Art Renaissance to modern

Thirty Year War: 1618-1648
treaty Westphalia: 1648: The Dutch
root; Catholic v. Protestants
Republic separates from Spanish control, freedom of religious choice
heightened mercantilism, economic competition
triangular trade starts
1648, no more united Christian Europe
NOrthern Europe 1600-1700 conditions
southern provinces under Spanish control, included Brussels and Antwerp, Rubens is one of the artist that had Baroque art close ties to Catholic Europe

Dutch Republic had Amsterdam (Rembrandt), Dutch school developed their own methods of painting

Dutch Republic v. Flanders
worked with Flanders (Spanish control after 1648) Baroque, Catholic Europe inspired, drew together Italian Renaissance and Baroque masters to formulate Pan-European style
-Combined Carvacci, Carvaggio etc.
Rubens
• The Dutch succeeded in securing their independence from the Spanish in the Late 16th century, not until 1648 did the have official religious freedom from the Spanish and were they recognized as the Spanish Republic
• Bank of Amsterdam is founded in 1609, becomes the center of economic prosperity
• Political power consistently passed in the hands of urban class patrician of merchants and manufacturers good for the economy
• Holland is where all these major cities were located, historian use the name Holland even though it was just a province
Dutch Republic
major founder of the Dutch school, different from Spanish Catholic Baroque which celebrated relgion etc.
moved to Amsterdam, where there was a lot of wealthy people, Holland/Dutch Republic
Rembrandt
Rembrandt (Dutch): The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632 Dutch Republic Baroque Art 17th CEntury 
o Most impotant characteristic: the characterfulness of each person, composition is weak, but you can see his true interest
• Rembrandt uses an unusual composition to portray members of Amsterdam's surgeons' guild clustered together on one side of the painting as they watch Dr. Tulp dissect a corpse
• Painted shortly after he arrives in Amsterdam 
• He clusters the members of the surgeons' guild together on the paintings left side (who commissioned the painting) 
• In the foreground is the corpse that Dr. Tulip is dissecting 
• Rembrandt diagonally places and foreshortens the copse activating the space by disrupting the strict horizontal, planar orientation found in traditional portraiture 
• The students are depiced, although identical attire, their poses and facial expressions show varying degrees of intensity, who watch Dr. Tulip's demonstration, or ignore it
• At the apex of the triangular composition of bodies, looks out a viewer instead of at the operating table 
• Another directs his attention at a book at the corpse's feet 
• Innovative approach to portraiture, made it when he was just 26
Rembrandt (Dutch): The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, 1632 Dutch Republic Baroque Art 17th CEntury
o Most impotant characteristic: the characterfulness of each person, composition is weak, but you can see his true interest
• Rembrandt uses an unusual composition to portray members of Amsterdam’s surgeons’ guild clustered together on one side of the painting as they watch Dr. Tulp dissect a corpse
• Painted shortly after he arrives in Amsterdam
• He clusters the members of the surgeons’ guild together on the paintings left side (who commissioned the painting)
• In the foreground is the corpse that Dr. Tulip is dissecting
• Rembrandt diagonally places and foreshortens the copse activating the space by disrupting the strict horizontal, planar orientation found in traditional portraiture
• The students are depiced, although identical attire, their poses and facial expressions show varying degrees of intensity, who watch Dr. Tulip’s demonstration, or ignore it
• At the apex of the triangular composition of bodies, looks out a viewer instead of at the operating table
• Another directs his attention at a book at the corpse’s feet
• Innovative approach to portraiture, made it when he was just 26
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-Rembrandt’s use of light is the hallmark of his style, he refined light and shade into finer and finer nuances until they all blended together
-Earlier painter’s use an abrupt chiaroscuro of lights and dark
-this technique is closer to reality with the changing of light over the surface as the eyes perceive lgiht and dark not as static but as always subtly changing
-Renaissance had more neutral modeling of light, they presented an idea of light, while Rembrandt shows how light always is changing to the ye, the real look of it
-light allowed him to display small nuances in behavior or mood based on his study o flight
o Artists such as Rembrandt discovered degrees of light and dark, degrees of differences in poses, in the movements of facial features, and in psychic states
o Rembrandt found that by manipulating the direction, intensity, distance and surface texture of light and shadow, he could render the most subtle nuances in character and mood
o Light and shade, subtly modulated, canr ender new spectrum of emotions
Rembrandt’s Light
Rembrandt (Dutch), THe Night Watch, 1642, Dutch Republic Baroque 17th Century
o Rembrandt amplifies the complexity and energy of the group portrait in the Night Watch
o Rembrandt uses light in a dramatic way, enhancing the image, the painting's darkness is actually due to the varnish the artist used which darkened over time, not the correct time of day 
o Two officers and 16 members of the militia contributed to Rembrandt's commission fee
o Despite the prominence of the girl, her identity is uncertain 
o Night Watch was one of the 6 paintings by different artists of various groups commissioned around 1640 for the Musketeers Hall in Amsterdam, the most prostegious space in the city 
o Captures the excitement and frenetic activity of the men preparing for the parade 
o Rather than presenting men in an orderly fashion, he preferred ti portray scurrying about in the act of organizing themselves, thereby animating the image 
o He also portrays the three most important stages of using a musket: loading, firing, and readying the weapon for reloading
Rembrandt (Dutch), THe Night Watch, 1642, Dutch Republic Baroque 17th Century
o Rembrandt amplifies the complexity and energy of the group portrait in the Night Watch
o Rembrandt uses light in a dramatic way, enhancing the image, the painting’s darkness is actually due to the varnish the artist used which darkened over time, not the correct time of day
o Two officers and 16 members of the militia contributed to Rembrandt’s commission fee
o Despite the prominence of the girl, her identity is uncertain
o Night Watch was one of the 6 paintings by different artists of various groups commissioned around 1640 for the Musketeers Hall in Amsterdam, the most prostegious space in the city
o Captures the excitement and frenetic activity of the men preparing for the parade
o Rather than presenting men in an orderly fashion, he preferred ti portray scurrying about in the act of organizing themselves, thereby animating the image
o He also portrays the three most important stages of using a musket: loading, firing, and readying the weapon for reloading
Rembrandt (Dutch): Christ with the Sick Around Him, Receiving the Childer 1649
o Rembrandt's mastery of the new printing making medium of etching is evident in his expert use of light and dark to draw attention to Christ as he preaches ompassionatey to the blind and lame 
o Rembrandt's virtuosity (great skill in art) also extended to the graphic media, in particular to etching, etching allowed greater freedom than engraving in drawing the design
o For etching, the printmaker covers a copper plate with a thin layer of wax or varnish
o The artist incises the design into the surface with a pointed tool, exposing the metal below but not cutting into its surface
o The printer then immerses the plate in acid, which etches, or eats away the exposed part of metal 
o The medium's softness gives etchers greater carving freedom than woodcutters and engravers have working directly with more resistant mediums like wood and metal 
o Even if Rembrandt didn't get famous for painting, his prints were enough, 
o This is one of his most celebrated etchings, sold for a very high price 
o Ued both engraving and etching to produce the scene 
o As a member of the Dutch Republic, and a supporter of the Protestants, he, as he does with all of his religious works, presented not the celestial triumph of the Catholic Church, but the humility and humanity of Jesus 
o Christ appears in the center preaching compassionately to the blind lame, and the young 
o The tonal range of the print is impressive, at the right the figures are in deep shadow, at the left they are covered in light, not natural light but the illumination radiating from Christ himself 
o Biggest achievement in etching
Rembrandt (Dutch): Christ with the Sick Around Him, Receiving the Childer 1649
o Rembrandt’s mastery of the new printing making medium of etching is evident in his expert use of light and dark to draw attention to Christ as he preaches ompassionatey to the blind and lame
o Rembrandt’s virtuosity (great skill in art) also extended to the graphic media, in particular to etching, etching allowed greater freedom than engraving in drawing the design
o For etching, the printmaker covers a copper plate with a thin layer of wax or varnish
o The artist incises the design into the surface with a pointed tool, exposing the metal below but not cutting into its surface
o The printer then immerses the plate in acid, which etches, or eats away the exposed part of metal
o The medium’s softness gives etchers greater carving freedom than woodcutters and engravers have working directly with more resistant mediums like wood and metal
o Even if Rembrandt didn’t get famous for painting, his prints were enough,
o This is one of his most celebrated etchings, sold for a very high price
o Ued both engraving and etching to produce the scene
o As a member of the Dutch Republic, and a supporter of the Protestants, he, as he does with all of his religious works, presented not the celestial triumph of the Catholic Church, but the humility and humanity of Jesus
o Christ appears in the center preaching compassionately to the blind lame, and the young
o The tonal range of the print is impressive, at the right the figures are in deep shadow, at the left they are covered in light, not natural light but the illumination radiating from Christ himself
o Biggest achievement in etching
Jan Vermeer Woman Holding a Balance Dutch Baroque 1664
-now middle class patrons who had money to commission art due to growing trade in Dutch Republic (Golden Age) 
-interior paintings were very popular, gave glimpse of the prosperous, cultured citizens of the Dutch Republic 
-Flemish art in the 15th century also focused on interior scene, but used symbols to convey religious messages, these were often purely secular, genre paintings
-protestamt perspective of Christ, his humility, not the overarching powers of Catholic Spain 
-influence of Rembrandt with a more realisti depictiton of light, very subtle variations of light, not the sharp chioroscuro that was done in the past, 
-perfect sense of persepective, the vanishing point meats percisely at the woman's figures
-shows realistic image of light as light is always shifting in the eyes of rael life, heused the camera obscure based on passing light through a tiny pinhole to project an imagae on a screen
-colors are subtly modulated to make realistic effect
Jan Vermeer Woman Holding a Balance Dutch Baroque 1664
-now middle class patrons who had money to commission art due to growing trade in Dutch Republic (Golden Age)
-interior paintings were very popular, gave glimpse of the prosperous, cultured citizens of the Dutch Republic
-Flemish art in the 15th century also focused on interior scene, but used symbols to convey religious messages, these were often purely secular, genre paintings
-protestamt perspective of Christ, his humility, not the overarching powers of Catholic Spain
-influence of Rembrandt with a more realisti depictiton of light, very subtle variations of light, not the sharp chioroscuro that was done in the past,
-perfect sense of persepective, the vanishing point meats percisely at the woman’s figures
-shows realistic image of light as light is always shifting in the eyes of rael life, heused the camera obscure based on passing light through a tiny pinhole to project an imagae on a screen
-colors are subtly modulated to make realistic effect
Jan Vermeer The Girl with the Pearl Earring 1665 Dutch Baroque 
• His virtuosity of painting young women is seen here 
• He is the treasure of the more realist Durch Baroque Style of Protestant reformation Art (less opulent than Rubens) 
• The compsiition is simple, the subject is only a simple head of a girl looking over her shoulder at the viewer
• No hint of setting is provided, other than its atmospherical dark tone 
• The direct contact between subject and spectator, and the slightly parted position of her lips, present a sense of intimacy 
• Contrasts: simple brownish-yellow top next to bright white collar 
• The blue yellow turban, gives an exotic effect
• Turbans were common accessory in 15th century (Man with Red turban Jan Van Eyck) 
• The enomrmous pearl earing, women should protect their ears from unclean words, that they should only hear chaste word- the
Jan Vermeer The Girl with the Pearl Earring 1665 Dutch Baroque
• His virtuosity of painting young women is seen here
• He is the treasure of the more realist Durch Baroque Style of Protestant reformation Art (less opulent than Rubens)
• The compsiition is simple, the subject is only a simple head of a girl looking over her shoulder at the viewer
• No hint of setting is provided, other than its atmospherical dark tone
• The direct contact between subject and spectator, and the slightly parted position of her lips, present a sense of intimacy
• Contrasts: simple brownish-yellow top next to bright white collar
• The blue yellow turban, gives an exotic effect
• Turbans were common accessory in 15th century (Man with Red turban Jan Van Eyck)
• The enomrmous pearl earing, women should protect their ears from unclean words, that they should only hear chaste word- the “oriental pearls of the gospel”
• Definitely used the camera obscure, direct transcripton of light and dark from the tool
• Beautifully serene sense of balance and intimacy, typical of Jan Vermeer
camera obsucre, when composition is viewed through the lens, it casts a subdued light over the subject
-very interested in natural light, subtle modualtions of color to produce natural depiciton of light changing before the yes
-painterly technique takes on pearly veneer
Jan Vermeer tools
• His virtuosity of painting young women is seen here
• He is the treasure of the more realist Durch Baroque Style of Protestant reformation Art (less opulent than Rubens)
• The compsiition is simple, the subject is only a simple head of a girl looking over her shoulder at the viewer
• No hint of setting is provided, other than its atmospherical dark tone
• The direct contact between subject and spectator, and the slightly parted position of her lips, present a sense of intimacy
• Contrasts: simple brownish-yellow top next to bright white collar
• The blue yellow turban, gives an exotic effect
• Turbans were common accessory in 15th century (Man with Red turban Jan Van Eyck)
• The enomrmous pearl earing, women should protect their ears from unclean words, that they should only hear chaste word- the “oriental pearls of the gospel”
• Definitely used the camera obscure, direct transcripton of light and dark from the tool
• Beautifully serene sense of balance and intimacy, typical of Jan Vermeer
Dutch Baroque Landscapes
Jacob Van Ruisdael Wheat Fields 1670 Dutch Baroque
• depiciting the Dutch landscape with precision and sensitivity 
• the Saint Bravo church in the background, the numerous windmills that refer to the land reclamation efforts, and the figures in the foreground stretching linen to be bleached (a major industry in Haarlem) reflects the sense of nationalism for their homeland that Dutch painters took on
• van Ruisdael not only captures the appearance of a specific locale, but also succeeds in imbuing the work with a quiet serenity that becomes almost spiritual 
• Depiciting the dutch landscape with precision and sensitivity was Jacob's speciality, 
• Reflects the Dutch painters pride took in his homeland
• The inhabitants are so miniscule they blend into the land itself
• The horizon is low, so the sky fils almost three-quarters of the picyire
• Imbus the work with a quiet serenity that becomes almost spiritual
Jacob Van Ruisdael Wheat Fields 1670 Dutch Baroque
• depiciting the Dutch landscape with precision and sensitivity
• the Saint Bravo church in the background, the numerous windmills that refer to the land reclamation efforts, and the figures in the foreground stretching linen to be bleached (a major industry in Haarlem) reflects the sense of nationalism for their homeland that Dutch painters took on
• van Ruisdael not only captures the appearance of a specific locale, but also succeeds in imbuing the work with a quiet serenity that becomes almost spiritual
• Depiciting the dutch landscape with precision and sensitivity was Jacob’s speciality,
• Reflects the Dutch painters pride took in his homeland
• The inhabitants are so miniscule they blend into the land itself
• The horizon is low, so the sky fils almost three-quarters of the picyire
• Imbus the work with a quiet serenity that becomes almost spiritual
Willem Kalf Still Life with a Late Ming Ginger Jar 1669 
• As Dutch prosperity increased, precious objects and luxury items made their way into still-life paintings 
• Kalf highlights the wealth Dutch citizens accrued through the Dutch maritime trade and through the depiction of the Indian floral carpet and the Chinese jar used to store ginger (a luxury item) 
• Recorded the lustrous sheen of fabric and the light glinting off of reflective surfaces, presents an array of ornamental objects, such as venetian and Dutch glassware and the silver dish 
