Assessment Unit 002 Understanding Inclusive Learning and Teaching in Lifelong Learning
6302 Level 3 Award in Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector Unit 002 Understanding Inclusive Learning and Teaching in Lifelong Learning Name: Date: Word Count: 1. 1 Summarise learning and teaching strategies used in own specialism As a First Aid Instructor, I deliver a variety of courses lasting between one to three days in duration. I try and vary my teaching styles depending on the subject and also on the learning styles of the students.
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Achieving the correct balance is quite a challenge. I address all these different learning styles I use a range of teaching methods.
At the start of a training session I use an ice-breaker to let the students introduce themselves and it also gives me a chance to guage the depth of their knowledge. I then give my aim of the session and explain my objectives. Within the session itself I will use power point, incorporating photos and videos. I will then do a practical presentation, initially with no explanation then I will repeat the demonstration with explanation. Finally I will ask the student to demonstrate the skill, providing the commentary. The teaching technique is known as EDIP, explanation, demonstration, imitation, practise.
I like to have a flip chart and will use it to expand on any subject should I be required to. They way in which we learn is partly dependent on the type of learning that is involved. There are three types of domains of learning. They are Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor. Cognitive learners require the ‘thought process’ style i. e. knowing the ‘how’ and ‘why’. These candidates will love learning facts, figures, the understanding processes and problem solving. For example, what makes the heart beat, the different rhythms of the heart and what happens if the heart has an irregular beat….
A student with Affective learning involves the use and demonstration of emotions, feelings or attitudes towards other people. These candidates will be the type of people who understands the need for patient consent or the need for early defibrillation. A student with Psychomotor type of learning will have the manual and physical skills and will like to have a hands-on approach. They will enjoy the chance to practise CPR on a manikin and relish the thought of tying someone up in bandages. These three styles of learning were brought about by a man called Benjamin S Bloom (1913-1999).
Bloom’s (and his colleagues’) initial attention was focused on the ‘Cognitive Domain’, which was the first published part of Bloom’s Taxonomy, featured in the publication: ‘Taxonomy Of Educational Objectives: Handbook 1, The Cognitive Domain’ (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, Krathwohl, 1956). The ‘Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook II, The Affective Domain’ (Bloom, Masia, Krathwohl) as the title implies, deals with the detail of the second domain, the ‘Affective Domain’, and was published in 1964.
Various people suggested detail for the third ‘Psychomotor Domain’, which explains why this domain detail varies in different representations of the complete Bloom Taxonomy. The three most popularly referenced versions of the Psychomotor Domain seem to be those of RH Dave (1967/70), EJ Simpson (1966/72), and AJ Harrow (1972). From these domains we have four types of learners – active, reflective, theorists and experimental. Active learners like to learn something by doing it immediately. They can get impatient and often won’t bother to read the instructions or manual, they like to find out for themselves.
Reflective learners are those who prefer to ‘wait and see’. They sit back, watch others, and think about it before acting. They like to take their time. Theorists like to know what things really mean or how does it fit with something. They are logical and objective. They will always think things through and can be perfectionists. Experimental learners like to experiment. They are inspired by training courses and want to test out their new found skills. They try and find more effective ways of doing things. They may take short cuts or devise their own methods of working. They like problem solving and pick things up quickly.
They can get frustrated if not able to try something for themselves quickly. To address all these different learning styles I use a range of teaching methods. At the start of a training session I use an ice-breaker to let the students introduce themselves and it also gives me a chance to guage the depth of their knowledge. I then give my aim of the session and explain my objectives. Within the session itself I will use power point, incorporating photos and videos. I will then do a practical presentation, initially with no explanation then I will repeat the demonstration with explanation.
