Assignment 11

Reading
-The process of constructing meaning from text, whereupon readers decipher symbols to create meaning
-Is complex b/c it requires applying knowledge of print and other symbols, knowledge of possible meanings of these symbols, and knowledge of the world to the reading task
The main accomplishments of reading
1) Oral language skills
2) Print awareness
3) Phonological and phonemic awareness
4) Letter knowledge
5) Appreciation for literate forms
6) Motivation to learn
Scientifically based reading research
-Research that applies rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain valid knowledge relevant to reading development, reading instruction, and reading difficulties and empirical (valid and reliable) methods of data collections and analysis
What are the 5 essential components of effective reading instruction?
1) Phonemic awareness
2) Phonics
3) Fluency
4) Vocabulary
5) Comprehension
Phonemic Awareness
-The ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds- or phonemes- in spoken words
Phonics
-The relationship between the letters of written language and the sounds of spoken language
Fluency
-The capacity to read text accurately and quickly, silently and aloud
Vocabulary
-The words students must know to understand oral and written communication effectively
Comprehension
-The ability to understand and gain meaning from what has been read
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act
-Signed in January 2002 by President George W. Bush
-Thought to help teaching methods to increase student reading, learning, and achievement
-All children must meet basic standards set by states’ core curricula in reading and mathematics
-Requires states to guarantee that all children read proficiently by third grade, and that all states must meet this goal w/i 12 years
Reading First
-Reading program that clearly define the parameters and expected reading outcomes in grades K-3 for all children
-To prevent reading failure in grades K-3, SLPs and teachers will need
1) an increase in the quality, consistency, and reach of scientifically based reading instruction in every K-3 classroom
2) Timely and valid assessments of reading progress to identify struggling readers
3) Immediate, intensive, skillful, and appropriate interventions to prevent students from falling behind
T/F Reading is a language process
True
Language
-Enable communication
-Is used to describe, inquire, share, encourage, and persuade others
T/F Children’s oral language reflects the experiences they ave had with people, objects, print, and the world
True
T/F Oral language does not play a part in reading
False; oral language is the cornerstone on which reading is built
T/F Reading is a cognitive process
True
Cognition
-The active process of organizing and understanding experiences
Schema
-A system each person has for organizing knowledge about people, events, objects, and experiences
Schemata
-Organizational systems
T/F The more experiences children have with the environment the more that the schemata develops
True
T/F Reading is an affective process
True; positive experiences with print and reading help develop a positive self-concept, successes and difficulties experienced will affect motivation
T/F Reading is a social process
True; Social culture plays an important role in a child’s experiences and attitudes toward reading
T/F Reading is a physiological process
True; Auditory and visual acuity , auditory and visual perception, and consequently neurological functioning also affect the reading process
T/F Reading is a developmental process
True; Literacy begins at birth; children’s ability to communicate, use language, and later read and write is related to their developmental growth
What are the 5 stages of reading development according to Chall (1996)?