• The inclusion of the watch, Mediterranean peach, and peeled lemon suggests work is also a vanitas painting
Willem Kalf Still Life with a Late Ming Ginger Jar 1669
• As Dutch prosperity increased, precious objects and luxury items made their way into still-life paintings
• Kalf highlights the wealth Dutch citizens accrued through the Dutch maritime trade and through the depiction of the Indian floral carpet and the Chinese jar used to store ginger (a luxury item)
• Recorded the lustrous sheen of fabric and the light glinting off of reflective surfaces, presents an array of ornamental objects, such as venetian and Dutch glassware and the silver dish
• The inclusion of the watch, Mediterranean peach, and peeled lemon suggests work is also a vanitas painting
vanitas paintings were popular in baroque art, showed the transient nature of earthly pursuits and the meaninglessness of life on earth, importance of spirtuality
-associated with things that suggest brevity of life, watch, bringing in time, peach, lemon peel
vanitas
Nicholas Poussin: The Abduction of the Sabine Women, c1633-34, Baroque but Classical influence 
• The Romans invited the neighboring Sabines with the intention of forcibly retaining their young women as wives 
• Romulus raised his cloak as the pre-arranged signal for the warriors to seize the women
• Brilliant subtle variety of color 
• Rigid order and composition, classical poses 
• Sensual, dramatic rich in color (similar to Titian) Venetian High Renaissance, 
• Shows an example of Poussin painting in the grand manner which he said consisted of four things: subject matter/ theme, thought, structure and style 
• The subject matter should be grand, as are battles, heroic action, and divine things 
• Every limb of the body should hold its natural space, proportionagte to the whole body, harmonious juxtaposition of light and shadow 
• Should be graceful and heroic
Nicholas Poussin: The Abduction of the Sabine Women, c1633-34, Baroque but Classical influence
• The Romans invited the neighboring Sabines with the intention of forcibly retaining their young women as wives
• Romulus raised his cloak as the pre-arranged signal for the warriors to seize the women
• Brilliant subtle variety of color
• Rigid order and composition, classical poses
• Sensual, dramatic rich in color (similar to Titian) Venetian High Renaissance,
• Shows an example of Poussin painting in the grand manner which he said consisted of four things: subject matter/ theme, thought, structure and style
• The subject matter should be grand, as are battles, heroic action, and divine things
• Every limb of the body should hold its natural space, proportionagte to the whole body, harmonious juxtaposition of light and shadow
• Should be graceful and heroic
Nicholas Poussin Et in Arcadia Ego, 1655, French Baroque Classicism 
• Draws on the rational order and stability of Raphael's paintings and on antique statuary 
• Poussin was very fond of landscapes, dominating the foreground are three shepherds, living in the idyllic land of Arcadia, who study an inscription on a tomb as a statuesque female figure quietly places her hand on the shoulder of one of them 
• She may be the spirit of death, reminding these mortals, as does the inscription that death is found even in Arcadia
• The countless draped female statues surviving in Italy from Roman times supplied the models for this figure, and the posture of the youth with one foot resting on a bouder derives from Greco-Roman statues 
• Poussin was the leading proponent of classicism in 17th century Rome 
• his works incorporate the rational order and stability of Raphael's compositions as well as figures inspired by ancient statuary 
• the classical, compact, balanced harmony of the piece is typical Possuin
Nicholas Poussin Et in Arcadia Ego, 1655, French Baroque Classicism
• Draws on the rational order and stability of Raphael’s paintings and on antique statuary
• Poussin was very fond of landscapes, dominating the foreground are three shepherds, living in the idyllic land of Arcadia, who study an inscription on a tomb as a statuesque female figure quietly places her hand on the shoulder of one of them
• She may be the spirit of death, reminding these mortals, as does the inscription that death is found even in Arcadia
• The countless draped female statues surviving in Italy from Roman times supplied the models for this figure, and the posture of the youth with one foot resting on a bouder derives from Greco-Roman statues
• Poussin was the leading proponent of classicism in 17th century Rome
• his works incorporate the rational order and stability of Raphael’s compositions as well as figures inspired by ancient statuary
• the classical, compact, balanced harmony of the piece is typical Possuin
French Baroque: Poussin, majestic, glory of Louis XIV, supreme, classicism, large painting
attitude changes after Louis XIV dies in 1715, they realize this elitist structutre does not work, the aristocrats move back into the city where they develop lighter softer style than the majestic glorified nature of French Baroque

Rococo: JH Fragonard, Watteay, much more delicate and lighter in both color and form, the artists present their subejct matters like light gliding dancers
-Louis XIV dominated the grand subject matters in French Baroque, but after his death in 1715, ROcoco reflected a wider content of aritocracy in whihc private patrons dictated taste

Difference between French Baroque and and French Rococo
Antoine Watteau, Voyage to Cythera, 1717, Rococo 
• Watteau was largely responsible for creating a specific type of Rococo painting, called fete galante (amorous festival) painting 
• These works depicted the outdoor entertainment or amusements of French high society 
• Voyage to Cythera is an example of a fete galante 
• He used this painting to enter the French Royal Academy but was rejected because at the time the academy accepted on basis of two competing doctrines: members following Poussin in teaching that form was the most important element of painting, whereas
Antoine Watteau, Voyage to Cythera, 1717, Rococo
• Watteau was largely responsible for creating a specific type of Rococo painting, called fete galante (amorous festival) painting
• These works depicted the outdoor entertainment or amusements of French high society
• Voyage to Cythera is an example of a fete galante
• He used this painting to enter the French Royal Academy but was rejected because at the time the academy accepted on basis of two competing doctrines: members following Poussin in teaching that form was the most important element of painting, whereas “colors in painting are allurements for persuading eyes.”
• The other group took Peter Paul Rubens as its model- and proclaimed natural supremacy of color and coloristic style as the artist’s proper guide
• Rubenistes v. Poussinistes
• Watteau was Flemish, and Rubens’s coloristic style heavily influenced his work,
• Watteau influenced the creation Rubensiste
• The painting portrays luxuriously costumed lvoers who have made a pilgrimage to Cythera the island of eternal youth and love, established by Aphrodite
• The elegant figures move gracefully from the protective shade of a woodland park filled with amorous cupids and voluptuous statuary
• Watteau’s figure poses blend elegance and sweetness
• He wanted to capture slow movements from difficult and unusual angles,
• Also strove for the most exquisite shades of color difference, defining in a single stroke the shimmer of silk at a bent knee and touches of glossy surface
• Hazes of color, subtly modeled shapes, gliding light motions, and the air of suave and gentility appealed greatly to the Rococo artist’s wealthy patrons
JH Fragonard The Swing 1767 Rococo 
• Here, a young gentleman has managed an arrangement whereby an unusual old bishop swings the young man's pretty sweetheart higher and higher, while her lover (and the work's patron), in the lower left corner, stretches out to admire her ardently from a strategic position on the ground
• The young lady flirtatiously and boldly kicks off her shoe toward the little statue of Cupid, the infant love god holds his finger to his lips, the landscape setting is similar to Watteau: a luxuriously perfumed bower in a park, resembled a stage scene for comic opera
• The glowing pastels and soft light, very painterly, theme's of sensuality and flirtation 
• Feathery brush strokes
•
JH Fragonard The Swing 1767 Rococo
• Here, a young gentleman has managed an arrangement whereby an unusual old bishop swings the young man’s pretty sweetheart higher and higher, while her lover (and the work’s patron), in the lower left corner, stretches out to admire her ardently from a strategic position on the ground
• The young lady flirtatiously and boldly kicks off her shoe toward the little statue of Cupid, the infant love god holds his finger to his lips, the landscape setting is similar to Watteau: a luxuriously perfumed bower in a park, resembled a stage scene for comic opera
• The glowing pastels and soft light, very painterly, theme’s of sensuality and flirtation
• Feathery brush strokes
A truly English style of painting developed from William Hogarthe (1697-1764), who satirized the lifestyle of the newly prosperous middle class with comic zest
His own paintings owed much of its thanks to the French Rococo artistis (Watteau and JH Fragonard)
William Hogarth Marriage a la Mode
William Hogarth
William Hogarth Marriage a la Mode 1745 Scene 2 1745, 18th Century Enlightenment Art
-reaction against Rococo/Watteau, JH Fragonard 
Hogarth won fame for his paintings and prints satirizing 18th century English life with comic zest 
He is commenting on the marital immoralities of the moneyed class
His favorite device was making a series of narrative paintings and prints, in sequence like chapters in a book or scenes in a play, following a character or group of characters in their encounters with social evils 
This is one of the sequence of 6 paintings
The husband and wife are tired after a long night spent in separate pursuits 
He thrusts his hands deep into his empty money pockets while his wife sniffs at a woma's lacy cap protruding from his pocket (dog fidelity, the lace represents everything but) 
The steward raises his hands full f unpaid bills, in despair of his noble master ad mistress
Filled with witty clues about the dubious taste of its occupants
There are religious paintings throughout, but one painting is covered by curtain (perhaps erotic) 
The popularity of prints during 18th century made this possible
William Hogarth Marriage a la Mode 1745 Scene 2 1745, 18th Century Enlightenment Art
-reaction against Rococo/Watteau, JH Fragonard
Hogarth won fame for his paintings and prints satirizing 18th century English life with comic zest
He is commenting on the marital immoralities of the moneyed class
His favorite device was making a series of narrative paintings and prints, in sequence like chapters in a book or scenes in a play, following a character or group of characters in their encounters with social evils
This is one of the sequence of 6 paintings
The husband and wife are tired after a long night spent in separate pursuits
He thrusts his hands deep into his empty money pockets while his wife sniffs at a woma’s lacy cap protruding from his pocket (dog fidelity, the lace represents everything but)
The steward raises his hands full f unpaid bills, in despair of his noble master ad mistress
Filled with witty clues about the dubious taste of its occupants
There are religious paintings throughout, but one painting is covered by curtain (perhaps erotic)
The popularity of prints during 18th century made this possible
Joseph Wright of Derby, Experiment with an Air Pump 1768, 18th Century Enlightenment Art
-reflects industrial revolution and the enlightenment
-reaction against Rococo, following the feelings of revolution in both France and American, new sense of feeling
-more focus on independence, empirical evidence, science is becoming important, John Locke
-Isaac Newton is being talked about, the importance of empirical evidence 
Technological advancement during the 18th century became a central theme for this period, fascination with science
Wright specialized in dramatic candlelit and moonlit scenes 
He liked subject illuminated by a single light from within the picture
In the painting, a scholar demonstrates a mechanical model of the solar system called the ORRERY, in which each planet revolves around the sun (a lamp) at the correct relative velocity 
Light from the lamp pours forth from in front of th eby silhouetted in the foreground to create dramatic light and shadows
An earnest listening makes notes while the lone woman seated at the left and the two gentlemen at the right look on with rapt attention 
The rtist visually reinforces the fascination with orrery by composing the image in a circular fashion 
All the attention is focused on the light
Every detail is scrupulously rendered 
Wright's realism appealed to the great industialists of his day
Reflects Industrial Revolution/ Enlightenment
Joseph Wright of Derby, Experiment with an Air Pump 1768, 18th Century Enlightenment Art
-reflects industrial revolution and the enlightenment
-reaction against Rococo, following the feelings of revolution in both France and American, new sense of feeling
-more focus on independence, empirical evidence, science is becoming important, John Locke
-Isaac Newton is being talked about, the importance of empirical evidence
Technological advancement during the 18th century became a central theme for this period, fascination with science
Wright specialized in dramatic candlelit and moonlit scenes
He liked subject illuminated by a single light from within the picture
In the painting, a scholar demonstrates a mechanical model of the solar system called the ORRERY, in which each planet revolves around the sun (a lamp) at the correct relative velocity
Light from the lamp pours forth from in front of th eby silhouetted in the foreground to create dramatic light and shadows
An earnest listening makes notes while the lone woman seated at the left and the two gentlemen at the right look on with rapt attention
The rtist visually reinforces the fascination with orrery by composing the image in a circular fashion
All the attention is focused on the light
Every detail is scrupulously rendered
Wright’s realism appealed to the great industialists of his day
Reflects Industrial Revolution/ Enlightenment
Enlightenment (18th century) new way of thinking critically about the world, independent of religion, myth, tradition
Reliance on empirical evidence
Scientific method is important
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)
Isaac Newton and John Locke were also important, Newton insited on empirical proof of theories, this extended to political theories, promoting rationally organized societies
Locke’s doctrine of empiricism, says knowledge comes to people through their sense of perception of the material world
Locke described that government was meant to protect the laws of Nature, life, liberty and property
When government abuses these rights, the citizens have the natural right to revolution
Locke’s ideas empower people to take control of their destinies
Enlightenment art 18th century
Benjamin West, Death of General Wolfe 1770, 18th century Enlightenment Art 
• American artist who became very well known in England 
• Born in Pennsylvania on what was a colonial frontier
• He became the official painter of King George III (1760-1801) during the strained periods of the American Revolution 
• West depicts the mortally wounded young English commander just after his defeat of the French in the decisive battle of Quebec in 1759, which gave Canada to Great Britain
• In portraying contemporary historical subject, he put his characters in contemporary cotsumer 
• Bended realism of detail with the grand tradition of history painting by arranging the figures in a complex theatrically ordered composition 
• His modern hero dies among grieving officers, appears in religious pose, martyrdom for his country suggests the death of a great saint 
• Religious emotions 
• Combination of traditional heroic, history paitning with modern realism is very effective
Benjamin West, Death of General Wolfe 1770, 18th century Enlightenment Art
• American artist who became very well known in England
• Born in Pennsylvania on what was a colonial frontier
• He became the official painter of King George III (1760-1801) during the strained periods of the American Revolution
• West depicts the mortally wounded young English commander just after his defeat of the French in the decisive battle of Quebec in 1759, which gave Canada to Great Britain
• In portraying contemporary historical subject, he put his characters in contemporary cotsumer
• Bended realism of detail with the grand tradition of history painting by arranging the figures in a complex theatrically ordered composition
• His modern hero dies among grieving officers, appears in religious pose, martyrdom for his country suggests the death of a great saint
• Religious emotions
• Combination of traditional heroic, history paitning with modern realism is very effective
john Singleton Copley, Watson and the Shark, 1778
18th Century Enlightenment painting 
• Narrative history painting, when he came to London he had opportunity to work with the medium of narrative paintings that was absent form Boston College depicts the rescue of Brook Watsom from ashark attack in waters off of Havana, Cuba 
• Painted in modern dress 
• Copley and Watson became friends when he moved to Longon, he commissioned him to create the painting of the event
• First of his series of large-scale historical paintings that he concentrated on in Longon
• The figure of Watson is based on classical sculpture 
• Copley has clearly never seen a shark 
• Romanticized composition 
• Influence from Rubens, romantic nature of it although he was Baroque
john Singleton Copley, Watson and the Shark, 1778
18th Century Enlightenment painting
• Narrative history painting, when he came to London he had opportunity to work with the medium of narrative paintings that was absent form Boston College depicts the rescue of Brook Watsom from ashark attack in waters off of Havana, Cuba
• Painted in modern dress
