the infants movements
•It consist of 8 episodes each designed to highlight certain behaviours
•The key feature of these episodes is that the caregiver and stranger alternately stay with the infant or leave.
•This enables observation of the infants response to
•Separation from the caregiver ( separation anxiety)
•Reunion with the caregiver ( reunion behaviour)
•Response to a stranger ( stranger anxiety)
•The novel environment which aims to encourage exploration and this tests the secure base concept
•Data is typically collected by a group of observers using a video recorder or a one way mirror
•May record what the infant is doing every 15 using the following behaviour catorgeiers
1. Proximity and contact seeking behaviours
2. Contact maintaining behaviours
3. Proximity and interaction avoiding behaviours
4. Contact and interaction resisting behaviours
5. Search behaviours
Each item is also scored for intensity on a scale of 1 to 7
What is the finding of AInsworths strange situation?
•He combined the data from several studies to make a total of 106 middle class infants observed in the strange situation
•They noted similarities and differences ways that the infants behaved
•In terms of similarity it was noted that exploratory behaviours declined in all infants from episode 2 onwards whereas the amount of crying increased.
•He found 3 main behaviours in the infants observed
•Seemed to be constant clusters of behaviour that added up to 3 qualaitvly different types of attachment
What is secure attachment?
•Mother used as safe base for expolartation
•Wary of stranger but still happy to play while mother present
•Distress on separation
•Greets mother warmly upon return
What is insecure resistant?
•Fussy and clings wary of stranger even when mother present
•Very distressed when mother leaves
•Sought contact with mother upon her return but appeared very angry and resisted it e.g. wanting to be picked up them struggling away when mother responded.
Give an evaluation point for the 4th attachment type for Ainsworth strange situation?
•Soloman et al suggested that the research overlooks a 4th attachment type.
•Insecure disorganised which is shown by a lack of consistent behaviour patterns and therefore not consistently in any of the other groups.
•Children like this might show secure behaviour while the parent is there but once the parent leaves they may show avoidant behaviours yet resistant behaviour on return.
Give an evaluation point for the observations for Ainsworth strange situation?
•In the strange situation experiment there was always 2 or more observers marking down behaviour.
•Why is this a good thing.
•It shows more reliable results as gets rid of researchers bias.
Give an evaluation point for the does it have validity for Ainsworth strange situation?
Does it have validity?
•Is this study truly measuring attachment.
•Children behave different depending on the parent they are with and therefore they will not show the same attachment type with each person they are attached to, so it does not measure the child’s over all attachment but it really shows the attachment type to that particular caregiver.
•Children behave differently on different days there are too many extraneous variables for this to valid, the child may have been told off just before the experiment or not gotten enough sleep.
Give an evaluation point for the ethics for Ainsworth strange situation?
•The study puts the children under emotion strain and therefore is not ethical, the child is deliberately left alone.
•Some children go to day care and therefore understand that their parent may leave but will come back again later. However a child that never goes to day care or has a babysitter will not understand that their parent is coming back and may think they have been left forever.
•It is also distressing for the parent to see and hear their child cry out for them but not be allowed to comfort them.
•Also it is not ethical to tell a parent that their child in insecure and use a negative term to explain the way the child feels about their parent
What is insecure avoidant?
•Play hardly affected whether mother was present or not
•Little distress when separated from mother
•Rejects comfort from stranger
•Avoid contact from stranger
•Avoids contact upon mothers return
What are cultural differences in attachment and who did studies on these?
• Grossmann and Grossmann found that German infants tended to be classified as insecurely attached.
• This may be due to different childrearing practices
• German culture involves keeping some interpersonal distance between parents and children so infant don’t engage in promixty seeking behaviours in the strange situation and thus appear to be insecurely attached
• Takahashi used the strange situation to study 60 middle class infants and their mothers and found similar rates of secure attachment to those found by Ainsworth et al
• However the Japanese infants showed no evidence of insecure avoidant attachment and high rates of insecure resistant attachment (32%)
• The Japanese infants were particularly distressed on being left alone in fact it was so extreme that for 90% of the infants the study was stopped at this point
• This cultural variation might again be accounted in terms of different childcare practices as in japan infant rarely experience separation from there mothers.
What is the produce for Van Ijendoorn and kroonenberg study on cultural differences in attachment?