-Stage 0: Prereading
-Stage 1: Initial reading or decoding
-Stage 2: Confirmation and fluency
-Stage 3: Learning to new (single) viewpoint
-Stage 4: Multiple viewpoints
-Stage 5: A world view
Stage 0: Prereading
-This stage ranges from age 0 to 6
-Before reading instruction takes place
-Children begin to associate sounds and words
-Identify rhymes and alliteration
-Develop phonological awareness and print, alphabet, and language knowledge
-Reading to children and playing games with sounds in words helps to develop their phonological awareness. Parents can help develop a child’s phonological awareness through rhyming, playing, with sounds, music, and reading aloud to children
Stage 1: Initial Reading or decoding
-Takes place during the beginning of grade 1
-Student learns about sound/symbol correspondence
-Readers also learn about what it means to read something, what letters are for, and the subtle differences b/w similar-sounding words
-Teach frequent, highly regular sound/spelling relationships systematically ; break words into their sounds; show children how to sound out words, use interesting stories to develop language comprehension; and read aloud to children
Stage 2: Confirmation and fluency
-End of grade 1 to the end of grade 3
-Learn to decode words fluently and accurately
-Develop their fluency through rereading familiar text and through exposure to familiar words
-Provide students w/ continued explicit instruction in advanced structural analysis skills; teach them to identify syllable patterns in words to enhance their recognition skills; practice reading familiar text and quality literature; and help the improve their vocabularies through a study of word parts: prefixes, suffixes, and roots
Stage 3: Learning the new (single) viewpoint
-Grades 4-8
-Learn to use their reading skills to construct meaning from text
-Gain more independence and read from contact area textbooks and other texts
-Characterized by learning and exploration
Stage 3a: Learning the new (single) viewpoint
-Grades 4-6
-Students read information for assigned purposes, and they learn to enjoy acquiring conventional knowledge through reading
Stage 3b: Learning the new (single) viewpoint
-Grade 6-8 (middle school grades)
-Student read to acquire and synthesize information from varied sources and begin to develop their personal preferences and interests
Stage 4: Multiple viewpoints
-High school to early college
-Readers critically analyze text, synthesize information from different texts, acknowledge multiple viewpoints, and continue to expand their interests
Stage 5: A world view
-Most mature level of reading; Late college to graduate school
-Adults weigh information from multiple perspectives and selectively add new information to their world view
-Adults are motivated by their own purposes and tastes, and they increase their efficiency of reading for career purposes as well as for cultivating their reading interests
What are the 4 theories of reading development
1) Reading from a language perspective
2) psycholinguistics and reading
3) sociolinguistics and reading
4) transactional perspective of reading
Reading from a language perspective
-Language development and reading have a very strong bond. Which means that in order for someone to read they need to have language because reading is a language process that is affected by language skills
Psycholinguistics and reading
-Learning to read combines the psychological understanding of the reading process and knowledge of how a language works. In other words, a reader needs to interact actively with the written language to make sense of text. Therefore, reading is an interactive and an active process that coordinates the following three systems of written language: phonological/graphophonemic, semantic, and syntactic.
Phonological awareness
-The ability to identify, think about, and manipulate phonological processes
Phonemic awareness
-The ability to manipulate sounds
Phoneme
-The smallest unit of sound w/i a language
Grapheme
-A written symbol (letter or letter combination) used to represent a phoneme
Graphophonic system
-Composed of 26 graphemes and approximately 44 phonemes (English)
Grapheme-phoneme relationship
-Letter-sound correspondence
Phonics (2)
-Different approaches designed to teach the letter-sound relationship
sociolinguistics and reading
-Language is a tool which is then used to aid children in understanding their own interactions with others in the environment. The children learn that the use of language can be purposeful and intentional. Therefore, reading is learned through social interactions with the environment (i.e., home, classroom, community) and through books being read aloud to them along with discussions about those books. In other words, in order for a child to learn to read they are required to share, interact, and collaborate with others in their environment.
What are the optimal conditions for literacy learning in the classroom?
1) Immersion
2) Demonstration
3) Authenticity
4) Responsibility
5) Expectation
6) Approximation
7) Feedback
Immersion
-Students are surround by literally experiences and examples of written text in their environment
Demonstration
-Students participate as people use language to work and play; students are involved with prediction, questioning in reading, and other language arts activities
Authenticity
-Students are involved with real-life activities that have purpose and meaning
Responsibility
-Students take responsibility for their own learning by working cooperatively and independently to be productive
Expectations
-Parents, teachers, and students have a positive attitude that they will learn and be successful
Approximations
-Students are expected to try to accomplish tasks that are challenging while receiving encouragement. Student attempts at the application of new learnings are recognized and accepted, then bridged through instruction to conventional applications
Feedback
-Students are give much feedback on the progress they are making as literacy learners by teachers, parents, and peers
transactional perspective of reading
-In order for a child to learn to read they need a reciprocal relationship between themselves and their reading material. In other words, there is an emphasis on what kind of role that a reader has as he/she interacts with and gains meaning from text taking into account any previous experiences that he/she has had with other texts
Emergent Literacy
-Knowledge about print and unconventional literacy behaviors
-At 2 or 3 can identify familiar signs, labels, and logos
Concepts of Print
-Know a child has developed it when:
1) Write and read what is said
2) Read words, not pictures
3) Know that what is said is divided into words
4) Understand that words are made up of letters
5) Understand that sentences are made up of words
6) Understand that space separated written words
7) Understand that sentences begin with capital letters and end with a period, an exclamation mark, or a question mark
8) Read from left to right and from top to bottom
9) Read a book from front to back
Alphabetic principle
-The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to form words
-Composed of 2 parts:
1) alphabetic understanding (i.e., words are made up of letters that represent sounds)
2) phonological recoding or beginning decoding (i.e., sounds and letters correspond to the pronunciation and spelling of words
What are the phases of word identification?