Finally I will ask the student to demonstrate the skill, providing the commentary. The teaching technique is known as EDIP, explanation, demonstration, imitation, practise. I like to have a flip chart and will use it to expand on any subject should I be required to. 1. 2 Explain how approaches to learning and teaching in own specialism meet the needs of learners They way in which we learn is partly dependent on the type of learning that is involved. There are three types of domains of learning. They are Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor. For detailed explanation please refer to question 1. To ensure that I have met the needs of the learner I continually observe and assess the students. I will have questions and answer sessions at regular intervals and also like to use quizzes to include a fun element. These may be done on an individual or team basis. It will promote a sense of competition and hopefully motivate the student to learn. In a team situation it is excellent for team building and also encourages the group to share ideas and listen to each other. The practical sessions will particularly appeal to the Activist learners as they like to get involved and hands on.
It will allow the student to practise their skills in a controlled environment.I ask students if they are willing to share any experiences, maybe first aid situations where they have been actively involved. This gives the students a chance to share real life stories and explain how the theory compares with real life scenarios. This would appeal to the Theorist learners. 1. 3 Describe aspects of inclusive learning If several teaching techniques are incorporated then the needs of the majority of students will be catered for. If a student has a particular disability then special provisions may need to be made for them.
Should a student be dyslexic then several adjustments can be made to accommodate their learning needs. Any printed text would be printed on pastel shades of yellow paper and larger font could be used. It would be beneficial to sit the student in as much natural light as possible as fluorescent lighting can prove difficult for them. I would use more pictures than text to enhance their learning experience,. A partially sighted student could be given a seat that affords the best view of the trainer and training aids. If necessary consider the possibility of video recording devices.
Learners with hearing disabilities – l would make sure they are seated as near to the front as possible. I would also include as many visual aids as possible to assist their learning. I would also give handouts of all topics covered to ensure nothing had been missed. If a learner had a physical disability I would need to consider access and also make room for a wheelchair in the classroom. I would need to be prepared to take any training aids that the student required directly to them. 2. 1 Explain how to select inclusive learning and teaching techniques
Dyslexia – Lots of visual pictures and discussion. Lots of practical sessions to learn the different techniques,. Partially sighted learner – Lots of oral instruction and discussions. Question and answers sessions as opposed to written work. Physical disability – Train them the theory and techniques of first aid so that they are able to instruct someone else what to do in the case of a medical emergency. Hearing disabilities – More visual aids and practical demonstrations. Handouts to reinforce knowledge. 2. 2 Explain how to select resources that meet the needs of learners
It is my responsibility to select the range of equipment that is required on the course. Depending on the needs of the students I will select the resources required to get the desired learning levels. For example, in the case of a dyslexic learner I may need pastel coloured paper for handouts. My power point presentation may need to be adjusted to include more pictures and videos. 2. 3 Explain how to create assessment opportunities that meet the needs of learners There are two ways to gain assessments and make sure learning has occurred.
These are Formative and Summative assessments. I would gain an Initial Assessment at the start of the course to assess the level of knowledge and understanding of the student. This could be done by asking the student to introduce themselves, including these details. Formative Assessment is part of the instructional process. If the knowledge base isn’t at the required level for that stage of the course then I would have to go back over the session to reinforce the learning. Maybe it would require a change of teaching skills to accommodate the learning style of the student.
It is important to carry out a formative assessment at an early stage and to repeat it during the middle of the session to ensure than any adjustments to the teaching can take place effectively. Summative Assessment is used at the end of a session in order to confirm that the desired levels of learning have been reached. I would summarise the learning points then assess the levels of knowledge using a variety of methods. The results of this final assessment must be given and doubts cleared immediately to motivate the student to progress further.
In order to make these assessments I have a range of methods that I can use. I may use question and answer sessions, these are particularly useful to dyslexic learners. I may decide to hand out work sheets to be completed or ask the learners to participate in a quiz. During the period of instruction I would be making observational assessments. Any official assessment would need to be recorded. 2. 4 Explain how to provide opportunities for learners to practice their literacy, language, numeracy and ICT skills Literacy – there are many ways in which a learner can practice their literacy skills.