• Copley and Watson became friends when he moved to Longon, he commissioned him to create the painting of the event
• First of his series of large-scale historical paintings that he concentrated on in Longon
• The figure of Watson is based on classical sculpture
• Copley has clearly never seen a shark
• Romanticized composition
• Influence from Rubens, romantic nature of it although he was Baroque
• Defining characteristic of the 18th century was a renewed admiration for classical antiquity, which the Grand Tour was instrumental in refueling (wealthy custom of traveling aristocrats)
• Neoclassicism incorporated the subjects and styles of ancient art
• The Enlightenment’s emphasis on rationality explains the classical focus because in classicism there is a geometric harmony that embodies Enlightenment ideals
• Classical cultures also represented the pinnacle of civilized society,
• Greek and Roman cultures had traditions of liberty, civic virtue, morality, and sacrifice, ideal models during the political upheavel in 18th century
• Neoclassicism therefore makes sense during the French and American Revolutions
• The excavations of Herculaneum (which begain in 1738) and Pompeii (1748) also played a major role in this
Neoclassicism
J.L. David Oath of the Horatii 1784, Neoclassicism 
• Depicts a narrative of pre-Republican Rome, the heroic phase of Roman history 
• Topic was arcane for David's audience
• Leaders of the warring cities of Rome and Alba decided to resolve their conflicts in a series of encounters waged by three representatives from each side 
• The Romans chose as their champions the three Horatius brothers, who had to face the three sons of the Curatius family from Alba 
• A sister of the Horatii, Camilla, was the bride-to-be of one of the Curatius sons, and the wife of the youngest Horatius was the sister of the Curatii 
• David's painting shows the Horatii as they swear on their swords held high by their father, to win or die for Rome, oblivious to the anguish and sorrow of their female relatives 
• Paragon of Neoclassical style
• Subject matter deal with a narrative of patriotism and sacrifice excerpted from Roman history, but the painter presented the image with force and clarity 
• David depicts in a shallow space, much like a stage setting, defined by simple architectural framework 
• Statuesque and carefully modeled figures across the space, idealized forms 
• The rigid, angular, and virile forms of the men on the left effectively contrast the curvilinear shapes of the distraught women on the right who they are oblivious to 
• The men forms model the virtues of Enlightenment leadrs, courage patriotism, unwavering loyalty 
• The French viewing audience perceived such emotionalism as acharcateristic of the female nature
• Voice of revolution for France
• Statuesque figures and classical architecture
J.L. David Oath of the Horatii 1784, Neoclassicism
• Depicts a narrative of pre-Republican Rome, the heroic phase of Roman history
• Topic was arcane for David’s audience
• Leaders of the warring cities of Rome and Alba decided to resolve their conflicts in a series of encounters waged by three representatives from each side
• The Romans chose as their champions the three Horatius brothers, who had to face the three sons of the Curatius family from Alba
• A sister of the Horatii, Camilla, was the bride-to-be of one of the Curatius sons, and the wife of the youngest Horatius was the sister of the Curatii
• David’s painting shows the Horatii as they swear on their swords held high by their father, to win or die for Rome, oblivious to the anguish and sorrow of their female relatives
• Paragon of Neoclassical style
• Subject matter deal with a narrative of patriotism and sacrifice excerpted from Roman history, but the painter presented the image with force and clarity
• David depicts in a shallow space, much like a stage setting, defined by simple architectural framework
• Statuesque and carefully modeled figures across the space, idealized forms
• The rigid, angular, and virile forms of the men on the left effectively contrast the curvilinear shapes of the distraught women on the right who they are oblivious to
• The men forms model the virtues of Enlightenment leadrs, courage patriotism, unwavering loyalty
• The French viewing audience perceived such emotionalism as acharcateristic of the female nature
• Voice of revolution for France
• Statuesque figures and classical architecture
• The Enlightenment idea of participatory and knowledgeable citizenry lay behind the revolt of the French Monarchy in 1789, but the immediate causes of the French Revolution were the country’s economic crisis and the clash between the Third Estate and the First and Second Estate (the clergy, nobility)
• JL David became the Neoclassical painter-Ideologist of the French Revolution
• He first followed the ideas of Rococo but quickly shifted after a period of studying In Rome which won the young man over to the classical art tradition
• He believed Rococo to have artificial taste while he exalted the perfect Greek forms
J.L. David
JL David Marat 1793 Neoclassicism 
-classical nature of painting, order and harmony, balance, matches with Enlightenment concepts of rationality
-also classical culture in pinnacle of civilized society, 
-liberty, moralityt, sacrifice 
• When the French Revolution broke out in 1789, David joined the Jacobins, the radical and militant revolutionary faction
• Was the de facto minister of propogand, organizing political pageants and cereomnies that included floats, costumes, and sculptural props 
• His paitnign emphasized patriotism in a time it needed most (Revolution) 
• David moved from scenes from antiquity to scenes of the revolution itself, he intended Death of Marat to serve as a record of an important event in the struggle to throw over the Monarchy, but also to provide inspiration and encouragement to the revolutionary forces 
• Marat, a revolutionary writer, was assassinated in 1793, Charlotte Corday, a member of a rival political faction stabbed him to death in his medical bath (Marat suffered from a painful skin disease) 
• Sense of directness and clarity 
• The cold neutral space above Marat's figure slumped in the tub produces a chilling oppressiveness 
• Vivid narrative details, typical of classical work, the knife, the wound, the blood, the letter which the young woman gained entrance 
• Presents Marat as a tragic martyr who died in the service of the revolution 
• David based the figure on Michelangelo's Pieta, in Saint Peter's in Rome 
• Altarpiece for the new civic religion inspiring the French people with the saintly dedication of a slain leader
JL David Marat 1793 Neoclassicism
-classical nature of painting, order and harmony, balance, matches with Enlightenment concepts of rationality
-also classical culture in pinnacle of civilized society,
-liberty, moralityt, sacrifice
• When the French Revolution broke out in 1789, David joined the Jacobins, the radical and militant revolutionary faction
• Was the de facto minister of propogand, organizing political pageants and cereomnies that included floats, costumes, and sculptural props
• His paitnign emphasized patriotism in a time it needed most (Revolution)
• David moved from scenes from antiquity to scenes of the revolution itself, he intended Death of Marat to serve as a record of an important event in the struggle to throw over the Monarchy, but also to provide inspiration and encouragement to the revolutionary forces
• Marat, a revolutionary writer, was assassinated in 1793, Charlotte Corday, a member of a rival political faction stabbed him to death in his medical bath (Marat suffered from a painful skin disease)
• Sense of directness and clarity
• The cold neutral space above Marat’s figure slumped in the tub produces a chilling oppressiveness
• Vivid narrative details, typical of classical work, the knife, the wound, the blood, the letter which the young woman gained entrance
• Presents Marat as a tragic martyr who died in the service of the revolution
• David based the figure on Michelangelo’s Pieta, in Saint Peter’s in Rome
• Altarpiece for the new civic religion inspiring the French people with the saintly dedication of a slain leader
J.L. David Napoleon at St. bernard's Pass 1800 Neoclassicism 
• Rejected lightheartedness of Rococo 
• Austere spirit and ordered forms of classical art, keeping in the mindset of the European Age of Enlightenment
• Neoclassicism was aboth a reaction against the decadence of the French court and also a cultural response to the Roman Art after the excavation at Herculaneum and Pompeii
• He eventually became the official painter to the Emperor Napoleon 
• One of best history painters of the 18th century, 
• Influenced Delacroix and Ingres 
• This painting signals the dawning of a new century after a decade of terrar and uncertainty following the revolution, France was emerging as a great power
• In 1800, he led his troops across the Alps in a military campaign against the Austrians which ended in their defeat
• Portrait of authority 
• Landscape is setting oa hero, the name of Napoleon is carved besides the names of Hannibal and Charlemagne, two other notable figures who led their troops over the Alps 
• David uses the landscape to reinforce what he wants to get across about about his subject, scale alon, Napolone and his horse dominate the pictorial plane, Napoleon also dominates the horse, odd because he is really short
J.L. David Napoleon at St. bernard’s Pass 1800 Neoclassicism
• Rejected lightheartedness of Rococo
• Austere spirit and ordered forms of classical art, keeping in the mindset of the European Age of Enlightenment
• Neoclassicism was aboth a reaction against the decadence of the French court and also a cultural response to the Roman Art after the excavation at Herculaneum and Pompeii
• He eventually became the official painter to the Emperor Napoleon
• One of best history painters of the 18th century,
• Influenced Delacroix and Ingres
• This painting signals the dawning of a new century after a decade of terrar and uncertainty following the revolution, France was emerging as a great power
• In 1800, he led his troops across the Alps in a military campaign against the Austrians which ended in their defeat
• Portrait of authority
• Landscape is setting oa hero, the name of Napoleon is carved besides the names of Hannibal and Charlemagne, two other notable figures who led their troops over the Alps
• David uses the landscape to reinforce what he wants to get across about about his subject, scale alon, Napolone and his horse dominate the pictorial plane, Napoleon also dominates the horse, odd because he is really short
Antonnio Canova Pauline Bonaparte Borghese as Venus 1808
• Neoclassical sculpture was also in vogue during Napoleon 
• Canova moved from Italy to France to work for the emperor, where he made numerous portraits, all in the neoclassical style, of the emperor and his family 
• This one of Napolone's sister, Pauline Borghese, as Venus 
• Pauline demanded to be shown as Venus, the goddess of lvove 
• Thus she appears reclining on a divan and gracefully holding a olden apple , the symbol of the goddess's triumph in the judgement of Paris
• Sensuous pose, based on Greek statuary 
• Idealized 
• Seminude body typical of Hellenistic works such as Venus de Mil and the reclining figure parallels on Roman sarcophagus 
• Very bad reputation, kept in the Borghese gardens, center of gossip when she was set to marry to the Borghese family in Rome
Antonnio Canova Pauline Bonaparte Borghese as Venus 1808
• Neoclassical sculpture was also in vogue during Napoleon
• Canova moved from Italy to France to work for the emperor, where he made numerous portraits, all in the neoclassical style, of the emperor and his family
• This one of Napolone’s sister, Pauline Borghese, as Venus
• Pauline demanded to be shown as Venus, the goddess of lvove
• Thus she appears reclining on a divan and gracefully holding a olden apple , the symbol of the goddess’s triumph in the judgement of Paris
• Sensuous pose, based on Greek statuary
• Idealized
• Seminude body typical of Hellenistic works such as Venus de Mil and the reclining figure parallels on Roman sarcophagus
• Very bad reputation, kept in the Borghese gardens, center of gossip when she was set to marry to the Borghese family in Rome
AJ Gros, Pesthouse at Jaffa, 1804, Neoclassical and Prescursor to Romantic 
-Reflects David's compositional principles, but Gros' fascination with the exotic and the near east, ficitonal narratives is a prestage to Romanticism
-Like David, Aj Gros new benfits of working with Napoleon 
• Contributed to themythic status of Napoleon Bonaparte in the 1800s 
• Recorded an incident during an outbreak of the bubonic plague that erupted in the course of the Near Eastern campaigns of 1799 
• Disease stuc Muslim and French forces, 
• Gros depicted Napoleon's visit, officers covering their noses from the stench of the place 
• NAPOLEON, AMID THE DEAD AND DYING IS FEARLESS AND IN CONTROL 
• He comforts those still alive who are in awe of his presence, man at right is moving towards him blind, voice, God like figure 
• He actually poisoned all of them, so this was ficitious 
• Gros's painting was an attempt for damage control agains the rumors that began circulating about Napoleon and leaving his men behind
• Painting is structured reminiscent of David's major paintings, with the horseshoe arches and Islamic archades of the mosque courtyard as the exotic backgrop 
• Napoleon and his men are bathed in light
• The light and composition recalls Oath of the Horatii by David, but interest in the exoticism of the Near East is evident in his attention the unique architecture, attire, terrain, represents departure from Neoclassicism
• Also the emphasis on death, suffering and the emotional rendering of the scene, forshadows important aspects of Romanticism
AJ Gros, Pesthouse at Jaffa, 1804, Neoclassical and Prescursor to Romantic
-Reflects David’s compositional principles, but Gros’ fascination with the exotic and the near east, ficitonal narratives is a prestage to Romanticism
-Like David, Aj Gros new benfits of working with Napoleon
• Contributed to themythic status of Napoleon Bonaparte in the 1800s
• Recorded an incident during an outbreak of the bubonic plague that erupted in the course of the Near Eastern campaigns of 1799
• Disease stuc Muslim and French forces,
• Gros depicted Napoleon’s visit, officers covering their noses from the stench of the place
• NAPOLEON, AMID THE DEAD AND DYING IS FEARLESS AND IN CONTROL
• He comforts those still alive who are in awe of his presence, man at right is moving towards him blind, voice, God like figure
• He actually poisoned all of them, so this was ficitious
• Gros’s painting was an attempt for damage control agains the rumors that began circulating about Napoleon and leaving his men behind
• Painting is structured reminiscent of David’s major paintings, with the horseshoe arches and Islamic archades of the mosque courtyard as the exotic backgrop
• Napoleon and his men are bathed in light
• The light and composition recalls Oath of the Horatii by David, but interest in the exoticism of the Near East is evident in his attention the unique architecture, attire, terrain, represents departure from Neoclassicism
• Also the emphasis on death, suffering and the emotional rendering of the scene, forshadows important aspects of Romanticism
JAD Ingres Grande Odalisque, 1814, Neoclassical/Romantic 
-student of David, but departs from Neoclassical tradition, form is more elongated, ties to the Mannerist with elongated structure, Parmigianno for example
-Odalistque (woman in Turkish harem) shows contemporary taste for the Near East and the exotic
-Romantic theme, was critqued for this until Delacroix joined the part
-pushed up front to the picture plane
JAD Ingres Grande Odalisque, 1814, Neoclassical/Romantic
-student of David, but departs from Neoclassical tradition, form is more elongated, ties to the Mannerist with elongated structure, Parmigianno for example
-Odalistque (woman in Turkish harem) shows contemporary taste for the Near East and the exotic
-Romantic theme, was critqued for this until Delacroix joined the part
-pushed up front to the picture plane
INgres, Portrait of Louis Bertin, 1832 
-David's student
INgres, Portrait of Louis Bertin, 1832
-David’s student
Neoclassical rationality, harmonized, idealized form, cultural superiority, morality all enforced Enlightenment though
Rousseau on the other hand, emphasized romanticism
“Man if born free, but everywhere he is in chains.” summarized Romantic Premise
-Romanticism: desire for freedom, freedom of thought the imagination
-shift from reason to feeling
-from careful calculation to intuition, from objective nature to subjective
Romanticism
Henry Fuseli, The Nightmare, 1781, Romantic
The concept of the nightmare is the subject of the work 
Distinctive manner of exhibiting the fantasies of the vivid imagination 
Specialized in night moods of horror and in dark fantasies, the deomonic, the macabre, and often in the sadistic 
Beautiful young woman falls asleep, draped across the bed with her limp arm dangling over the side 
A demon in medieval times were believed to pret, often sexually, on sleeping women, it squats over her body 
Ghostly horse with falming eyes are in the background
Mara
Henry Fuseli, The Nightmare, 1781, Romantic
The concept of the nightmare is the subject of the work
Distinctive manner of exhibiting the fantasies of the vivid imagination
Specialized in night moods of horror and in dark fantasies, the deomonic, the macabre, and often in the sadistic
Beautiful young woman falls asleep, draped across the bed with her limp arm dangling over the side
A demon in medieval times were believed to pret, often sexually, on sleeping women, it squats over her body
Ghostly horse with falming eyes are in the background
Mara “night” “Mara” was a spirit in Norther European mythology that was thought to suphocate people when they were sleeping
Fuseli was first to depict the dark terrain of the human subconscious that became fertile ground for Romantic artists
The transition from the Neoclassical ideas of reason, and perect forms to the Romantics emphasis on feeling.