1) logographic phase
2) spelling-alphabetic phase
3) orthographic phase
Logographic phase
-Earliest phase
-A child “reads” a word based on visual cues (e.g., McDonald’s golden arches logo)
-Know that print
1) Has to do w/ the real world
2) Is different that drawing
3) Can stand for spoken language
4) Occurs in different places
5) Is made up of letters
Spelling-alphabetic phase
-Begin to link letters with sounds in what they are reading
-Invented spelling can support their developing phonemic awareness and understanding of sound-letter correspondences
Orthographic phase
-The final phase
-Over time, w/ exposure, practice, and knowledge they enter this stage
-Able to use spelling patterns or letter sequences that support word identification
T/F Phonological and phonemic awareness are important elements of emergent literacy
True
Phonological Awareness
-An awareness of syllables and sounds apart from whole words
-One’s sensitivity to, or explicit awareness of, the phonological structure in one’s language
-It involves the ability to notice, think about, or manipulate the individual sounds in words
Phonemic awareness (3)
An understanding that words can be divided into a sequence of phonemes
What are some ways to encourage phonological and phonemic awareness?
-Rhyming and rhyming games
What are the two tasks that is involved in phonological awareness?
-Learning that words can be divided into segments or sound smaller than a syllable
-Learning about individual phonemes themselves
Phonological awareness is important in learning beginning word-reading skills b/c it helps children:
-Understand the alphabetic principle
-Notice the regular ways sounds and letters are represented in words
-Generate possibilities for words in context that are only partially sounded out
T/F Phonological awareness involves the auditory and oral manipulation of sounds
True
Phonological Awareness principles
1) Start w/ continuous sounds, such as /s/, /m/, and /f/, that are easier to pronounce than stop sounds, such as /p/, /t/, and /k/
2) Model each activity as it is first introduced
3) Move from larger units (words, onset-rime) to small units (individual phonemes)
4) Move from easier tasks (e.g., rhyming) to more complex (e.g., blending and segmenting)
5) Use additional strategies to help struggling early readers manipulate sounds. These strategies may include using concrete objects (e.g., blocks, bingo chips) to represent sounds
T/F Phonemic awareness is a powerful predictor of reading success
True
Phonemic Awareness (4)
-A child’s understanding and awareness that speech is composed of a series of individual sounds or phonemes
-Best predictors of the ease of early reading acquisition-better than anything else that we know of, including IQ
-Helps children understand how spoken language relates to written language
Strategies to help develop Phonemic Awareness
1) Incorporate activities that are fun and playful, and natural ways of teaching that avoid rote memorization and drill
2) Use activities that help reinforce and extend children’s awareness of sounds in words (e.g., sound matching, sound isolation, sound segmentation, sound addition, sound deletion, and sound substitution)
3) Practice activities that encourage interaction among children
4) Incorporate activities that allow children to experiment with language
5) Practice activities that help meet students’ individual differences
6) Use sharing books that capitalize on word play
7) Make words
8) Read and recite nursery rhymes
9) Share riddles and rhymes that focus on songs
10) Sing songs that include word play
11) Play games that encourage word play
T/F Sound-Letter knowledge is the single best predictor of first-year reading achievement
True
What does research say about Phonemic Awareness?