•They conducted a Meta analysis of the findings from 32 studies of attachment behaviour
•Altogether the studies examined over 2,000 strange situations classifications in 8 different countries
•They were interested to see whether there would be evidence that inter cultural differences did exist e.g. differences between different countries. Cultures
•They were also interested to find out whether there were intral cultural differences in the finding from studies conducted within the same culture.
What where the finding of Van Ijendoorn and kroonenberg study on cultural differences in attachment?
•They found that the differences were small
•Secure attachment was the most common classification in every countries
•Insecure avoidant attachment was the next common in every country expect Israel and Japan
•With the reference to variation within cultures they that this was 1.5 time greater than the variation between cultures.
•The conclusion to draw from the meta anylais is that the global pattern across cultures appears to be similar to that found in the US
•Secure attachment is the norm it is the most common form of attachment in all countries
•This supports the idea that secure attachment is best for healthy social and emotional development
•These cultural similarities support the view that attachment is an innate and biological process.
Who did a study on cultural differences and what is said about them?
•Other studies support Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg main finding
•Tronick et al studied an African tribe the Efe Zaire who live in extended family groups.
•The infants were looked after and even breastfeed by different woman by they usually slept with there mother at night.
•Despite such differences in childrearing practices that infants at six months showed one primary attachment.
Give the definition of cultural variations?
The ways that different groups of people vary in terms of their social practices and the effects these practices have on development and behaviour.
What is the conclusions for all of these studies of cultural variations in attachment?
•These studies suggest that despite the fact that there are cultural variations in infant care arrangements the strongest attachments are still formed with the infants mother
•The research also shows that there are differences in the patterns of attachment that can be related to differences in cultural attitudes and practices.
Give an evaluation point for similarities many not be innately determined for cultural variations in attachment?
•According to Bowlby’s theory of attachment the reason for universal similarities in how attachments form is because attachment is an innate mechanism unmodified by culture.
•Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg suggest that at least some cultural similarities might be explained by the effects of the mass media which spread ideas about parenting so as a result children all over the world are exposed to similar influences
•This means that cultural similarities may not be due to innate biological influences but are because of our increasingly global culture.
Give an evaluation point for nation rather than culture for cultural variations in attachment?
•The meta analysis by Van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg draw conclusions about cultural differences yet they actually weren’t comparing cultures but countries
•For example they compared Japan with the US but within each country there are many different subcultures each of which may have different childcare practices
•One study of attachment in Tokyo found similar distributions of attachment types to the western studies whereas a more rural sample found an over representation of insecure resistant individuals ( Van LJzendoorn and Sagi)
•IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg found more variation within cultures than bewreen cultures presumably because the data was collected on different subcultures within each country.
•IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg concluded that great caution should be excersed in assuming that an individual sample is representative of a particular culture or even subculture
Give an evaluation point for cross cultural research for cultural variations in attachment?
•A particular issue for research conducted in different countries is the tools that are used.
•Psychologists measure behaviour using things like intelligence or observational methods such as the strange situation.
•Such tools or techniques are related to the cultural assumption’s of the test/technique designer.
•In the case of the strange situation it is assumed that willingness to explore is a sign of secure attachment
•However as we have seen in some cultures this is not the case
•In traditional Japanese culture dependence rather than independence would be a the sign of secure attachment
•The term imposed etic is used to describe the use of a technique designed in one cultural but imposed in another.
•The result of using an imposed etic to measure attachment is that Japanese children may appear to be insecurely attached according to western criteria whereas they are securely attached by Japanese standard’s
•This means research using the strange theory may lack validity.
Give an evaluation point for cultural bias for cultural variations in attachment?
•Rothbaum et al argued that it isn’t just the methods used in attachment research that are not relevant to other cultures but also the theory because its rooted in American culture
•Rothbaum et al looked in particularly at the contrasts between American and Japanese culture
•For example the continuity hypothesis does not have the same meaning in both cultures.
•Bowlby and Ainsworth proposed that infants who are more securely attached go on to develop into more socially and emotionally competent children and adults.
•This competence is represented by the inhibition of emotional expression and being group oriented rather than self orientated.
•Only done one or two studies in Britain, ,Sweden etc. so cant get an accurate generalisations as in a America they did a study 18 times.
Give an evaluation point for indigenous theories of attachment for cultural variations in attachment?
•Rotbaum et al suggest the benefit of research on cultural variations is that psychologist should be able to produce a set of indigenious theories explanations of attachment rooted in individual cultures
•There may be a small set of universal principles such as the need for protection but in general childcare practices will be related to cultural values
•It may be that Rothbaum et al overstated the case.