Exploring the imaginative and fantastic
Ingres, AJ Gros, Fuseli
the imaginative and the irrational took over the Neoclassical focus on reason
Romantic becomes dominant style for first half of 19th century
Francisco Goya in Spain Gericault, Delacroix in FRance, explored the exotic, erotic and fantasies
roots of Romanticism
Francisco Goya, THe Sleep of Reason Produces Monster, 1798, Spanish Romanticism 
-romantic spirity, emotions, not objective appearance, not as uch calculation, movement, imagination, irrationality 
-moving away from Neoclassical 
-IN THIS PRINT, GOYA DEPICTS HIMSEL FSLEEPING WHILE THREAtening creatures converge him, revealing his commitment to the Romantic spirit- unleashing of imagination, emotions, and nightmares
The viewer might read this as portrayal of what emerges when reason is suppressed
Commitment to the creative process of romantic spirit 
Francisco Goya, Family Goya Family of Charles IV, 1800, Romanticism
Goya becomes painter of the King, Charle IV
His model was Velazquez's Las Meninas, which also invluded the artist in the image 
King and the Queen surrounded by their children
The royal family appears facing the viewer in an interior space while the artist includes himself to the left, dimly visible, in the act of paitning the large canvas
There was a lot of dissatisfaction with the Monarchy in Spain during this time
Francisco Goya, THe Sleep of Reason Produces Monster, 1798, Spanish Romanticism
-romantic spirity, emotions, not objective appearance, not as uch calculation, movement, imagination, irrationality
-moving away from Neoclassical
-IN THIS PRINT, GOYA DEPICTS HIMSEL FSLEEPING WHILE THREAtening creatures converge him, revealing his commitment to the Romantic spirit- unleashing of imagination, emotions, and nightmares
The viewer might read this as portrayal of what emerges when reason is suppressed
Commitment to the creative process of romantic spirit
Francisco Goya, Family Goya Family of Charles IV, 1800, Romanticism
Goya becomes painter of the King, Charle IV
His model was Velazquez’s Las Meninas, which also invluded the artist in the image
King and the Queen surrounded by their children
The royal family appears facing the viewer in an interior space while the artist includes himself to the left, dimly visible, in the act of paitning the large canvas
There was a lot of dissatisfaction with the Monarchy in Spain during this time
Francisco De Goya, Family of Charles IV, 1800
-inspired by Velasquez Las Meninas, artist included himself
Francisco De Goya, Family of Charles IV, 1800
-inspired by Velasquez Las Meninas, artist included himself
Francisco De Goya, Third of May, 1808, Romanticism 
-murderous wall of Napoleon's French soldiers killing the Spanish
-enhaned emotional drama, typical of Romantics
-Ferdinand VII enlisted Napoleon Bonaparte for help in conquering his mother and father and taking over
The Spanish people, finally recognizing the French as invaders, sought to expel the foreign troops 
On May 2, 1808 the Spanish attacked Napoleon's soldiers in a chaotic and violent clash 
In retaliation, the French responded the next day by executing many Spanish citizens 
The tragic event is displayed by Goya, Goya diepicts the anonymous murderous wall of French soldiers ruthlessly executing the unarmed and terrified Spanish peasants 
The artist here encourages emphathy for the Spanish by portraying horrified expressions and anguish on their faces 
Enhanced the emotional drama through the stark use of darks and lights 
Depicts bloodu npdoes of others 
Ferdinand reclaimed the throne after ousting France from Spain and commissioned Goya to produce
Francisco De Goya, Third of May, 1808, Romanticism
-murderous wall of Napoleon’s French soldiers killing the Spanish
-enhaned emotional drama, typical of Romantics
-Ferdinand VII enlisted Napoleon Bonaparte for help in conquering his mother and father and taking over
The Spanish people, finally recognizing the French as invaders, sought to expel the foreign troops
On May 2, 1808 the Spanish attacked Napoleon’s soldiers in a chaotic and violent clash
In retaliation, the French responded the next day by executing many Spanish citizens
The tragic event is displayed by Goya, Goya diepicts the anonymous murderous wall of French soldiers ruthlessly executing the unarmed and terrified Spanish peasants
The artist here encourages emphathy for the Spanish by portraying horrified expressions and anguish on their faces
Enhanced the emotional drama through the stark use of darks and lights
Depicts bloodu npdoes of others
Ferdinand reclaimed the throne after ousting France from Spain and commissioned Goya to produce
FRancisco De Goya, Saturn Devouring his Children, 1819-23
-darkly emotional, irrationality, movement, darkness
-painterly aspects
-not calculatio 
-inspired by Ingre, Fuseli and Gros, interest in exotic, the interior
-more subjective
His works in his later life equate his declining health and crazy satte of mind
They were only meant for private viewing, not commissioned 
Depicts the raw carnage and viioence of Saturn , wild eyes and monstrous he consumer one of his children
Shows Goya's despair 
Wildness, boldness, brutality, movement, 
Darkly emotional images, well in keeping with Romanticism 
-loses the austere rigidity of Neoclassical France under David's school
FRancisco De Goya, Saturn Devouring his Children, 1819-23
-darkly emotional, irrationality, movement, darkness
-painterly aspects
-not calculatio
-inspired by Ingre, Fuseli and Gros, interest in exotic, the interior
-more subjective
His works in his later life equate his declining health and crazy satte of mind
They were only meant for private viewing, not commissioned
Depicts the raw carnage and viioence of Saturn , wild eyes and monstrous he consumer one of his children
Shows Goya’s despair
Wildness, boldness, brutality, movement,
Darkly emotional images, well in keeping with Romanticism
-loses the austere rigidity of Neoclassical France under David’s school
along with Delacroix, became most associated with the Romantic movement in France,
-more drama, emotional force, movement, painterly aspects
-less calculation
-emotionally complex
-exotic, ficitonal narratives
-Delacroix, often references to Romantic allegories
Theodore Gericault
Theodore Gericault Insane Man-Kleptomaniac 1822, Romantic 
Mental aberration and irrational states of the mind could not fail to interest the rebels against Enlightenment rationality 
Gericault examined the influence of mental states on the human face, that a face accurately revealed character, especially madness
He made many studies of the inmate of hospital and institutions for the criminally insane 
Scientific and artistic curiosity often accompanied the morbidity of the Romantic interest in derangement and death
Theodore Gericault Insane Man-Kleptomaniac 1822, Romantic
Mental aberration and irrational states of the mind could not fail to interest the rebels against Enlightenment rationality
Gericault examined the influence of mental states on the human face, that a face accurately revealed character, especially madness
He made many studies of the inmate of hospital and institutions for the criminally insane
Scientific and artistic curiosity often accompanied the morbidity of the Romantic interest in derangement and death
Theodore Gericault, Officer of the Imperial Guard, 1812 , Romantic
-abandoning austere nature of neoclassicism, interest in the irrational, the depraved, death
-focus on movement, painterly motions to evoke emotions, caught in the act
-not the harmonious nature of David's Napoleon at St Bernard's passing in 180
-remniscent of AJ Gros, slight departure from neolassical
-not a rational posed horse, but an emotional enraged horse caught in the act
Theodore Gericault, Officer of the Imperial Guard, 1812 , Romantic
-abandoning austere nature of neoclassicism, interest in the irrational, the depraved, death
-focus on movement, painterly motions to evoke emotions, caught in the act
-not the harmonious nature of David’s Napoleon at St Bernard’s passing in 180
-remniscent of AJ Gros, slight departure from neolassical
-not a rational posed horse, but an emotional enraged horse caught in the act
Theodore Gericault, The Raft of the Medusa, 1818 , Romantic
Theodore Gericault, The Raft of the Medusa, 1818 , Romantic
Eugene Delacroix Massacre at Scio 1824, Romantic
• Romantic interest in the erotic, exotic, emphasis on emptional despair
• Irrationality of human nature, moving away from rigid and austere compositions of of Neoclassical works like David
• Color intensity, difficult and dramatic poses
• No sense of hope
• Depicts Ottomon forces attack on the habitants of the island chios 
• Impressed by Gericault's The Raft of the Medusa, the pyramidal diaganol structure is similar here 
• The dense assembly of characters in the front mark a contrast with the open and dispersed background
• Tectonic form , closed form
Eugene Delacroix Massacre at Scio 1824, Romantic
• Romantic interest in the erotic, exotic, emphasis on emptional despair
• Irrationality of human nature, moving away from rigid and austere compositions of of Neoclassical works like David
• Color intensity, difficult and dramatic poses
• No sense of hope
• Depicts Ottomon forces attack on the habitants of the island chios
• Impressed by Gericault’s The Raft of the Medusa, the pyramidal diaganol structure is similar here
• The dense assembly of characters in the front mark a contrast with the open and dispersed background
• Tectonic form , closed form
Eugene Delacroix Death of Sardanapalus 1827, Romantics
-definition of a grand romantic pictorial drama
-interest in ficitonal exotic, erotic narratives
-no sense of hope, despair
-drama, emotio, high intensity colors (rubens) 
-the exotic (INgres and AJ Gros)
-difficult, dramatic poses, not calculated 
The appeal of Romanticism, emphasis on freedom and feeling
Inspired by the 1821 narratie poem Sardanapalus by Lord Byron, Delacroix depicts the last hour of the Assyrian King (who had just received news of his armies' defeat and the enemies' entry into the city) 
Much more tempestuous and crowded setting than Byron described 
The king reclines on his funeral pyre, soon to be set on flire, and gloomily watches the destruction of all of his most precious possessions- his women, slaves, horces and treasures 
The Assyrian king's favorite concubine throws herself on the bed, determined to go up in flames with her master
Tortured and dying bodies of the harem women 
In the foreground a muscual slave plunges a knife into the neck of on woman
Tortuous, difficult and dramatic poses, rich and intense colors, exotic and erotic overtones, taps into the Romantic fantasies of the 19th century viewers
Eugene Delacroix Death of Sardanapalus 1827, Romantics
-definition of a grand romantic pictorial drama
-interest in ficitonal exotic, erotic narratives
-no sense of hope, despair
-drama, emotio, high intensity colors (rubens)
-the exotic (INgres and AJ Gros)
-difficult, dramatic poses, not calculated
The appeal of Romanticism, emphasis on freedom and feeling
Inspired by the 1821 narratie poem Sardanapalus by Lord Byron, Delacroix depicts the last hour of the Assyrian King (who had just received news of his armies’ defeat and the enemies’ entry into the city)
Much more tempestuous and crowded setting than Byron described
The king reclines on his funeral pyre, soon to be set on flire, and gloomily watches the destruction of all of his most precious possessions- his women, slaves, horces and treasures
The Assyrian king’s favorite concubine throws herself on the bed, determined to go up in flames with her master
Tortured and dying bodies of the harem women
In the foreground a muscual slave plunges a knife into the neck of on woman
Tortuous, difficult and dramatic poses, rich and intense colors, exotic and erotic overtones, taps into the Romantic fantasies of the 19th century viewers
Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830 , Romantic 
• Death of Sardanapalus is a seventh century BCE drama, Delacroix, like Gericault, also turned to current events, particularly tragic or sensational ones, for his subject matter
• Delacroix captures the passion and energy of the 1830 revolution in France in this paitning
• Hased on the Parisian uprising against Charles X at the end of July 1830, it depicts the allegorical personification of Livertyy definatly thrusting forth the republic's tricolor banner as she urges the masses to fight on
• Bold Parisian types stand around libert, street boy brandishing his pistols, the menacing worker dead bodies lay in a crowed pyramidal structure as in Gericault's Raft of the Medusa
• Towers of Notre Dame rise through the smoke and hazd 
• Balancing contemporary histprical fact with a poetic allegory 
• Emotion, high intensity fcolors
Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830 , Romantic
• Death of Sardanapalus is a seventh century BCE drama, Delacroix, like Gericault, also turned to current events, particularly tragic or sensational ones, for his subject matter
• Delacroix captures the passion and energy of the 1830 revolution in France in this paitning
• Hased on the Parisian uprising against Charles X at the end of July 1830, it depicts the allegorical personification of Livertyy definatly thrusting forth the republic’s tricolor banner as she urges the masses to fight on
• Bold Parisian types stand around libert, street boy brandishing his pistols, the menacing worker dead bodies lay in a crowed pyramidal structure as in Gericault’s Raft of the Medusa
• Towers of Notre Dame rise through the smoke and hazd
• Balancing contemporary histprical fact with a poetic allegory
• Emotion, high intensity fcolors
-Western history, momentous development with the industrial revolution in ENgland
-terrible effect on the English countryside
-detrimental economic impacts, agricultural families etc., displaced farmers
-John Constable, Turner, Friedrich
-romantic idea of unifying the human being with nature
-focus on color ratehr than line, painterly movements
-poetic allegories
Romantic landscape painting in England
John Constable The Haywain, 1821, Romantic Landscape 
• Momentous development in Western History- the Industrial Revolution- influenced the evolution of Romantic landscape patinign in England 
• Although industrial revolution invariably discusses technological advances, factory development etc. urban growth
• Its effect on the countryside and the land was severe
• The detrimental eoconomic impact industrialization had on the prices for agricultural products produced unrest in English countryside
• Increasing numbers of displaced farmers could not longer afford to farm their small land plots
• John Constable addressed the agrarian situation in his landscape paintings
• Small cottage sits on the left of his placid, picturesque scene of the countryside and in the center foreground a man elads a horse and wagon along a stream
• Muted greens and golds and the delicacy of Constable's brush strokes augment the scene's tranquility 
• Portrayed the oneness with nature that Romantic poets sought
• Relaxed figures are not observers but participant's in the landscape's being
• Significant for what it does not show: the civil unrest of the agrarian working class and the outbreaks of violence and arson that resulted due to the increased agricultural prices from the Industrial revolution 
• The people blend in are one with nature/landscape (Romatic poetry) 
• Nostalgic view of the ending rural pastoralism 
•
John Constable The Haywain, 1821, Romantic Landscape
• Momentous development in Western History- the Industrial Revolution- influenced the evolution of Romantic landscape patinign in England
• Although industrial revolution invariably discusses technological advances, factory development etc. urban growth
• Its effect on the countryside and the land was severe
• The detrimental eoconomic impact industrialization had on the prices for agricultural products produced unrest in English countryside
• Increasing numbers of displaced farmers could not longer afford to farm their small land plots
• John Constable addressed the agrarian situation in his landscape paintings
• Small cottage sits on the left of his placid, picturesque scene of the countryside and in the center foreground a man elads a horse and wagon along a stream
• Muted greens and golds and the delicacy of Constable’s brush strokes augment the scene’s tranquility