1) Phonemic awareness is absolutely important in reading acquisition
2) Phonemic awareness is best taught in kindergarten and first grade
3) Average students need only 20 hours of phonemic awareness instruction in a year
4) Children need to be taught to listen to the sounds of language b/c what we say is not what children see in print
5) Teaching children to manipulate phonemes in words is highly effective under many different kinds of teaching conditions and with a variety of learners across age and grade levels
What are the critical skills in phonemic awareness?
1) Sound isolation
2) Blending
3) Segmenting
Sound isolation
-Identifying sounds
-The first sound in mat is mmmmm
Blending
-Putting sounds together
-mmm + aaa+ tttt is mat
Segmenting
-Breaking words down into sounds
-The sounds in mat are /m/ + /a/ + /t/
T/F Blending and sound isolation at the phoneme level are the two most critical skills that must be taught
False; Blending and segmenting are the two most critical skills that must be taught
Phonics (3)
-Association of sounds and letters to written symbols
-System of reading that builds on the alphabetic principle, in which a central component is the teaching of correspondences b/s sound pronunciations and letters or groups
-Goal: help readers identify unknown words on their own
-Best learned in the context of reading and writing
Analytic phonics
-Teaching words by the whole-word method
-Involves teaching a skill lesson by using either an inductive or deductive approach
1) Inductive approach: the SLP/teacher gives generalizations and encourages the students to come up with a conclusion
-A number of words beginning with a certain letter are presented (bell, bat, and bag). The children are expected to find out what is the same in the word and then give other examples
2) Deductive approach: Words in the children’s oral vocabulary are listed on the board (cup, candy, and cap). The children are told that all the words being with c and are then asked to provide other examples
Synthetic Phonics
-Direct instruction of basic phonic elements
-Instruction begins by teaching the sounds of letters, and then syllables, progressing to monosyllable words, then phrases, and eventually sentences. After the letter sounds are learned, children form words by blending all the letters together
Phonograms
-Word families
-Another approach for identifying words
-Rhyming parts; onset (consonant that precedes the vowel) and rime (part of the word that follows containing the vowel)
Analogy phonics
-Teaching students unfamiliar words by comparing them to similar known words
Embedded phonics
-Involves teaching students phonics by embedding the words in text, which is a more implicit approach
-a student uses sound-letter correspondences and context clues to identify a new word
Phonics through spelling
-Teaching students to segment words into chunks to assist in spelling new similar words
What are some other decoding clues?
-Word parts (suffixes, prefixes, base words) and familiarity with similar words (analogy)
-Meaning (semantic) clues
-The grammar and syntax of a sentence
Automaticity
-Goal of every reading program
-Ability to quickly identify and recognize the word
Sight words
-words that children recognize instantly
-Identification strategy to build sight vocabulary, using the following approaches: whole-word approach, phonics approach, structural analysis, contextual analysis
Whole-word approach
-Traditionally called the look and say method
-Concentrates on learning words as wholes, not through analysis
-Done through shared reading on a predictable book, guided reading, big books, the language experience approach (LEA), and direct instruction
Structural analysis
-Utilized by older students and readers who are able to identify letter clusters as prefixes, suffixes, and affixes
Contextual analysis
-Teaching of whole words
-Looking at the context of the words around the unknown word
-Works best if most of the other words are understood
-Three types of context clues are frequently used:
1) semantic or word meaning
2) syntactic or word order
3) picture clues
What are the four phases of the making of sight words?