•Posda and Jacobs note that there is actual a lot of evidence that supports the universalty of attachment many different countries china Columbia Germany Israel japan Norway
•They also point out that that the issue is not whether sensitivity leads to independence but simply that sensitively so linked to secure attachment however secure attachment is manifested/
•Prior and Glaser conclude that expressions of maternal sensitively and manifestations of secure base behaviour may vary across cultures but core concepts are universal.
Give the definition of deprivation?
•This is where an attachment has formed between an infant and its primary care giver and then this attachment is broken. This can be from days of separation to months or even years if a parent dies. The critical period and age of a child can affect the way a child reacts to deprivation.
What is Bowlbys theory of maternal deprivation?
•John Bowlby proposed that prolonged emotional deprivation would have long-term consequences in terms of emotional development.
• 3 important strands.
What did Bowlby say on the stage the value of maternal care for the theory of maternal deprivation?
•Finding from Bowlbys 44 thieves study’s as well as the finding from other research came as a surprise as no one had considered the long term importance that the effects of separation had on infants and children
•It was assumed that a good standard of food and physical care was the importance of good care.
•If children were separated from their caregivers then all that was necessary was to maintain this standard.
•Bowlby believed it wasn’t enough to make sure that a child was well fed and kept safe and warm.
•He believed that infants and children needed a warm, intimate and continuous relationship with the mother (permanent mother substitute) to ensure continuing normal mental health
What did Bowlby say about the critical period for the theory of maternal deprivation?
Critical period
•He believed that a young child who is denied such care because of frequent or prolonged separations may become emotionally disturbed.
•There are several important ifs only applies to a critical period in development- separation will have this effect if this happens before the age of 2 ½ if there’s no mother substitute available.
•Felt there was a continuing risk up until the age of 5
•Potienal damage can be avoided if suitable substitute emotional care is provided by a mother substitute.
•Separation need not necessarily result in deprivation and its deprivation that has the potential to cause long term harm.
What did Bowlby’s say about the long term consequences for the theory of maternal deprivation?
•There would be emotional maladjustment or even mental health problems such as depression.
What was the procedure of Bowlby’s 44 juvenile thieves study?
•Bowlby analysed the case historians of a number of his patients in his child guidance clinic in London where he worked.
•All the children that attended the clinic were emotional maladjustment.
•Studied 88 of these children half had been caught stealing and other ½ a control group.
•He suggested that some of these thieves where affectionless psychopaths they lacked normal sighs of affection shame or sense of responsibility.
•These characistics enabled them to be thieves- could steal from others as it didn’t matter to them.
what were the finding of Bowlby’s 44 juvenile thieves study?
•Those individuals diagnosed as affectionless thieves had experience frequent early separations from their mothers.
•Table shows that 86% of the affrectional thieves (12/14) experienced separations compared with 17% ( 5/30) of the other thieves
•Almost none of the control participants experienced early separations whereas 39% of all the thieves had experienced early separations.
•These early separations often considered continual or repeated stays in foster homes or hospitals when the children were scarcely visited by their families.
•Lack of continuous care may well cause emotional misjudgement or even a mental disorder.
Give an evaluation point on physical and emotional separation for Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation ?
•When discussing deprivation people assume that it is physical separation is the cause but it may also be related to psychological separation.
•Being depressed would mean that even though a mother is physically present she may be unable to provide suitable emotional care so depriving her child of that care
•Marian Radke Yarrow et al studied mothers who were servelry depressed and found that 55% mean age 32 months were insecurely attached compared with 29% in the non depressed group.
•This shows that psychological separation can also lead to deprivation
Give an evaluation point for support for long term effects for Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation?
•One way to consider the effects of maternal deprivation is in terms of vulnerability.
•Experiencing early maternal deprivation does not always result in negative outcomes but what it appears to do is create an increased likelihood that this will happen.
•Illustrated in a classic study by Antonia Bifluco et al of women who had experienced separation from their mothers either because of maternal death or temporary separation f more than a year
•Bifluco found that about 25% later experienced depression or an anxiety order compared with 15% who had no experience of separation.
•The mental health problems were much greater in those women who’s occurred before the age of 6 supporting Bowlbys notion of a critical period.
Give an evaluation point for support for real world application for Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation?