• Portrayed the oneness with nature that Romantic poets sought
• Relaxed figures are not observers but participant’s in the landscape’s being
• Significant for what it does not show: the civil unrest of the agrarian working class and the outbreaks of violence and arson that resulted due to the increased agricultural prices from the Industrial revolution
• The people blend in are one with nature/landscape (Romatic poetry)
• Nostalgic view of the ending rural pastoralism
• “painting is but another word for feeling,” very Romantic comment
• **Romantic paitners and pets often used landscapes as allegories, artists used landscapes to comment on political, moral, spiritual , philosophical things
• Romantic idea of sould reunifying with nature
Romantic landscape artist also who would comment on the encroaching and detrimental aspects of the industrial revolution
-desire to return to a oneness with nature
JW Turner
JW Turner, The Salve Ship 184, Romantic landscapes • Produced work that commented on the encroaching industrialization
• Landscape as an allegory, typical of Romanticism
• Different from Constable's painting whose are serene and precisely painted, Turner's feature turbulent swirls of frothy pigment
• The passion and energy of Turner's work reveal the Romantic sensibility that was the foundation of art 
• Sublime- awe mixed with terror 
• Its subject is a 1783 incident reported extensively in a slvae trade book, the incident involved the captain of a slave trade ship who, on realizing that his insurance company would reimburse him only for slaves lost at sea but not for those who died en route, ordered the sick and dying slaves to be thrown overboard 
• Appropriate title (Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying, Typhoon Coming On) 
• Turner's frenzied emotional depiction of this act matches its barbaric nature
• The artist transformed the sun into an incandescent comet amid flying scarlet clouds
• Turbulent sea filled with sinking slave bodies
• The relative scale of the miniscule human forms compared with the vast sea and overarching sky reinforces the sense of the sublime, the immense power of nature over human beings 
• Emotive power of pure color (perhaps influence of dDelacroix with the importance of color over line/ also Rubens not Ingres or Poussin) 
• The composition compeys the meaning, intense brush strokes, energetic colors 
• Reflects the forces of nature and the painter's emotional response to that 
• Discovery of the pure color and the medium's fluidity carrying the meaning, more important than the actual subject of the painting, is a big move towards abstact 20th century art
JW Turner, The Salve Ship 184, Romantic landscapes • Produced work that commented on the encroaching industrialization
• Landscape as an allegory, typical of Romanticism
• Different from Constable’s painting whose are serene and precisely painted, Turner’s feature turbulent swirls of frothy pigment
• The passion and energy of Turner’s work reveal the Romantic sensibility that was the foundation of art
• Sublime- awe mixed with terror
• Its subject is a 1783 incident reported extensively in a slvae trade book, the incident involved the captain of a slave trade ship who, on realizing that his insurance company would reimburse him only for slaves lost at sea but not for those who died en route, ordered the sick and dying slaves to be thrown overboard
• Appropriate title (Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying, Typhoon Coming On)
• Turner’s frenzied emotional depiction of this act matches its barbaric nature
• The artist transformed the sun into an incandescent comet amid flying scarlet clouds
• Turbulent sea filled with sinking slave bodies
• The relative scale of the miniscule human forms compared with the vast sea and overarching sky reinforces the sense of the sublime, the immense power of nature over human beings
• Emotive power of pure color (perhaps influence of dDelacroix with the importance of color over line/ also Rubens not Ingres or Poussin)
• The composition compeys the meaning, intense brush strokes, energetic colors
• Reflects the forces of nature and the painter’s emotional response to that
• Discovery of the pure color and the medium’s fluidity carrying the meaning, more important than the actual subject of the painting, is a big move towards abstact 20th century art
JMW Turner the Burning of the Houses of Parliament, 1835, Romantic 
-used romantic landscapes, reacting against industrialization
• Using landscape as a way to convey political message
• The composition carrying the meaning, emotive colors, energetic brush strokes, intensity, influence Delacroix
• Barbaric sense, swirling sky
• Reflects the forces of nature over the minuteness of human, only see the power of nature with small reminders of human existence
JMW Turner the Burning of the Houses of Parliament, 1835, Romantic
-used romantic landscapes, reacting against industrialization
• Using landscape as a way to convey political message
• The composition carrying the meaning, emotive colors, energetic brush strokes, intensity, influence Delacroix
• Barbaric sense, swirling sky
• Reflects the forces of nature over the minuteness of human, only see the power of nature with small reminders of human existence
Caspar David Friedrich The Monk by the Sea, 1810, Romantic 
• Among the first of the Northern European artists to depict the sublime nature of Romantic landscapes 
• Power of nature, emotive response, miniscule human forms compared to the vast sea and overarching sky reinforces the sense of the sublime and immense power of nature over human beings 
• His atmospheric landscape painting capture a spiritual aspect to landscapes and nature
• Romantic landscape painters often use landscapes as an allegory, for Caspar this was spirituality 
• Single figure dressed in long dark garment, turned almost completely away from the viewer, blending an dbecoming one with nature 
• Influenced Whistler, spiritual aspects of nature
• Sense of despair, death 
• Although not the theatrical nature of Gericault or Delacroix, there is a resonant deep emotion that pervades them
Caspar David Friedrich The Monk by the Sea, 1810, Romantic
• Among the first of the Northern European artists to depict the sublime nature of Romantic landscapes
• Power of nature, emotive response, miniscule human forms compared to the vast sea and overarching sky reinforces the sense of the sublime and immense power of nature over human beings
• His atmospheric landscape painting capture a spiritual aspect to landscapes and nature
• Romantic landscape painters often use landscapes as an allegory, for Caspar this was spirituality
• Single figure dressed in long dark garment, turned almost completely away from the viewer, blending an dbecoming one with nature
• Influenced Whistler, spiritual aspects of nature
• Sense of despair, death
• Although not the theatrical nature of Gericault or Delacroix, there is a resonant deep emotion that pervades them
Casper David Friedrich Traveler Overlooking a sea of fog 1818
• Immense and emotive power of nature, casping spiritual aspect of nature, using landscape for an allegor of something bigger
• Emotive response, painting from within, resonant deep emotions even without theatrical sense
• Viewer blending and becoming one with nature
• JMW Turner and Constable followed
Casper David Friedrich Traveler Overlooking a sea of fog 1818
• Immense and emotive power of nature, casping spiritual aspect of nature, using landscape for an allegor of something bigger
• Emotive response, painting from within, resonant deep emotions even without theatrical sense
• Viewer blending and becoming one with nature
• JMW Turner and Constable followed
-Realism did not appeal to all artists in England, did not want to limit themselves to the objective contemporary scenes
-realism, reaction against romanticism, celebrating technology, contemporary clothes etc .
pre-raphaelite brotherhood
John E. Millais Ophelia, 1852, pre-raphaelite
-founder of Pre-raphaelite, Millais, sincere art, believed Raphael introduced an academic nature to painting
-also did not like realism, did not want to constrain themselved to contemporary objective studies
-preferred more fictional stories, that were symbolic with convincing illysionism
-were disgusted with the materialistic nature of art, celebration of technology of realism etc.
• They also expressed appreciation for the spirituality and idealism of past times, especially the Middle Ages and the Early Renaissnace 
• The subject, from Shakespeare's Hamlet, is the drowning of Ophelia, who, in her madness, is unaware of her unfortunate situation 
• Reconstructing the image with lyricism worth of the original poetry 
• The scene is fictitious but with unparalleled detail, used model laying in bathtub and then observed a river mill 
• Image should be rendered emotionally
John E. Millais Ophelia, 1852, pre-raphaelite
-founder of Pre-raphaelite, Millais, sincere art, believed Raphael introduced an academic nature to painting
-also did not like realism, did not want to constrain themselved to contemporary objective studies
-preferred more fictional stories, that were symbolic with convincing illysionism
-were disgusted with the materialistic nature of art, celebration of technology of realism etc.
• They also expressed appreciation for the spirituality and idealism of past times, especially the Middle Ages and the Early Renaissnace
• The subject, from Shakespeare’s Hamlet, is the drowning of Ophelia, who, in her madness, is unaware of her unfortunate situation
• Reconstructing the image with lyricism worth of the original poetry
• The scene is fictitious but with unparalleled detail, used model laying in bathtub and then observed a river mill
• Image should be rendered emotionally
WH Hunt The Awakening Conscience, 1852, pre-raphaelite
-Wanted to go before raphael, academic nature pf paiting, liked early northern renaissance, symbolic interiors
-liek Jan Van eyck
-also reation against realism, did not want to celebrate materialism and indutrialization 
• Depicts a young woman rising from her position in the lap of a man gaazing transfixed out of the window of a room
• Focal point of the position is the absence of a wedding ring
• The cat beneath the table, hidden symbols as in northern renaissance art
• Definitely a mistress, use of mirror, Jan Van Eyk 
• The opening out into the spring garden contrasts the entrapment within the room
• What attracts her is both outside the room and her relationship 
• The mirror image represents the woman's lost innocence, but redemption, indicated by the ray of light 
• Full of rich symbolic evidence
• The car toying with the broken winged bird under the table symbolizes the woman's plight, 
• The tangled yarn, represents her entrapment
WH Hunt The Awakening Conscience, 1852, pre-raphaelite
-Wanted to go before raphael, academic nature pf paiting, liked early northern renaissance, symbolic interiors
-liek Jan Van eyck
-also reation against realism, did not want to celebrate materialism and indutrialization
• Depicts a young woman rising from her position in the lap of a man gaazing transfixed out of the window of a room
• Focal point of the position is the absence of a wedding ring
• The cat beneath the table, hidden symbols as in northern renaissance art
• Definitely a mistress, use of mirror, Jan Van Eyk
• The opening out into the spring garden contrasts the entrapment within the room
• What attracts her is both outside the room and her relationship
• The mirror image represents the woman’s lost innocence, but redemption, indicated by the ray of light
• Full of rich symbolic evidence
• The car toying with the broken winged bird under the table symbolizes the woman’s plight,
• The tangled yarn, represents her entrapment
-movement developed in FRance against the backdrop of advancement of science and technology
-industrial technology enforced rationalism of ENlightenment, but not to go back to clacissism
-empirical nature and society
-realists focused their attention on contemporary every day subjects, they disapproved of subjective nature of romanticism, wanted to show sighs of contemporary life, frozen in moment
-did not like theatrical nature of other movemnts
Realism
Gustave Courbet The Stonebreakers 1849, Realism
-laeding figure of Realist movement, 
-wanted to display not historical majestic things, but every day, mundane contemporary subjects in the light of large paitning
-• The Realists' concern with scrutinizing their environment led them to portray objects and images that in recent centuries artists had deemed unworthy of depiction- the mundane and trivial, the workin class and peasants 
• Realists depicted these scenes on a scale and with an earnestness previously reserved for grand history paintings
• Gives glimpse into the life of rural menial laborers 
• Young and old, the act of breaking stones, the lot of the lowest in French society, but in grandeur of large history painting
• By juztaposing youth and age, Courbet suggested that those born to poverty remain poor their entire lives 
• The work is not romanticized or idealized,but depicts them with directness and accuracy 
• His palette of dirty browns and grays conveys the dreary and dismal nature of the task 
• Interest in working poor in mid-century France, in 1848 there were laborers rebelled against bourgeois leaders of the newly formed Second Republic and against the rest o fhte nation, demanding better working conditions
• His depiction of this was a timely reaction to the uprising, realistic depiction, not idealized or romanticized, large scale grandeur
Gustave Courbet The Stonebreakers 1849, Realism
-laeding figure of Realist movement,
-wanted to display not historical majestic things, but every day, mundane contemporary subjects in the light of large paitning
-• The Realists’ concern with scrutinizing their environment led them to portray objects and images that in recent centuries artists had deemed unworthy of depiction- the mundane and trivial, the workin class and peasants
• Realists depicted these scenes on a scale and with an earnestness previously reserved for grand history paintings
• Gives glimpse into the life of rural menial laborers
• Young and old, the act of breaking stones, the lot of the lowest in French society, but in grandeur of large history painting
• By juztaposing youth and age, Courbet suggested that those born to poverty remain poor their entire lives
• The work is not romanticized or idealized,but depicts them with directness and accuracy
• His palette of dirty browns and grays conveys the dreary and dismal nature of the task
• Interest in working poor in mid-century France, in 1848 there were laborers rebelled against bourgeois leaders of the newly formed Second Republic and against the rest o fhte nation, demanding better working conditions
• His depiction of this was a timely reaction to the uprising, realistic depiction, not idealized or romanticized, large scale grandeur
Gustave Courbet, The Burial at Ornans, 1859, Realism
-everyday realistic contemporary subjects
-mundane things weren't painted before at the scale of large history paintings
-realities of daily life and dethine
-not the sublime, heroic or dramatic 
• Unlike the theatricality of Romanticism, Realism captured the ordinary rhythms of daily existence 
• Departed from the established priority of illusionism, realists called attention to painting as a pictorial construction by the ways they applied pigment or manipulated the composition
• Courbet was rejected from the Parisian jury and thus made his own exhibit called the Pavilion of Realism, first artist to ever stafe a private exhibition of his own work
•
Gustave Courbet, The Burial at Ornans, 1859, Realism
-everyday realistic contemporary subjects
-mundane things weren’t painted before at the scale of large history paintings
-realities of daily life and dethine
-not the sublime, heroic or dramatic
• Unlike the theatricality of Romanticism, Realism captured the ordinary rhythms of daily existence
• Departed from the established priority of illusionism, realists called attention to painting as a pictorial construction by the ways they applied pigment or manipulated the composition
• Courbet was rejected from the Parisian jury and thus made his own exhibit called the Pavilion of Realism, first artist to ever stafe a private exhibition of his own work
• “I have never seen an angel. Show me an angel, and I’ll paint one.”