1) Pre-alphabetic phase
2) Partial alphabetic recognition phase
3) Full alphabetic coding phase
4) Consolidated alphabetic Phase
Pre-alphabetic phase
-Early reading stage according to Chall
-Beginning readers remember sight words by making connections b/w certain visual attributes of a word and either its pronunciation or its meaning
-Works only if number of words encountered are low and becomes increasingly ineffective as the repertoire of sight words increases
Partial alphabetic recognition phase
-Student begin to read sight words by making the connections b/w some of the letter is written words (usually the initial and/or final letters b/c of their silence) and their corresponding sounds
-Advantage: alphabetic principle is available to aid in word recognition
Full alphabetic coding phase
-Readers recognize how most graphemes represent phonemes in conventional spelling
-Allows readers to easily recognize different words with similar spellings b/c each word’s representation is sufficiently complete
-Enables them to read new words by determining how the unfamiliar spellings are pronounced
Consolidated alphabetic phase
-Learners come to recognize letter patterns that occur across different words as units; this becomes part of their generalized knowledge of the orthographic system
-Reduces the memory load for the reader, making it easier to learn new words and speeding up the process of word recognition, by increasing children’s awareness of the ways letters co-occur in the spelling system
-Ensures that the learner establishes automaticity and accurate word recognition
Fluency
-Reading fluently enables a student to gain meaning from text
-Automatic w/ phonological awareness and decoding, focusing attention on constructing meaning from text
-Effortless, automatic ability to read words with appropriate prosody and accuracy in connected text with no noticeable cognitive or mental effort
To become a fluent reader, a child must possess the following skills:
1) automaticity (accuracy)
2) quality (the reader’s ability to use proper prosodic features such as pitch, juncture, and stress in one’s voice)
3) rate (attaining appropriate speed according to the reader’s purpose or type of passage)
4) comprehension
Assisted reading
-Reading with a fluent reader
Echo reading
-Student imitates the teacher’s performance or echoes the text
Neurological Impress Method (NIM)
-Teacher begins by reading at a fast and loud pace; as student gains confidence, the teacher starts to read more softly
Reader’s theater
-An involving way for students to develop fluency
-Involves rehearsing and performing a script with dialogue before an audience
Vocabulary (2)
-The ability to understand and use words to acquire and convey meaning
-4 types of vocabulary involved in language:
1) listening
2) speaking
3) reading
4) writing
What are the three ways that children learn words indirectly?
1) They participate in oral language daily
2) They learn words by being read to
3) Children learn new words through their own reading
Word Consciousness
-Disposition toward words that is both cognitive and affective
-Supports vocabulary learning
How can I teach vocabulary directly?
-Specific vocabulary instruction (teaching specific words, engagement with words, and repeated exposure to words in many contexts)
-Word learning strategies (using dictionaries and other reference aids, using word parts, and using context clues)
Robust vocabulary instruction
-Involves directly explain the meanings of words
-Words are learned best when learned in context with thought-provoking and interactive follow-up activities in the classroom
Tier 1 of Vocabulary instruction
-High frequency words, basic sight words that rarely require instruction in school
Tier 2 of Vocabulary instruction
-Rich words
-high-frequency words for mature language users
-Instruction in these words can add to a student’s general ability
-Includes words students encounter through listening or reading experiences in a wide variety of situations and texts
Tier 3 of Vocabulary instruction
-Low-frequency words
-Words whose frequency use is quite low and limited to specific domains
-Usually found w/i a content area such as math or science
-Often important for understanding a particular text but do not usually appear across the content areas in many types of texts
What are some common strategies used in vocabulary instruction
-Word banks
-Specific word identification
-Problem solving with words
-Teaching of synonyms and antonyms
-Euphemisms
-Onomatopoeia
-Semantic maps
-Word maps
Onomatopoeia
-Creating words that imitate sounds
-Buzzz, Vrrrooom
Suggestions for Robust Vocabulary instruction
1) describe how words relate to other words
2) relate words to children’s familiar experiences
3) apply words to unusual contexts
4) associate new words with consequences
5) use semantic groups, webs, and visual organizers
6) teach context clues
7) problem-solve with words
8) focus on conceptual understanding
Comprehension (2)
-Intentional thinking during which meaning is constructed b/w reader and text
-Enhanced when readers relate what they are reading to their own experiences and knowledge
-Main purpose for reading
What are 7 types of instruction to improve comprehension of non impaired readers?
1) comprehension monitoring
2) cooperative learning
3) graphic organizers
4) question answering
5) question generating
6) story structure
7) summarization
-Teaching a combination of these in natural settings is the best method to improve comprehension
Proficient reading comprehension is influenced by:
1) Accurate and fluent word recognition skills
2) Oral language skills (vocabulary)
3) Fix-up strategies (knowledge in use of cognitive strategies to repair meaning when it breaks down)
4) Reasoning and inferential skills
5) Motivation
What are the 3 core obstacles to becoming a good reader?