•Bowlbys study and theory had an enormous impact on post war thinking about childrearing and also on how children were looked after in hospitals
•Before Bowlbys research children were separated from parents when they spent time in a hospital.
•Visiting was discouraged or even forbidden.
•One of Bowlbys collages James Robertson filmed a 2 year called Laura during the 8 day period she was in hospital
•She is seen frequently distressed and begs to go home.
•Bowlbys and Roberston work led to a major social change in the way that children were cared for in a hospital.
Give an evaluation point for individual differences for Bowlby’s theory of maternal deprivation?
•Research has shown that not all children are affected by emotional disruption in the same way.
•Barrett reviewed various studies on separation and concluded that securely attached children may sometimes cope reasonably well whereas insecurely attached children become especially distressed.
• A similar conclusion drawn by another study of Bowlby of 60 children under the age of 4 who had TB.
•Treatment of the condition involves a prolonged stay in hospital and the nurses couldn’t provide substitute maternal care and children were only visited once a week.
•Therefore they probably experienced prolonged early disruption of attachment.
•When these children were assessed in adolescence some in the TB group were more maladjusted (63%) than the normal children but there weren’t any significant differences between them and their normal peers in there terms of intellectual development.
•Bowlby et al suggested that those children who coped better may have been more securely attached and thus more resilient.
Give an evaluation point for deprivation versus privation?
•Michal Rutter in his book Maternal deprivation reassessed criticised Bowlbys view on deprivation because it didn’t make clear whether the child’s attachment bond has formed but been broken or had never formed in the 1st place.
•Rutters view on deprivation where the lack of an attachment bond who have potentially far more series consequence for the child than the former ( the loss of the attachment bond)
•He used the term privation to refer to situations where the child fails to develop an attachment bond with one caregiver and deprivation refer to situations where a bond does develop but through prolonged or traumatic separations is disrupted or lost.
What was the procedure of Michael Rutter and Edmund Sonuga Barkes study on Romanian orphan?
•Micheal Rutter and Edmund Sonuga-Barke have led the study of a group of Romanian orphans since the early 1990s.
•The study is called ERA which stands for English and Romanian adoptees.
•The study includes 165 Romanian who spent their early lives in Romanian institutions and they suffered from the effects of institutionalisation of this group 111 were adopted before the age of 2 years and a further 54 by the age of 4.
•The adoptees have been tested at regular intervals (4,6,11 and 15) to assess their physical cognitive and social development.
•Information has been gathered in interviews with parents and teachers/
•There progress has been compared to a control group of 52 British children adopted in the UK before the age of 6 months.
What were the finding of Michael Rutter and Edmund Sonuga Barkes study on Romanian orphan and the effect of institutionalism?
•At the time of there adoptions the Romanian orphans lagged behind there British counterparts on all measures of physical, cognitive and social development
•They were smaller so they weighed less and were classified as mental retarded.
•By the age of 4 some of the children had caught up with their British counterparts.
•This was almost true for all of the Romanian children adopted before the age of 6 months,
•Follow ups have confirmed that significant deficits remain in a substabial minority of individuals who had experienced institutional care to beyond the age of 6 months.
•Many of these orphans adopted after 6 months showed disinhibited attachments and had problems with peer relationships
•The long-term consequences may be less severe than was once thought if children have the opportunity to form attachments.
•When children don’t form attachment e.g. ie contuing failure of attachment than the consequences are likely to be serve,
What did other psychologists find out about Romanian orphans and the effect of institutionalism?
•Romanian orphans were also adopted in other parts of the world.
•Le mare and Audet have reported the finding from a longitudinal study of 36 Romanian orphans adopted to families in Canada.
•The dependant variables in this study have been physical growth and health
•The adopted orphans were physically smaller than the matched control group at 4 ½ but this difference had disappeared by the age of 10 ½ . the same was true for physical health.
•This suggests that recovery is possible form the effects of institutionalisation on physical development.
•Romaine based study Zeanah et al compared 136 Romanian children who had on an average spent 90% of their lives in an insinuation.
•The children were aged between 12-31 months and were assessed in the strange situation.
•The intertionlised children showed signs of disinhibited attachment
What are the effects of institutionalism?
•Physical development- children in institutional care are usuassly physical smaller. Research has shown that the lack of emotional care rather than poor nourishment is the cause (deprivation dwarfism)
•Intellectual under functioning- cognitive development is also effected by emotional deprivation ( skodak and Gardner)
•Disinhibited attachment- a form of insecure attachment where children do not discriminate between people they chose as attachment figures . such children will treat near strangers with inappropriate familiarity and may be attention seeking.