• Lifting everyday mundaness and uglieness into universality, giving the figures monumental grandeur and nobility
Gustave Courbet The Studio of the Painter: A real Allegory Summing up seven years of my artistic Life, 1855
• The figures in the painting are allegorical representations of influences on Courbet's artistic life, on the left are human figures from all levels of society, in the center Courbet works on a landscape, while turned away from a nude model who is symbol of academic art tradition
• To the right, all associated of Courbet and writers, 
• Mundane colors, every day real people 
• Delacroix was one of few painter who supported his work 
• Made salon des refuses because painting was refused 
-realists did not want the emotional, heroic, atmosphere of earlier paitnings
-focused on the mundane, the real, daily existence in modern culture
Gustave Courbet The Studio of the Painter: A real Allegory Summing up seven years of my artistic Life, 1855
• The figures in the painting are allegorical representations of influences on Courbet’s artistic life, on the left are human figures from all levels of society, in the center Courbet works on a landscape, while turned away from a nude model who is symbol of academic art tradition
• To the right, all associated of Courbet and writers,
• Mundane colors, every day real people
• Delacroix was one of few painter who supported his work
• Made salon des refuses because painting was refused
-realists did not want the emotional, heroic, atmosphere of earlier paitnings
-focused on the mundane, the real, daily existence in modern culture
Manet, Olympia, 1863, Realism
-not romanticized or idealized figure
-true prostitute, every day life
Olympia 1863, Realism
• This was even for scandalous than Le Dejeuner sur L'herbe, depicts a young white prostitute, common prostitute name during this time was Olympia, she is reclining on a bed that extends across the foreground 
• She is not idealized nor romanticized, realistic depiction of the female body 
• She entirely nude except for a thin black ribbon tied around her neck, Olympia meets the viewer's eyes with a cool indifference, behind her is a black maid that presents a boquet of flowers to the client 
• The shamelessness and defiance of the prostitute shocked viewers, the depiction of black woman was also a shocker to viewer, reminiscent of Gericault's Raft of Medusa 
• Nclusion of both a black maid and a female prostitute very radical 
• The contrast of the dark black skin and fair Olympia emphasized the racial barriers 
• Manet's brush stroke are rougher, shifts in tonality are more abrupt than found in traditional academica painting, the audacity of the subject matter and the departure from traditions of the academy made this very radical 
-
Manet, Olympia, 1863, Realism
-not romanticized or idealized figure
-true prostitute, every day life
Olympia 1863, Realism
• This was even for scandalous than Le Dejeuner sur L’herbe, depicts a young white prostitute, common prostitute name during this time was Olympia, she is reclining on a bed that extends across the foreground
• She is not idealized nor romanticized, realistic depiction of the female body
• She entirely nude except for a thin black ribbon tied around her neck, Olympia meets the viewer’s eyes with a cool indifference, behind her is a black maid that presents a boquet of flowers to the client
• The shamelessness and defiance of the prostitute shocked viewers, the depiction of black woman was also a shocker to viewer, reminiscent of Gericault’s Raft of Medusa
• Nclusion of both a black maid and a female prostitute very radical
• The contrast of the dark black skin and fair Olympia emphasized the racial barriers
• Manet’s brush stroke are rougher, shifts in tonality are more abrupt than found in traditional academica painting, the audacity of the subject matter and the departure from traditions of the academy made this very radical
Francois Millet, The Sower, 1849, Realism 
-occupations of the evryday world liek Courbet's Stonebreaks and Burial at Ornans 
-wanted to move close to rural, blue collar subject
-revolution in 1848 of blue collar workers, rural class, this made people suspicious of Courbet and Millet
-Mundane real colors, not romanticzed or idealized
-• Like Courbet, Millet found his usbjects in the people and occupations of the everyday world 
• Who wanted to be closer to his rural subjects so moved out to a small village outside Paris in the forest
• After the 1848 revolution of the warking class, people were suspicious of Millet and Courbet, could not get approval of upper class 
• The middle class linked the poor with the dangerous, 
• In Millet's sympathetic portrayal of the poor, many saw political manifesto
• Mundane real colors, poor people displayed with grandeur 
• No sense of illusionism,, mot romanticized or idealized
Francois Millet, The Sower, 1849, Realism
-occupations of the evryday world liek Courbet’s Stonebreaks and Burial at Ornans
-wanted to move close to rural, blue collar subject
-revolution in 1848 of blue collar workers, rural class, this made people suspicious of Courbet and Millet
-Mundane real colors, not romanticzed or idealized
-• Like Courbet, Millet found his usbjects in the people and occupations of the everyday world
• Who wanted to be closer to his rural subjects so moved out to a small village outside Paris in the forest
• After the 1848 revolution of the warking class, people were suspicious of Millet and Courbet, could not get approval of upper class
• The middle class linked the poor with the dangerous,
• In Millet’s sympathetic portrayal of the poor, many saw political manifesto
• Mundane real colors, poor people displayed with grandeur
• No sense of illusionism,, mot romanticized or idealized
Manet, Le Dejeuner sur l'Herbe 1863, Introduction to Impressionism
-everyday modern subjects, contemporary clothing
-not idealized or romanticized 
-Courbet, Millet, looking at real people, modeling from real people not sculptures of antiquity
-much looser execution, subtle variations of light and dark, precursor to impressionism 
--history painting large scale but real subjects 
• Played important role in the development of impressionism 
• Depicts two women, one nude, and two clothed men enjoying a picnic of sorts 
• Manet based all of his foreground figures on living people. 
• The seated nude is Victorine Meurend (manet's favorite model) 
• And the gentlemen (one his brother) and the other a friend, all dressed in contemporary, fashionable Parisian attire of the 1860s and the foreground nude is a distressingly UNIDEALIZED figure type but also seems at ease, gazing directly at the viewer without shame or flirtatiousness 
• This painting outraged the public, different from anonymous idealized figure in an idealized setting, this seems to represent ordinary men with a promiscuous woman in the park 
• Naked not nude 
• Has a multitude of referces to history painting, portraiture, pastoral scenes, nudes 
• Very loose manner of painting, of background contrasts the harshly lit foreground trio and the pile of discarded female attire and picnic food at lower left
• Form, rather than a matter of line, is only a function of paint and light
• Manet claimed the chief factor in painting is light, the stiyle is very flat, unorthodox subject matter
Manet, Le Dejeuner sur l’Herbe 1863, Introduction to Impressionism
-everyday modern subjects, contemporary clothing
-not idealized or romanticized
-Courbet, Millet, looking at real people, modeling from real people not sculptures of antiquity
-much looser execution, subtle variations of light and dark, precursor to impressionism
–history painting large scale but real subjects

• Played important role in the development of impressionism
• Depicts two women, one nude, and two clothed men enjoying a picnic of sorts
• Manet based all of his foreground figures on living people.
• The seated nude is Victorine Meurend (manet’s favorite model)
• And the gentlemen (one his brother) and the other a friend, all dressed in contemporary, fashionable Parisian attire of the 1860s and the foreground nude is a distressingly UNIDEALIZED figure type but also seems at ease, gazing directly at the viewer without shame or flirtatiousness
• This painting outraged the public, different from anonymous idealized figure in an idealized setting, this seems to represent ordinary men with a promiscuous woman in the park
• Naked not nude
• Has a multitude of referces to history painting, portraiture, pastoral scenes, nudes
• Very loose manner of painting, of background contrasts the harshly lit foreground trio and the pile of discarded female attire and picnic food at lower left
• Form, rather than a matter of line, is only a function of paint and light
• Manet claimed the chief factor in painting is light, the stiyle is very flat, unorthodox subject matter

Thomas Eakins, The Gross Clinic, 1875, Realism (american) 
-presented the realities of human existence
-studied both medical anatomy in Philadelphia 
-wanted to paint contemporary subjects, things he saw in real life in the large scale of history paintings
-not romanticized or idealized, fcus on realisty 
• Brutally realistic depiction of Dr. Samuel Gross in the operating amphitheatre of the Jefferson Medical cCollege in Phili, 
• Increasingg faith in scientific and medical process, bloody fingers and scalpel lectures about his surgery on a young man's ;lef
• Anesthetist holds a cloth over the patient's mouth, very contemporary thing, 
• Not idealized not romantic, 
John Singer Sargent The Daughters
Thomas Eakins, The Gross Clinic, 1875, Realism (american)
-presented the realities of human existence
-studied both medical anatomy in Philadelphia
-wanted to paint contemporary subjects, things he saw in real life in the large scale of history paintings
-not romanticized or idealized, fcus on realisty
• Brutally realistic depiction of Dr. Samuel Gross in the operating amphitheatre of the Jefferson Medical cCollege in Phili,
• Increasingg faith in scientific and medical process, bloody fingers and scalpel lectures about his surgery on a young man’s ;lef
• Anesthetist holds a cloth over the patient’s mouth, very contemporary thing,
• Not idealized not romantic,
John Singer Sargent The Daughters
John Singer Sargent The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit, 1882, Realism (AMerican) 
-painting everyday rael subjects, contemporary clothing
- not idealized or romanticized 
-followed Courbet, Millet, Manet, 
-looser style than Eakins, subtle variations 
• The four girls (the children of his close friend) appear in a hall and small frawing room in their home in paris 
• The informal, eccentric arrangement of their slight figures showshow they are much at ease in the comfortable place
• Objects Japanese vases, the red screen and the fringed rug 
• Show young innocence in the young girls, he sensitively captures the naïve, wondering openness of the litte girl in the foreground,, slightly self-conscious poses of the older teens 
• The paitning embodies the Realist belief that the artist's business is to record modern people in modern context
John Singer Sargent The Daughters of Edward Darley Boit, 1882, Realism (AMerican)
-painting everyday rael subjects, contemporary clothing
– not idealized or romanticized
-followed Courbet, Millet, Manet,
-looser style than Eakins, subtle variations
• The four girls (the children of his close friend) appear in a hall and small frawing room in their home in paris
• The informal, eccentric arrangement of their slight figures showshow they are much at ease in the comfortable place
• Objects Japanese vases, the red screen and the fringed rug
• Show young innocence in the young girls, he sensitively captures the naïve, wondering openness of the litte girl in the foreground,, slightly self-conscious poses of the older teens
• The paitning embodies the Realist belief that the artist’s business is to record modern people in modern context
record modern people in modern context
realist belief
-reaction to urbanized Paris, brutal and chaotic changes occuring in the later half of the 19th century to the Parisian lifestyle
-the rapidity and changing politicas made things unstable, no longer an represent a fixed moment like in realism
-Impressionism works to present the “fleeting moment” not an absolutely fixed, precise sense of a Realist painting, where the presented a sense of impermanence, this is modern this is now
-impressionism evoked movement
Impressionism
Claude Monet, Impression: Sunrise, 1872, Impressionism
-hostiel critic coined the word impressionism, not an objective look at the world, subjective take on fleeting moment in time
-very painterly, sketch liek quality that evokes movement and the changing light
-Rembrandt to the extreme, no longer so subtle changes in light 
-spontaneity is present, not a fixed moment in time which coincided to how quickly Paris was changing 
-matching in both content and style 
-combination of an obejctive and subjective vision of what the artist saw
-Sarent and Manet, looser structure
• Different from the studio artist,Monet painted outdoors, sharpened his focus on the role of light and color and its effects, instantaneous representations of atmosphere and climate
• He investigated light and color, allowed artist to display something momentary and transitoru 
• Scientific studies of light and the invention of chemically synthesized pigments increased artists' sensitivity to the multiplicity of colors in nature and gave them new colors for their work
• local color -an object's true color in which light, becomes modified by the quality of the light shining on it , by reflections from other objects and by the effects of juxtaposed colors
Claude Monet, Impression: Sunrise, 1872, Impressionism
-hostiel critic coined the word impressionism, not an objective look at the world, subjective take on fleeting moment in time
-very painterly, sketch liek quality that evokes movement and the changing light
-Rembrandt to the extreme, no longer so subtle changes in light
-spontaneity is present, not a fixed moment in time which coincided to how quickly Paris was changing
-matching in both content and style
-combination of an obejctive and subjective vision of what the artist saw
-Sarent and Manet, looser structure
• Different from the studio artist,Monet painted outdoors, sharpened his focus on the role of light and color and its effects, instantaneous representations of atmosphere and climate
• He investigated light and color, allowed artist to display something momentary and transitoru
• Scientific studies of light and the invention of chemically synthesized pigments increased artists’ sensitivity to the multiplicity of colors in nature and gave them new colors for their work
• local color -an object’s true color in which light, becomes modified by the quality of the light shining on it , by reflections from other objects and by the effects of juxtaposed colors
Claude Monet, Grainstacks, 1891, impressionism
-similar subject matter to the Realist in that a reaction to contemporary time in changing Paris life
-but not a fixed moment, evident in the prush stroks
-modulation in color and not so subtle nuances in light
-studied light and how it affected time, would paintin series 
• Interest in light, speed abbreviaton speed, how light changes color 
• Not fixed moment, painting outside
• Modernist exploration, evident brush strokes, acknowledging the canvas 
• He studied the movement of light over identical forms
• Many critics believed he destroyed form
Claude Monet, Grainstacks, 1891, impressionism
-similar subject matter to the Realist in that a reaction to contemporary time in changing Paris life
-but not a fixed moment, evident in the prush stroks
-modulation in color and not so subtle nuances in light
-studied light and how it affected time, would paintin series
• Interest in light, speed abbreviaton speed, how light changes color
• Not fixed moment, painting outside
• Modernist exploration, evident brush strokes, acknowledging the canvas
• He studied the movement of light over identical forms
• Many critics believed he destroyed form
took Monet’s interest in modenrized Paris and “fleeting time” but focused on the new leisure activites that industrialization allowed
• Another facet of the new industrialized Paris that drew the Impressionists’ attention was the leisure activities of its inhabitant
• Scenes of dining, dancing, the café-concert, the opera the ballet and other forms of urban recreation
• A reaction against the brutal chaotic transformation or urban paris, modernism: presenting time as it is now
• With the advent of set working hours, people’s schedules became more regimented, allowing them to plan their favorite pastimes
• Le Moulin de la Galette depictsthrongs of people gathered in a popular Parisian dance hall
• Some rowd around, others dance energetically
• Renoir dapples the whole scene with sunlight and shade, artfully blurred into the figures to produce the effects of floating and fleeting light that the impressioniss cultivated
• Unposed placement of the figures suggest a continuity of space, spreading in all directions, not limited by the frame, positioning the viewer as a participant not an outsider
• Classical art tried to express universal and timeless qualities, impressionism tried to depict the opposite the incidental, momentary passing aspects of reality, in reacting to the chaotic transformation of urban Paris
Renoir
Renoir, The Moulin de la Galette, 1876, Impressionism
• Another facet of the new industrialized Paris that drew the Impressionists' attention was the leisure activities of its inhabitant 
• Scenes of dining, dancing, the café-concert, the opera the ballet and other forms of urban recreation 
• A reaction against the brutal chaotic transformation or urban paris, modernism: presenting time as it is now 