1) difficulty learning to read words accurately and fluently
2) insufficient vocabulary, poor general knowledge, and last of reasoning skills to support comprehension of written language
3) poor motivation to read and/or develop an appreciation of reading
Strategies
-Planned procedures designed to help the reader meet a goal
-preparing, organizing, expanding, and monitoring
Before-reading strategies
-Designed to help the reader relate new information to what she or he already knows about a topic
-Previewing, activating background knowledge, setting purpose and goals, and making predictions
During-reading strategies
-Organizational strategies
-At the heart of constructing meaning b/c they involve selecting important details and building connections among them
-Comprehending the main idea, determining important details, organizing details (graphic organizers), sequencing, and summarizing
After-reading strategies
-Help the reader construct connections b/w information from text and prior knowledge
-Generated inferences, images, questions, judgments (i.e., evaluating information), and elaborations
Reciprocal teaching
-Effective way to build students’ comprehension
-4 Strategies that good readers use to comprehend text
1) predicting
2) questioning
3) clarifying
4) summarizing
Question-and-answer relationships (QAR)
-Facilitates students’ comprehension by providing them with a strategy for reading and answering questions
-Identifies 2 sources of information for answering questions
1) in the book
2) in the reader’s head
In-the-book questions
-Classified as either right-there questions or think-and-search questions
-right-there questions are found in one or more sentences in the text, can point to these answers
-think-and-search questions are pieced together using information from different parts of the text
In-my-head questions
-Classified as either author-and-you questions or on-my-own questions
-author-and-you questions are not found in the text; they require students to activate their background knowledge, make connections, and think inferentially; think about what they already know and what the author is telling them in order to synthesize how both pieces of information fit together
9 teaching principles for developing comprehension
1) Carefully choose texts matched to specific strategies, purposes, and readers
2) Provide explicit comprehension instruction
3) Create authentic situations and reasons for children to read real texts
4) Ensure that children are reading the different kinds of text to aid comprehension
5) Provide many text and hand-on opportunities to build vocabulary and word knowledge
6) Focus on developing decoding skills and reading fluency
7) Make sure children regularly engage in writing texts for others. This will demonstrate the text features that aid and hinder understanding
8) Foster an environment in which children and school professionals engage in high-quality talk to revise or confirm meanings about text
9) Conduct ongoing assessment to determine children’s application of strategies and knowledge
Environmental print
-Print in the everyday environment at home and school, helps surround children with written language
Family literacy
-Refers to the ways in which children learn to read, write, think, behave, and communicate w/i the context of everyday family experiences
A child in a low-SES classroom
-Encountered less print on the walls and other surfaces of the classroom
-Had fewer books and magazines in the classroom library
-Received fewer references to classroom environmental print
-Had fewer opportunities to use the classroom library
-Received a smaller proportion of exposure to extended forms of text
-Experienced print integrated across the curriculum less often
-Had fewer opportunities to choose what he or she read
-Had fewer opportunities to write for audiences beyond the teacher
-Engaged in activities in which she or he had a high degree of authorship less often
-Engaged in activities such a copying, taking dictation, and completing worksheets more often
Predictable and Patterned books
-Books with recurring word or sentence themes
-Brown Bear Brown Bear, What Do You See?
Read-alouds
-Reading a book or part of a book out loud to a child
Shared Reading
-Involves an adult reading aloud as well as showing the child the text and pictures. The child follows alone and is invited to read along with the adult
Suggestions for families to expose children to a variety of text
-Follow directions (baking)
-Environmental print (signs, newspapers, letters, lists)
-Play reading games (concentration and bingo to learn letters and sight words)
-Create a reading environment
-Print functions and print awareness (discuss the differences among the types of print genres, discuss why someone would read poetry vs dictionary or menu vs recipe book; read menu and signs when applicable, touch as stated and discuss author and/or illustrator, etc)
-Practice Readiness skills
-Sing songs
Readiness Skills
-Include listening, sequencing, and the knowledge and manipulation of sounds in words (phonemic awareness)
-Cook w/ child and read directions out loud