•Poor parenting- Harlow showed that monkeys raised with a surrogate mother went on to become poor parents. This is supported in a study by Quinton et al who compared a group of 50 women who had been reared in insinuations with a control group of 50 women reared at home. When women were in their 20s it was found that the ex institutional women were experiencing extreme difficulties acting as parents e.g. more of the ex institutional women had children who had spent time in care.
Give an evaluation point for individual differences for Romanian orphans and institutionalism?
•Some researchers suggest that individuals who don’t form a primary attachment within that early sensitive period are unable to recover.
•This isn’t true for all children who experience insiuinalistion.
•In all of the studies some children are not as strongly affected as others.
•Rutter suggested that it might be that some of the children didrecive special attention in the insutiation perhaps because they smiled more and this would mean they did have some early attachment experiences
•Bowlby et al study of children hospitalised with TB showed that there individual differences in the way children cope
Give an evaluation point for real life application for Romanian orphans and institutionalism?
•The outcome of research into institutionalisation is to apply our understanding to improving the lives of children placed in such care.
•The early research by Bowlby and Roberston on the effects of hospital care changed the way that children were looked after so that much more focus was given when children were hospitalised
•Current research with Romanian orphans ints specifically to the importance of early adoption
•In the past mothers who were going to give up there baby up for adoption were encouraged to nurse the baby for a significant amount of time.
•By the time the baby was adopted the sensitive period for attachment formation may have passed making it difficult to form secure attachments.
•Todays most babies are adopted within the 1st week of birth and research shows that adoptive mothers and children are just as securely attached as non-adoptive families.
Give an evaluation point for the value of longintundial studies for Romanian orphans and the effects of institutionalism.
•The importance of these studies is that they followed the lives of children over many years (longitudinal studies)
•These studies take a lot of time which means a lot of planning and waiting for results but benefits are large
•Without these studies we might mistakenly conclude that there are major effects due to early institutional care, whereas some of these studies show that the effects may disappear after sufficient time and with suitable high quality care.
Give an evaluation point for Deprivation is only one factor for Romanian orphans and the effects of institutionalism?
•Romanian orphans were faced with more than emotional deprivation.
•physical conditions were appealing which impacted their health and the lack of cognitive stimulation would also affect their development.
•It’s more likely that damage only occurs when there are multiple risk factors.
•It the case for many institualionsed children, poor care in infancy is followed by poor subsequent care such as difficulty living in poverty, experiencing parental disharmony (Turner and Lloyd)
•Institutional may just be slow development
•One of the finding from the Romanian study was that at the last assessment at age 11 a lower number of children had disinhibited attachment
•May be that the effects of institutionalisation do disappear over time if children have good quality emotional care.
•May be that ex institutional children need more time than normal to mature sufficiently and learn how to cope with relationships. This is a criticism of the research because t implies that the effect may be irreversible where it couldn’t be true.
•Its further supported by Le Mare and Audets finding that physical underdevelopment had improves by age 11 its suggesting that development does continue in these children so they simply may not have reached there full potienal in the studies.
What is institutionalisation?
Its the effect of spending time in institutional care where an adequate level of emotional care cannot be provided
Inspiration can manifest itself as emotional,social and intellectual or physical underdevelopment
behaviours may have developed through this lack of care are not looking for an adult when in danger not attaching to an adult or interacting socially attrition seeking of all adult and not being afraid of strangers.
What is the role of the internal working model for the influence of early attachment?
•Bowlbys concept of the internal working model is similar to a schema
•A schema is basically a concept plus a bit more e.g. you can know define imprinting that’s the basic concept but you also know imprinting happens and why it happens.
•Internal working model a infant learns about a relationship from experience so the infant learns what the relationship and how a partners in a relationship behave towards each other
•Its an operal model of self and attachment partner based on their joint attachment history
•It operable as it used to predict the behaviour of other people in the future.
What was the procedure for Hazan and Shaver study for the influence of early attachment?
•They placed a love quiz in the rocky mountain news.
•The quiz asked questions about current attachment experiences and about attachment history to identify current and childhood attachment types.
•The questionnaire also asked questions about attudies towards love this is an assessment of the internal working model
•Analysed 620 responses-205 men ,415 women from a cross section of population.
What was the finding for Hazan and Shaver study for the influence of early attachment?