• With the advent of set working hours, people's schedules became more regimented, allowing them to plan their favorite pastimes 
• Le Moulin de la Galette depictsthrongs of people gathered in a popular Parisian dance hall
• Some rowd around, others dance energetically 
• Renoir dapples the whole scene with sunlight and shade, artfully blurred into the figures to produce the effects of floating and fleeting light that the impressioniss cultivated 
• Unposed placement of the figures suggest a continuity of space, spreading in all directions, not limited by the frame, positioning the viewer as a participant not an outsider 
• Classical art tried to express universal and timeless qualities, impressionism tried to depict the opposite the incidental, momentary passing aspects of reality, in reacting to the chaotic transformation of urban Paris
Renoir, The Moulin de la Galette, 1876, Impressionism
• Another facet of the new industrialized Paris that drew the Impressionists’ attention was the leisure activities of its inhabitant
• Scenes of dining, dancing, the café-concert, the opera the ballet and other forms of urban recreation
• A reaction against the brutal chaotic transformation or urban paris, modernism: presenting time as it is now
• With the advent of set working hours, people’s schedules became more regimented, allowing them to plan their favorite pastimes
• Le Moulin de la Galette depictsthrongs of people gathered in a popular Parisian dance hall
• Some rowd around, others dance energetically
• Renoir dapples the whole scene with sunlight and shade, artfully blurred into the figures to produce the effects of floating and fleeting light that the impressioniss cultivated
• Unposed placement of the figures suggest a continuity of space, spreading in all directions, not limited by the frame, positioning the viewer as a participant not an outsider
• Classical art tried to express universal and timeless qualities, impressionism tried to depict the opposite the incidental, momentary passing aspects of reality, in reacting to the chaotic transformation of urban Paris
Renoir, Nude in the Sunlight, 1876, Impressionism
Renoir, Nude in the Sunlight, 1876, Impressionism
Manet, Gare St. Lazare, 1873, Impressionism
Manet, Gare St. Lazare, 1873, Impressionism
Manet, Bar at the Folies-Bergere, 1882
• In the painting set in a Parisian café, Manet called attention to the canvas surface by creating spatial inconsistencies, such as the relationship between the barmaid and her apparent reflection in a mirror
• Manet’s career bridged Realism and Impressionism
• The FOlies-Bergere was a popular café with music-hall performance, one of the fashionable fathering places for Parisian socialites the Impressionists often frequented
• Barmaid, centrally placed, looks out from the canvas but seems lost in thought, divorced fro her patrons as well as from the viewer
• Manet blurred and roughly applies brush strokes, particularly in the background
• Visual discrepancies emegere, calls attention to the pictorial structure of the painting
• Modernist interest in examining the basic premises of the medium
Edgar Degas, Place de la Concorde, Vicomte Lepic and his daughters, 1876, Impressionism 
-contmeporary life
-fleeting moment
-brush strokes evident, movement, Monet, Renoir
-Paris changing world
• Random direction people facion, opens the plain to the viewer, 
• Could have be influenced by photography due to the amount of negative space
• Modern moment, temporal, incidental momentary quality 
• Rby th 11880s, artough brush strokes, bringing attention to the medium (modernism) 
• Wanted totransalte the bizarre new medium of photography into the medium of painting
Edgar Degas, Place de la Concorde, Vicomte Lepic and his daughters, 1876, Impressionism
-contmeporary life
-fleeting moment
-brush strokes evident, movement, Monet, Renoir
-Paris changing world
• Random direction people facion, opens the plain to the viewer,
• Could have be influenced by photography due to the amount of negative space
• Modern moment, temporal, incidental momentary quality
• Rby th 11880s, artough brush strokes, bringing attention to the medium (modernism)
• Wanted totransalte the bizarre new medium of photography into the medium of painting
Edgar Degas, Little Dance of 14 years, 1880, Impressionism 
• Preferred to be associated with Realism 
• Young student in the paris Opera Ballet
• It is dressed in a real bodice, tutu and balet slippers with a real wig of hair
• Her face contorted, perhaps showing that this is not what the young girl wants to bed doing
Edgar Degas, Little Dance of 14 years, 1880, Impressionism
• Preferred to be associated with Realism
• Young student in the paris Opera Ballet
• It is dressed in a real bodice, tutu and balet slippers with a real wig of hair
• Her face contorted, perhaps showing that this is not what the young girl wants to bed doing
James McNeill Whistler, Nocturne in Blue and Gold 1872-75
-unique combination of impressionist's concern for modern contemporary, culture, the fleeting moment and the interes in light in dark
-can see japonise influence
-also wanted music to play a part, art being its own medium, precursor for modernism 
• Unique combination of the French Impressionists and his own concerns 
• Subject of contemporary life and the sensations light and color produces on the ye
• To these influences he also added his own desire to create harmonies paralleling those achieved in music 
• Influence of Aesthetic movement, creating art for arts sake, like music is for itself, wanted to express the harmony and beauty of music through visual means
James McNeill Whistler, Nocturne in Blue and Gold 1872-75
-unique combination of impressionist’s concern for modern contemporary, culture, the fleeting moment and the interes in light in dark
-can see japonise influence
-also wanted music to play a part, art being its own medium, precursor for modernism
• Unique combination of the French Impressionists and his own concerns
• Subject of contemporary life and the sensations light and color produces on the ye
• To these influences he also added his own desire to create harmonies paralleling those achieved in music
• Influence of Aesthetic movement, creating art for arts sake, like music is for itself, wanted to express the harmony and beauty of music through visual means
Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket, 1875, Impressionism, Aesthetic Movement
• To underscore his artistic intentions, he began calling his paintings arrangements or nocturnes 
• This work is particularly daring with gold fleck splatters that represent the exploded firework punctuating in the night sky 
• More interested in conveying the atmospheric effects than in providing details of the scene, wanted
Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket, 1875, Impressionism, Aesthetic Movement
• To underscore his artistic intentions, he began calling his paintings arrangements or nocturnes
• This work is particularly daring with gold fleck splatters that represent the exploded firework punctuating in the night sky
• More interested in conveying the atmospheric effects than in providing details of the scene, wanted
By 1886, Impressionists were accepted as real artists
-artists began a desire to be even mroe subjective while fousing on the medium in itself, expressive qualities of line, patter, form and color
-not just objective repressentations amymore
-art becomes more and more subejctive
Post-Impressionism
• marked contrast to Seurat, Van Gogh (1853-1890) explored the capabilities of colors and distorted forms to express his emotions as he confronted nature
• he was the son of a Dutch Protestant pastor, he did missionary work in the coal-mining area of Belgium
• repeated progessional and personal failures brought him close to despair
Van Gogh
Vincent Van Gogh, Night Café, 1888, Post Impressionism 
-looking more at the expressive nature of line and color
-subjective mundane subejct, realting back to Courbet and mnset
-displays his sense of anxiety through his use of perspective
-aggressive strokes, thick use of paint
• Van Gogh has just relocated to Arles in souther France in 1888, although the subject is mundane, Van Gogh invested in it with charged energy 
• He wanted painting to convey a oppressive atmosphere,
Vincent Van Gogh, Night Café, 1888, Post Impressionism
-looking more at the expressive nature of line and color
-subjective mundane subejct, realting back to Courbet and mnset
-displays his sense of anxiety through his use of perspective
-aggressive strokes, thick use of paint
• Van Gogh has just relocated to Arles in souther France in 1888, although the subject is mundane, Van Gogh invested in it with charged energy
• He wanted painting to convey a oppressive atmosphere, “a place where one can run oneself, go mad or commit a crime”
• The proprietor rises like a specter from the edge of the billiard table, which the painter depicted in such a steeply tilted perspective that it threatens to fall out of the painting into the viewer’s space
• Expressive use of color, expressiveness also in thick paint application, the thickness, shape and direction of the brush stroked created a tactile counterpart to his intense color schemes
• He often moved the brush back and forth intensely or at right angles giving a textilelike effect
-painting almost gives a tactile affect when looking at it
Van Gogh Starry Night 1889 Post Impressionism
-very different from Seurat, who wasn't studying the expressive nature of color and line, but the scientific nature of color 
• Does not give objective appearance of the sky, but communicates his anxiety and feeling about the electrifying vastness of the universe, filled with whirling and exploding stars and galaxes, the earth and humanity huddling belief this uncontrollable nature
• Any visual objectis translated into his unique vision 
• Turbulent brush stroke, intense blues
Van Gogh Starry Night 1889 Post Impressionism
-very different from Seurat, who wasn’t studying the expressive nature of color and line, but the scientific nature of color
• Does not give objective appearance of the sky, but communicates his anxiety and feeling about the electrifying vastness of the universe, filled with whirling and exploding stars and galaxes, the earth and humanity huddling belief this uncontrollable nature
• Any visual objectis translated into his unique vision
• Turbulent brush stroke, intense blues
Georges Seurat Sunday Afternoon at the Island of la Grande Jette, 1884-86, Post IMpressionism (formal study) 
• Impressionistic subjects, leisure in new, transforming, urban Paris, 
• Developed a painstaking system of painting according to color analysis 
• Very rigid represwentation, unlike the spontaneity of impressionist painting
• Seurat employed pointalism to produce a highly carefully composd and painted image
• Meticulous 
• The painter does not break the light into transiet patches of color 
• Precise, tightly controlled organization 
• Shifting social and class relationships at the time 
• Captures public leisure life on an afternoon in Paris 
• Modern clothes, painting not a fixed moment but something moving in time
Georges Seurat Sunday Afternoon at the Island of la Grande Jette, 1884-86, Post IMpressionism (formal study)
• Impressionistic subjects, leisure in new, transforming, urban Paris,
• Developed a painstaking system of painting according to color analysis
• Very rigid represwentation, unlike the spontaneity of impressionist painting
• Seurat employed pointalism to produce a highly carefully composd and painted image
• Meticulous
• The painter does not break the light into transiet patches of color
• Precise, tightly controlled organization
• Shifting social and class relationships at the time
• Captures public leisure life on an afternoon in Paris
• Modern clothes, painting not a fixed moment but something moving in time
-more analystical approach to painting, wanted to study geometric forms, color
-he wanted to achieve perspective, not through lina=ear perspective like Poussin, but through variations of color and light, warmer colors advance while cooler colors recede
-transient affects of shifting color
Cezanne
Paul Cezanne Mont Sainte-Victoire 1900-04, postimpressionism (analytical) 
• near his house in Aix-en-Provence
• he sought a lasting structure behind the formless and fleeting visual information the ye absorbs 
• Cezanne had more of an analytical approach than did the other imrepssionists 
• He wanted to order the lines, planes and colors that comprised nature
• He sought to achieve Poussin;s effects of distance, depth, structure, and solidity not by using traditional perspective and chiaroscuro but by recording the color patters an optical analysis of natrure
• Creating an illusion of three-dimensional form and space, 
• Cool colors tend to recede whereas warm colors advance
• By applying to the canvas small patches of juxtaposed colors, some advancing and some receding, Cezanne created volume and depth in his works 
• Modulated the color intensity or saturation to create depth 
• The main space stretches out beyond and behind the canvas plane and included numerous small elements, roads fields , houses each scene from a slightly sifferent viewpoint
• The relative proportion of objects vvary rather than being fixed by one or two point perspective, such as that normally found in a photograph 
• Cezanne took the shifting of color in impressionism to the next level with clearly defined planes that compose the objects and space in the scene
• Ceanne replaces the transitory visual effects of shiftin g colors and atmospheric conditions with careful analysis of color lines and planes
Paul Cezanne Mont Sainte-Victoire 1900-04, postimpressionism (analytical)
• near his house in Aix-en-Provence
• he sought a lasting structure behind the formless and fleeting visual information the ye absorbs
• Cezanne had more of an analytical approach than did the other imrepssionists
• He wanted to order the lines, planes and colors that comprised nature
• He sought to achieve Poussin;s effects of distance, depth, structure, and solidity not by using traditional perspective and chiaroscuro but by recording the color patters an optical analysis of natrure
• Creating an illusion of three-dimensional form and space,
• Cool colors tend to recede whereas warm colors advance
• By applying to the canvas small patches of juxtaposed colors, some advancing and some receding, Cezanne created volume and depth in his works
• Modulated the color intensity or saturation to create depth
• The main space stretches out beyond and behind the canvas plane and included numerous small elements, roads fields , houses each scene from a slightly sifferent viewpoint
• The relative proportion of objects vvary rather than being fixed by one or two point perspective, such as that normally found in a photograph
• Cezanne took the shifting of color in impressionism to the next level with clearly defined planes that compose the objects and space in the scene
• Ceanne replaces the transitory visual effects of shiftin g colors and atmospheric conditions with careful analysis of color lines and planes
PauL Cezanne Chestnut Trees at the Jas de Bouffan 1885
PauL Cezanne Chestnut Trees at the Jas de Bouffan 1885
James Ensor, The ENtry of Christ into Brussels 1889, postimpressionism 
-subjective emotional resposne to color
-arbitrary uses of color to express emotion
-chaotic space
James Ensor, The ENtry of Christ into Brussels 1889, postimpressionism
-subjective emotional resposne to color
-arbitrary uses of color to express emotion
-chaotic space
Edvard Much: The Scream, 1893, Post Impressionism, German Expressionism/Symbolism
• His belief that humans were powerless under the great natural forces of death and love 
• Jealoust, despair 
• His goal was to describe the condition of modern psychology, realism and impressionism focused on the tangible world
• Much distorted color, line and figures to fit emotions 
• Man standing on the bridge, the curvilinear lines of the landcape shape the mouth and head, to echo a scream reverberating through the setting
• Fiery colors contribute to the extreme anicety
Edvard Much: The Scream, 1893, Post Impressionism, German Expressionism/Symbolism
• His belief that humans were powerless under the great natural forces of death and love
• Jealoust, despair
• His goal was to describe the condition of modern psychology, realism and impressionism focused on the tangible world
• Much distorted color, line and figures to fit emotions
• Man standing on the bridge, the curvilinear lines of the landcape shape the mouth and head, to echo a scream reverberating through the setting
• Fiery colors contribute to the extreme anicety
Paul Gauguin, Vision After the Sermon, 1888, Symbolism
-unomdulated color
-arbitrary 
• Gaugin favored subjective expression, broke away from the Impressionists' focus of minutely contrasted hues because he believed that color was above all the most expressive and powerful tool of artists
• Van Gogh's heavy, thick brush strokes were important to his epressive style, his colors are flatter, random, not according to empirical experience, flat
• He liked the natural primitive culture of Bretons, 
• Rejects both Realism and Impressionism
• Gaugin did not unify the picture with a horizon perspective, or a naturalistic use of color, he abstracted the scene into a patter
• Pure unmodulated color fills flat planes and shaped bounded by firm lines 
• Shapes are harsh and angular
• Abstract expressive patterns of line shap anad color
Paul Gauguin, Vision After the Sermon, 1888, Symbolism
-unomdulated color
-arbitrary
• Gaugin favored subjective expression, broke away from the Impressionists’ focus of minutely contrasted hues because he believed that color was above all the most expressive and powerful tool of artists