At the start of a course there are documents which need to be completed, for example, personal details and qualifications held. During the course work sheets may need to be filled in and the learners can also practice filling in accident report forms. Numeracy – In the CPR practical sessions, learner will have the opportunity to count up to 30 whilst performing compressions on the manikin. These must be done at a ratio of 30:2 with rescue breaths. Language – The learners will have plenty of opportunity to practise their language skills. This may be through group discussion, role play or asking questions.
First aiders need good communication skills when dealing with patients as they can be very distressed and frightened. ICT – learners will have the opportunity to practice their ICT skills by using an Automated External Defibrillator and looking at an epi-pen. To embed the skill the learner will be given plenty of opportunities during the course to practice. It will be my responsibility to ensure that the learner can confidently perform the tasks that are asked of them. 3. 1 Explain ways to engage and motivate learners in an inclusive learning environment
It is important to know the motive for the learner’s attendance on the course. They might be attending because they have to or they might be really interested in first Aid and want to develop their knowledge base. Whatever their reason it is wise to point out the advantages of attending the course and how it can help them, their friends and other members of their family should an emergency situation arise. Ice breakers are useful tools to initially engage the learners and to put them at ease. It can also help them feel more part of the group. I could also use ‘David Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory’ (ELT) see diagram at back.
Kolb’s model therefore works on two levels – a four-stage cycle: 1. Concrete Experience – (CE) – Having an experience 2. Reflective Observation – (RO) – Reviewing the experience 3. Abstract Conceptualization – (AC) – Conclusion from the experience 4. Active Experimentation – (AE) – Planning what is next from the experience The learners could be told that at the end of the session there will be a quiz and the winner will receive whatever is on the instructors desk…I make sure that there is a box of chocolates there as these are definite motivators.
If there are dyslexic learners present I would may make the quiz a photo quiz . I could also ask the learners to work in small groups so that they coud help each other out. If a learner with ADHD was present I would give regular encouragement and keep them informed how long a session was going to last. If necessary I would suggest that they stand and maybe walk around the classroom rather than staying in a static position if there are no practical demonstrations involved. 3. 2 Summarise ways to establish ground rules with learners to promote respect for others
I would promote respect for others by giving the responsibility of setting ground rules to the learners. It could be an initial ice breaker activity, maybe putting them in small groups to come up with ideas. They could then come together as a group and vote on which rules should be included. These should make everyone feel part of the decision making process and it also gives them ownership of the ground rules. When the ground rules have been agreed upon and written out I would display it in the classroom in a prominent position.
If a learner was to break the rules more than a couple of times then I would draw their attention to the displayed list. If a learner was to persist in breaking the ground rules then I would have to take them aside and speak to them. If it was becoming a distraction to the other learners and affecting the learning within the classroom then I would take a firm stance and warn the learner that they may have to remove themselves from the course. 3. 3 Explain ways to give constructive feedback that motivates learners Feedback is an important part of the course.
It doesn’t have to be formal, it could just be a smile or a nod. It can also be given as written feedback. Feedback should always follow the following format – • Positive – praise the candidate • Negative/improvement – pick up on the key areas only • Positive – always leave the candidate on a high note and a good feeling of achievement. The learner could be asked how they felt that the last piece of work went. In which areas did they perform well and which areas could be improved on. This is called self-assessment.
Invariably students are their worst critics and are very hard on themselves. However, it does allow the student to have their own input and feel part of the process. Identify the areas that went well for them but do not go into too much detail. The add constructive feedback on areas that can be improved. Make suggestions on how they can develop their skills in these areas. Finally, point out something positive, an area that worked really well for the learner. This will give them a sense of achievement and motivate them to progress further.
If the learner suffered from dyslexia then any written feedback would be printed on pastel coloured paper, in the colour that was suitable for the learners needs. It would be reinforced with verbal feedback which would cover all the points raised in the written feedback. References RH Dave (1967/70) EJ Simpson (1966/72) AJ Harrow (1972). ‘Taxonomy Of Educational Objectives: Handbook 1, The Cognitive Domain’ (Bloom, Engelhart, Furst, Hill, Krathwohl, 1956). David Kolb – 1984 – ‘Experiential Learning: Experience as The Source of Learning and Development’