•When analysing self report of attachment history they found that the prevalence of the attachment styles were similar to that found in infancy
•56% classified as secure, 25% avoidant and 19% resistant.
•They found a positive correlation between attachment type and love experiences as happy friendly and trusting.
•They emphised being able to accept and support their partner despite their faults.
•These relationships were more enduring-10 years on average compared to 5-6 years for resistant and avoidant participants
•They found a relationship between the conception of love (internal working model) and attachment type
•Securely attached individuals tended to have a possible internal working model
How are infants behaviours influenced by childhood friendships for the internal working model?
•The Minnesota child parent study found continityually between early attachment and later emotional/social behaviour
•Individuals who classified as securely attached in infancy were higher rated for social competence later in childhood were less isolated and more popular and more empathic
•Can be explained in terms of the internal working model because securely attached infants have higher expectations that others are friendly and trusting so enable easier relationships with others.
How are infants influenced by poor parenting for the internal working model?
•Harlows research with monkeys demonstrated a link between poor attachment and later difficulties with parenting.
•Quinton et al showed that the same is true in humans
•The lack of an internal working model means that individuals lack a reference point to subsequently form relationship with others
How are infants influenced by romantic relationships for the internal working model?
•Hazan and Shaver demonstrated a link between early attachment type and later relationships
•Individuals who were securely attached had longer lasting romantic relationships
How are influenced by mental health for the internal working model?
•The lack of an attachment during the critical period in development would result in a lack of the internal working model.
•Children with attachment disorder have no preferred attachment figure an inability to interact and relate to others that is evident before the age of 5 and experience of severe neglect of frequent change of caregivers .
•For some time a condition called attachment disorder has been recognised but has recently been classed as a distinct psychiatric and included in the DSM
Give an evaluation point for the influence of early attachment for research and correlational?
•The research linking the internal working model/early attachment with later relationship experiences is correlational rather than experimental. Therefore we cant claim that the relationship between early attachment for example later love styles is one cause and effect.
•Its possible that both attachment style and later love styles are caused by something different such as innate temperament.
•Kagans temperament hypothis . an infant temperament affects the way a parent responds and this may be a deterring factor in infant attachment type.
•The individuals temperament may explain that issues with relationships later in life.
•In this case temperament is an interviewing variable.
Give an evaluation point for the influence of early attachment for retrospective classification?
•Most studies rely on retrospective classification asking adults questions about their early lives in order to assess infant attachment.
•Such recollections are likely to be flawed because our memories of the past aren’t always accurate
•Such recollections are likely to be flawed because our memories of the past aren’t always accurate but longitudinal studies also support Hazan and Havens finding.
•For example an on-going longitudinal study (Simpson et al) assessed infant attachment type at 1 year old.
•Researchers also found that participants who were securely attached as infants were rated as having higher social competence as children closer to their friends at age 16 and were more mire expressive and were emotionally attached to their romantic partners in early adulthood.
•This supports the view that attachment types does predict relationships in adult life.
Give an evaluation point for the influence of early attachment for overly determinist?
•Research on this spread that a very early experience have fixed effect on later adult relationships an therefore children who are insecurely attached at 1 year are doomed to experience emotionally unsatisfactory relationships as adults.
•This is fortunately not the case as researchers have found plenty of instances where participants were experiencing happy adult relationships despite not having been securely attached as infants
•Simpson et al conclude the research does not suggest that an individuals past unalterably determines the future course of his/her relationship.
Give an evaluation point for the influence of early attachment for low correlation?
•Not all research has a strong positive correlation between early attachment and later relationships.
•Fraley conducted a review of 27 samples where infants were assesse in infancy and later reassessed.
•He found correlations ranging from 50 to as low as 10.
•Such correlations don’t suggest that attachment type is very stable but Farley suggested the one reason for low correlations may be because insecure anxious attachment is more unstable.
•Such low correlations would pull done the overall correlations.
Give an evaluation point for the influence of early attachment for an alternative explanation?
•Feeney argues that adult attachment patterns may be properties of the relationship rather than the individual.
•The argument presented on this spread is that early relationship causes later attachment types and that is why e.g. securely attached infants go on to have long lasting more positive relationships.
•An alternative explanation is that adult relationships are guided by self verification process the tendency to seek others who confirm your expectations of relationships
•Therefore it is the adults secure relationship that is causing the adult attachment type rather than vice versa.