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Adrian Gauci Learning and Development Strategy – Adrian Gauci – Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT • Employee Development of HR development is about the provision of learning, development and training opportunities in order to improve individual, team and organisational performance. • The definition of development suggests a fulfilment of innate potential and ability through continuous involvement rather than just timely interventions to satisfy gaps in knowledge and ability.Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Learning and development • Learning and development is the process of acquiring and developing knowledge, skills, capabilities, behaviours and attitudes through learning or developmental experiences.

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It is concerned with ensuring that the organization has the knowledgeable, skilled, engaged and committed workforce it needs. Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Learning and development Learning is a continuous process that not only enhances existing capabilities but also leads to the development of the skills, knowledge and attitudes that prepare people for enlarged or higher-level responsibilities in the future. • As explained by Honey and Mumford (1996): – ‘Learning has happened when people can demonstrate that they know something that they did not know before (insights, realizations as well as facts) and when they can do something they could not do Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, before (skills). ’Adrian Gauci Learning and development • Development is concerned with ensuring that a person’s ability and potential are grown and realized through the provision of learning experiences or through self-directed (self-managed) learning. It is an unfolding process that enables people to progress from a present state of understanding and capability to a future state in which higher-level skills, knowledge and competencies are required. • Training involves the application of formal processes to impart knowledge and help people to acquire the skills necessary for them to perform their jobs satisfactorily.Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci KEY L&D TERMS • LEARNING: Learning is relatively permanent changes in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or experience. • EDUCATION: The development of Knowledge, values and understanding required in all aspects of life rather than the knowledge and skills relating to particular areas of activity. • DEVELOPMENT: the growth or realisation of a person’s ability and potential through the provision of learning and educational experiences. Training: The planned ; systematic modification of behaviour through learning events, programmes, and instruction which enable individuals to achieve the levels of knowledge, skills and competence to carry out their work effectively. Source: Armstrong-handbook of Personnel Management practices. Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Elements of learning and dev Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation SupervisorAdrian Gauci Characteristics of formal and informal learning Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci ROI • Return on investment (RoI) is advocated by some commentators as a means of assessing the overall impact of training on organizational performance. It is calculated as: Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Learning and development strategy Learning and development strategy represents the approach an organization adopts to ensure that now and in the future, learning and development activities support the achievement of its goals by developing the skills and capacities of individuals and teams. It can be described similarly as strategic human resource development, defined as follows. Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Learning and development strategy It is fundamentally concerned with creating a learning culture that will encourage learning and will provide the basis for planning and implementing learning activities and programmes.• This concept of a learning culture is associated with that of the learning organization. Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Elements of L;D strategy Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci A learning culture A learning culture is one that promotes learning because it is recognized by top management, line managers and employees generally as an essential organizational process to which they are committed and in which they engage continuously. • Reynolds (2004) describes a learning culture as a – ‘growth medium’, which will ‘encourage employees to commit to a range of positive discretionary behaviours, including learning’ and which has the following characteristics: empowerment not supervision, self-managed learning not instruction, long-term capacity building not short-term fixes. Reynolds suggests that to create a learning culture it is necessary to develop organizational practices that raise commitment amongst employees and – ‘give employees a sense of purpose in the workplace, grant employees opportunities to act upon their commitment, and offer practical support to learning’. Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation SupervisorAdrian Gauci The learning organization The learning organization, as defined by Senge (1990) • The learning organization is one – ‘where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning how to learn together’. Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian GauciThe learning organization • Harrison (2000) learning organization remains persuasive because of its – ‘rationality, human attractiveness and presumed potential to aid organizational effectiveness and advancement’. • Wick and Leon (1995) refer to a learning organization – as one that ‘continually improves by rapidly creating and refi ning the capabilities required for future success’. Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci EMPLOYEE TRAINING Training is an important part of an organization’s long-range strategy: – Global competition and flatter organizational structures require multi-skilled employees – Focus on life-long learning – Diverse employees with varying cultural values – Developments in information technology require new skills and training strategies – Increased motivation – Individual goals equating with those of the organisation – Social benefits eg traning from government – Newly acquired skills for future use Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation SupervisorAdrian Gauci • • • • • • • • BENEFITS OF T;D TO ORGANISATIONS Provision of trained human resources Improvements of existing skills Increased employee knowledge Improved job performance Improved customer service Greater staff commitment Increased value of the organisation’s human assets The personal development of employees Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci PROCESS OF TRAINING • SYSTEMATIC TRAINING • PLANNED TRAINING Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation SupervisorAdrian Gauci PLANNED TRAINING • • • • • • • • Identify and define training needs Define the learning required Define the objectives of training Plan training programme Decide who provides the training Implement the training Evaluate training Modify training programmes basis on the evaluation. MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), Adrian Gauci DEFINING TRAINING NEEDS • • • • • • • JOB TRAINING ANALYSIS ORGANSATIONAL ANALYSIS PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL JOB ANALYSIS CUSTOMER FEEDBACK OBSERVATION OF EMPLOYEES RECORDS OF EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCEAdrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci TRAINING OBJECTIVES • • • • PREREQUISITE EXPERIENCE AND ABILITIES EDUCATINAL OBJECTIVES BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES CRITERIA FOR ASSESSMENT Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Learning and Development Activities Learning and Development Activities • case study exercises • action learning activities • modern apprenticeship • Employee mentoring • Group / Departmental  Exercises • Situation Simulation Management coaching  • Corporate University • Instruction Lectures • Outdoor Learning Activities  • Training by role playing See Page 1022 (Appendix in Armstrong Book) Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci The Training System Needs Assessment Evaluation Training Objectives Implementation Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Training Techniques On-the-job • • • • Job rotation Apprenticeships Coaching Mentoring Delegation by supervisor • Work shadowing • • • • • • • • Off-the-job • Lectures & videos Vestibule training Role-playing/Cases Simulation Self-Study & Programmed Computer-based (CBT) Virtual reality Web-based/Intranet Video-conferencing Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Training & Development Strategies Cognitive T&D Strategies Environmental Behavioural Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation SupervisorAdrian Gauci Training Evaluation Criteria Reaction Organizational results Training Evaluation Criteria Behaviour Knowledge Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci LEARNING ORGANISATION • Learning might be the acquisition of a new skills, new knowledge, a modified attitude or a combination of all three. • The process of acquiring knowledge through experience that leads to a change in behaviour. Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation SupervisorAdrian Gauci LEARNING ORGANISATION An organization that has an enhanced capacity to learn, adapt and change – Systems thinking – Personal mastery – Mental models – Shared vision – Team learning Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci LEARNING ORGANISATION (CONTD. ) Garvin (1993) has suggested that LO are good at doing five things: • Systematic problem solving-relying on scientific methods, insisting on data rather than assumption. Experimentation Kaizen (continuous improvements) • Learning from past experience • Learning from others • Transferring knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organisation Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci SIX FACTOR MODEL OF LO Kandola and Fullerton have produced a six factor model of a LO: • Shared vision • Enabling structure • Supportive culture • Empowering management • Motivated workforce • Enhanced learning Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation SupervisorAdrian Gauci LEARNING STYLES Kolb & Honey and Mumford Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci LEARNING STYLES Learning style theory can be used in the design and conduct of learning events or personal development programmes. Learning situations can be designed to fit the learning style of participants. Coffield (2005) stressed the importance of individuals’ ‘thinking styles’ – that is, their automatic way of organizing and processing information during learning – and of their ‘learning strategy’, meaning the pproach they adopt to try to overcome the limitations of their natural thinking style. Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci EXPERIMENTAL LEARNING CYCLE Kolb provides one of the most useful descriptive model of the adult learning process. The LC suggests that there are four stages that follow from each others. • Concrete experience: either planned or accidental • Reflective observation: looking back at the experience. • Abstract conceptualisation: seen as generalising from reflection and developing hypotheses based on experience and knowledge. Active experimentation: Testing the concepts or ideas in new situation. Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci KOLB`S LEARNING STYLES • ACCOMMODATIVE: Strong preference for concrete experience and active experimentation, learning by errors. • DIVERGENT: preference for concrete experiences, but to reflect on these from different perspectives. • ASSIMILATIVE: Indicates that knowledge is gained by incorporating experiences into already existing cognitive structure. • CONVERGENT: prefer to experiment with ideas.Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci KOLB`S LEARNING STYLES • Accommodators who learn by trial and error, combining the concrete experience and experimentation stages of the cycle. • Divergers who prefer concrete to abstract learning situations and refl ection to active involvement. Such individuals have great imaginative ability, and can view a complete situation from different viewpoints. • Convergers who prefer to experiment with ideas, considering them for their practical usefulness.Their main concern is whether the theory works in action, thus combining the abstract and experimental dimensions. • Assimilators who like to create their own theoretical models and assimilate a number of disparate observations into an overall integrated explanation. • Thus they veer towards the reflective and abstract dimensions. Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation SupervisorAdrian Gauci Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci The Axis Concrete Experience – CE (feeling) ——- Abstract Conceptualization – AC (thinking) Active Experimentation – AE (doing)—– Reflective Observation – RO (watching)Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Divergers and Assimilators • Diverging (feeling and watching – CE/RO) – These people are able to look at things from different perspectives. They are sensitive. They prefer to watch rather than do, tending to gather information and use imagination to solve problems. They are best at viewing concrete situations several different viewpoints. Kolb called this style ‘Diverging’ because these people perform better in situations that require ideas-generation, for example, brainstorming.People with a Diverging learning style have broad cultural interests and like to gather information. They are interested in people, tend to be imaginative and emotional, and tend to be strong in the arts. People with the Diverging style prefer to work in groups, to listen with an open mind and to receive personal feedback. Assimilating (watching and thinking – AC/RO) – The Assimilating learning preference is for a concise, logical approach. Ideas and concepts are more important than people. These people require good clear explanation rather than practical opportunity.They excel at understanding wide-ranging information and organising it a clear logical format. People with an Assimilating learning style are less focused on people and more interested in ideas and abstract concepts. People with this style are more attracted to logically sound theories than approaches based on practical value. These learning style people is important for effectiveness in information and science careers. In formal learning situations, people with this style prefer readings, lectures, exploring analytical models, and having time to think things through.Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor • Adrian Gauci Convergers and Accomodators • Converging (doing and thinking – AC/AE) – People with a Converging learning style can solve problems and will use their learning to find solutions to practical issues. They prefer technical tasks, and are less concerned with people and interpersonal aspects. People with a Converging learning style are best at finding practical uses for ideas and theories. They can solve problems and make decisions by finding solutions to questions and problems.People with a Converging learning style are more attracted to technical tasks and problems than social or interpersonal issues. A Converging learning style enables specialist and technology abilities. People with a Converging style like to experiment with new ideas, to simulate, and to work with practical applications. Accommodating (doing and feeling – CE/AE) – The Accommodating learning style is ‘hands-on’, and relies on intuition rather than logic. These people use other people’s analysis, and prefer to take a practical, experiential approach.They are attracted to new challenges and experiences, and to carrying out plans. They commonly act on ‘gut’ instinct rather than logical analysis. People with an Accommodating learning style will tend to rely on others for information than carry out their own analysis. This learning style is prevalent and useful in roles requiring action and initiative. People with an Accommodating learning style prefer to work in teams to complete tasks. They set targets and actively work in the field trying different ways to achieve an objective.Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor • Adrian Gauci HONEY ; MUMFORD LEARNING STYLES Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci HONEY ; MUMFORD`S LEARNING STYLES • ACTIVIST: a dynamic learners without bias • REFLECTOR: an imaginative learner and the person, who observes phenomena, thinks about them and then choose how to act. • THEORIST: Who adapt and apply their observations in the form of logical theories. PRAGMATIST: a commonsense learner who only likes to study if they can see a direct link to practical problems. Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci HONEY ; MUMFORD`S LEARNING STYLES • 1. Activists who involve themselves fully without bias in new experiences and revel in new challenges. • 2. Reflectors who stand back and observe new experiences from different angles. They collect data, refl ect on them and then come to a conclusion. • 3.Theorists who adapt and apply their observations in the form of logical theories. They tend to be perfectionists. • 4. Pragmatists who are keen to try out new ideas, approaches and concepts to see if they work. Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation SupervisorAdrian Gauci Kolb vs Honey ; Mumford Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor Adrian Gauci INDIVIDUAL BARRIERS TO LEARNING • • • • • • • • • LACK OF INFORMATION TIME MONEY APATHY ANDLACK OF MOTIVATIO CULTURE AGEISM SPECIAL NEEDS SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS LACK OF CONFIDENCE Adrian Gauci BA (Hons), MA, Dual MBA (New York) – Business Lecturer and MBA Dissertation Supervisor