• Van Gogh’s heavy, thick brush strokes were important to his epressive style, his colors are flatter, random, not according to empirical experience, flat
• He liked the natural primitive culture of Bretons,
• Rejects both Realism and Impressionism
• Gaugin did not unify the picture with a horizon perspective, or a naturalistic use of color, he abstracted the scene into a patter
• Pure unmodulated color fills flat planes and shaped bounded by firm lines
• Shapes are harsh and angular
• Abstract expressive patterns of line shap anad color
interest in primitive culture, purity, flatness, arbitrary uses of color, large areas of unmodulated color
Gaugin
Paul Gaugin Where do we come from? What are We? Where are we going? 1897-98 , PostImpressionism/Symolism 
• Gaugin searched provocative subjects, moved to Tahiti, interest in the primitive culture, natural people, removing himself from materialistic Euroepe 
• Reconnect with nature 
• Summar of his artistic methods, tropical landscape, native women and children
• Broad areas of flat, unmodulated color which convey intensity 
• Pessimisitic view of the inevitable life cyle
Paul Gaugin Where do we come from? What are We? Where are we going? 1897-98 , PostImpressionism/Symolism
• Gaugin searched provocative subjects, moved to Tahiti, interest in the primitive culture, natural people, removing himself from materialistic Euroepe
• Reconnect with nature
• Summar of his artistic methods, tropical landscape, native women and children
• Broad areas of flat, unmodulated color which convey intensity
• Pessimisitic view of the inevitable life cyle
Rodin, The Gates of Hell, 1880-1917
Rodin, The Gates of Hell, 1880-1917
Rodin, The Kiss, 1888-89
Rodin, The Kiss, 1888-89
art becomes more and more subjection, more of an emotional dimension, an interpretation of the imperical world
1900-1920
one of the first movmements to tap into the pervasive desire for expression
-intense color juxtapositions and emotional resonsance
-Building legacy vfrom Van Gogh and Gaugin, liberating color from decscriptive function, using for both expressive and artistic means
-bold colors, large areas of unmodulated color
Fauvism
Henri Matisse, The Joy of Life, 1905, Fauvism
• Large unmodualted areas of color
• Arbitrary use of color, not used to describe empirical experience but an expression of the artist
• Interest in the primitive and the beginnings of time and culture, the most natural human being, the most emotional and real
• Color is a response to emotional expression and the formal needs of the canvas
• Constructs the landscape so that it functions as a stage, like Cezanne
• Like Cezanne, Matisse unifies the figures and the landscape
• The curvilinear poses of the women echo the movement of the trees 
• Wildly sensual figures, remind of Ungre's odalisques and harem fantasies/ exoticism 
• No use of perspective at all, the sale is badly skewed
• Cezanne ruptured form to accurately explore vision as experienced through time and space, forms look different depending on where we are in relation to them, collapses time and space
• Shifting perspectives is the result of changing position
Henri Matisse, The Joy of Life, 1905, Fauvism
• Large unmodualted areas of color
• Arbitrary use of color, not used to describe empirical experience but an expression of the artist
• Interest in the primitive and the beginnings of time and culture, the most natural human being, the most emotional and real
• Color is a response to emotional expression and the formal needs of the canvas
• Constructs the landscape so that it functions as a stage, like Cezanne
• Like Cezanne, Matisse unifies the figures and the landscape
• The curvilinear poses of the women echo the movement of the trees
• Wildly sensual figures, remind of Ungre’s odalisques and harem fantasies/ exoticism
• No use of perspective at all, the sale is badly skewed
• Cezanne ruptured form to accurately explore vision as experienced through time and space, forms look different depending on where we are in relation to them, collapses time and space
• Shifting perspectives is the result of changing position
Henri Matisse, Harmony in Red, 1908-09 Fauvism
• The subject is an interior of a comfortable prosperous household, radically different from traditional domestic interiors 
• The Fauve painter depicted objects in simplified schematized fashion and falttened out forms
• Large areas of unmodulated colors
• Matisse eliminates the front edge of the table, making the table as flat as the wall
• Window could also be a painting, flattening space even further
Henri Matisse, Harmony in Red, 1908-09 Fauvism
• The subject is an interior of a comfortable prosperous household, radically different from traditional domestic interiors
• The Fauve painter depicted objects in simplified schematized fashion and falttened out forms
• Large areas of unmodulated colors
• Matisse eliminates the front edge of the table, making the table as flat as the wall
• Window could also be a painting, flattening space even further
E Kirchner, The Street, Dresden, 1908, German Expressionism 
• German expressionism, although colors played a prominent role, the expressiveness of the German images is due to distortions of form, ragged outline and agitated brush strokes 
• Resulted in savagely emotional, powerful canvas in the year leading to agitation of World War I 
• These artists protested the hypocracy and materialistic society they lived in, the detrimental effects of industrialization, such as the alienation of individuals in cities, the tensions of aporaching World War I, but discomfort and anxiety in the German Expressionist artists
• This image provides a glimpse into the frenzied urban activity of a bustling German city before Worl War I
• Rather than a distant panoramic view like in impressionism, 
• This instead is dissonant and aggressive, the woman in the foreground loom large, approaching somewhat menacingly 
• The streep perspective ais anxiously depicting falling towards the viewer
• Clashing colors, juztapositions of bright orange and dark greens, no harmony, 
• Distorting perspective, color choices reflect influence of Much, 
• Sense of anxiety
E Kirchner, The Street, Dresden, 1908, German Expressionism
• German expressionism, although colors played a prominent role, the expressiveness of the German images is due to distortions of form, ragged outline and agitated brush strokes
• Resulted in savagely emotional, powerful canvas in the year leading to agitation of World War I
• These artists protested the hypocracy and materialistic society they lived in, the detrimental effects of industrialization, such as the alienation of individuals in cities, the tensions of aporaching World War I, but discomfort and anxiety in the German Expressionist artists
• This image provides a glimpse into the frenzied urban activity of a bustling German city before Worl War I
• Rather than a distant panoramic view like in impressionism,
• This instead is dissonant and aggressive, the woman in the foreground loom large, approaching somewhat menacingly
• The streep perspective ais anxiously depicting falling towards the viewer
• Clashing colors, juztapositions of bright orange and dark greens, no harmony,
• Distorting perspective, color choices reflect influence of Much,
• Sense of anxiety
Franz marc, The Blue Horses, 1911• Founder of the Blue Rider group with Kandinsky
• Precursor, Van Gogh, uses textures and aggressive brush strokes to convey meaning, Gaugin, arbitrary use of coloring, expressionists like Kirchner, matisse took to next level, presenting anxiety and agitation of the years leading up to WWI 
• Harmony of animals, 
• Marc gave an emotional and psychological meaning or purpose the colros he used
• Blue: masculinity and spirituality 
• Yellow: feminine joy 
• Red: encased the sound of violence
• Blue, spritiuality 
• Humans, deeply flawed, materialistic society, turned to animals world, like Matisse turned to primitive human being, interest in natural human state, most emotional
• More pure humanity 
• Marc used color iconography, attempt to redefine the practice of art and make it more pure
Franz marc, The Blue Horses, 1911• Founder of the Blue Rider group with Kandinsky
• Precursor, Van Gogh, uses textures and aggressive brush strokes to convey meaning, Gaugin, arbitrary use of coloring, expressionists like Kirchner, matisse took to next level, presenting anxiety and agitation of the years leading up to WWI
• Harmony of animals,
• Marc gave an emotional and psychological meaning or purpose the colros he used
• Blue: masculinity and spirituality
• Yellow: feminine joy
• Red: encased the sound of violence
• Blue, spritiuality
• Humans, deeply flawed, materialistic society, turned to animals world, like Matisse turned to primitive human being, interest in natural human state, most emotional
• More pure humanity
• Marc used color iconography, attempt to redefine the practice of art and make it more pure
Wassily Kandinsky, Improvisation 28, 1912, Blue Rider Hroup 
• Bleu rider group, mutual interest in the color blue and horses
• Blue resonates deep emotions
• Kandinsky first to explore pure abstraction
• Eliminated representational elemnts with his interest in theosology (a religious and philosophical belief system incorporating a wide range of tenets 
• Scientist's exploration of atomic structure, convinced Kandinsky that material obejcts had no real substance
• Studying color and line specifically, arbitrary relationship, more emotional
Wassily Kandinsky, Improvisation 28, 1912, Blue Rider Hroup
• Bleu rider group, mutual interest in the color blue and horses
• Blue resonates deep emotions
• Kandinsky first to explore pure abstraction
• Eliminated representational elemnts with his interest in theosology (a religious and philosophical belief system incorporating a wide range of tenets
• Scientist’s exploration of atomic structure, convinced Kandinsky that material obejcts had no real substance
• Studying color and line specifically, arbitrary relationship, more emotional
• The expressionist’s departure from any strict adherence to illusionism an art was a path many other artists followed, challenging traditional artistic concntions and moved aggressively towards abstraction
• Ever since the Renaissance, artists painted pictures from a single fixed point of view, the illusion of depth was created using atmospheric and linear perspective, Picasso, Braque, starting even with the expressionist no longer looked to convey this image
• Looked at more from a multiplicity of viewpoints, not as much interest in color as the fauvist, they are studying form alone
• Object is resembled in fragments, overlapping flat surface
• More of subjective response
• Often used flat, three-dimension surfaces
• They sought to depict the intellectual idea of form of an object
• African art and primitive art were large influences
cubism
Pablo Picasso les Demoiselles d'Avignon 1907 CUbism 
• African and ancient Iberian sculpture and the late painting of Cexanne (passage): the blending of overlapping plains into one another, the color the ski appears in the landscape, the color of the landscape appears in the house
• The work began with the intention of portrating two male clients intermingling with women in the reception room of a brothel on Avignon street in Barcelona
• The artist eliminates the male figures and simplied the room's details to a suffestion of draper and a schematic foreground still life
• Instead of depicting the figures as continuous volumes, he fractures their shapes and interwove them with equaled jagged planes that represent drapery and space
• The space is illegible, the background and foreground blend, taking Cezanne to the next level with his treatment of form and space and passage
• Tension between representation and abstraction
• Ancient Iberian sculptures inspired the calm, ideal figures of the three women to the left
• Energetic striated figures, grew with his fascination of primitism (as Matisse was interested in primitive cultures and the beginnings of time) 
• He suggests a combination of views, as they figures are broken and fragmented, as if the viewer is looking from different perspectives
• The tradition of orderly, constructed, uniformed pictorial plane, breaking the foreground and background 
• Dramatic departure from traditional visual representation, realism and impressionism is lost, influence of expressionism, more emotional resonance in the image
Pablo Picasso les Demoiselles d’Avignon 1907 CUbism
• African and ancient Iberian sculpture and the late painting of Cexanne (passage): the blending of overlapping plains into one another, the color the ski appears in the landscape, the color of the landscape appears in the house
• The work began with the intention of portrating two male clients intermingling with women in the reception room of a brothel on Avignon street in Barcelona
• The artist eliminates the male figures and simplied the room’s details to a suffestion of draper and a schematic foreground still life
• Instead of depicting the figures as continuous volumes, he fractures their shapes and interwove them with equaled jagged planes that represent drapery and space
• The space is illegible, the background and foreground blend, taking Cezanne to the next level with his treatment of form and space and passage
• Tension between representation and abstraction
• Ancient Iberian sculptures inspired the calm, ideal figures of the three women to the left
• Energetic striated figures, grew with his fascination of primitism (as Matisse was interested in primitive cultures and the beginnings of time)
• He suggests a combination of views, as they figures are broken and fragmented, as if the viewer is looking from different perspectives
• The tradition of orderly, constructed, uniformed pictorial plane, breaking the foreground and background
• Dramatic departure from traditional visual representation, realism and impressionism is lost, influence of expressionism, more emotional resonance in the image
George Braque The Portuguese 1911 Analytical Cubism 
• Picasso showed Les Demoiselles d'Avignon to few painters, one being Braque 
• They formulated cubism around 1908, completely leaving the pictorial illusionism of perspective and portraying objects and people realistically
• The cubists preferred the pure study of shape and form, and the intellectual base for it, rather than how the conventional world was perceived
• Avante-garde for the period, began with Cezanne's artistic explorations of form, no longer a coherent aesthetic object
• For the cubist, art had to move beyong the description of visual reality 
• Dissecting the forms of their subjects, analyzing the structure of forms 
• The artist derives the subject from his memories of a Portuguese musician seen years before in a bar in Marseilles 
• No interest in color, rejecting pictorial illusionism 
• Unlike the Fauves and the German Expressionists, who used vibrant colors, the Cubists subdued hues, here solely in brown tones, focusing the viewers attention purely on the analysis of form
• He took this analysis so far that the viewer has to study to dissect what the artist is depicting as the artist himself dissected the forms 
• He construction suggests form of a man and his guitar, light and shadow seem arbitrary, broken down and dissected, departure from illusionism and conventional artistic practice
• Solid forms seem to be cancelled out immediately 
• The stenciled letters are interesting, combining new elements into art, literature or words
• Plays with two and three dimensional space 
• The numbers and letters are flat
• Also the use of letters suggest a blurring of art and non art, stencial is not something you would typically find in the artist's studio 
• The constant shifting of perspective and use of depth confuses the viewer, makes it harder and harder the letters and numbers 
• The literal representation of numbers or letters contrasts the ambiguous representation of the forms that can't be derived, artist is playing with the viewer in a way
George Braque The Portuguese 1911 Analytical Cubism
• Picasso showed Les Demoiselles d’Avignon to few painters, one being Braque
• They formulated cubism around 1908, completely leaving the pictorial illusionism of perspective and portraying objects and people realistically
• The cubists preferred the pure study of shape and form, and the intellectual base for it, rather than how the conventional world was perceived
• Avante-garde for the period, began with Cezanne’s artistic explorations of form, no longer a coherent aesthetic object
• For the cubist, art had to move beyong the description of visual reality
• Dissecting the forms of their subjects, analyzing the structure of forms
• The artist derives the subject from his memories of a Portuguese musician seen years before in a bar in Marseilles
• No interest in color, rejecting pictorial illusionism
• Unlike the Fauves and the German Expressionists, who used vibrant colors, the Cubists subdued hues, here solely in brown tones, focusing the viewers attention purely on the analysis of form
• He took this analysis so far that the viewer has to study to dissect what the artist is depicting as the artist himself dissected the forms
• He construction suggests form of a man and his guitar, light and shadow seem arbitrary, broken down and dissected, departure from illusionism and conventional artistic practice
• Solid forms seem to be cancelled out immediately
• The stenciled letters are interesting, combining new elements into art, literature or words
• Plays with two and three dimensional space
• The numbers and letters are flat
• Also the use of letters suggest a blurring of art and non art, stencial is not something you would typically find in the artist’s studio
• The constant shifting of perspective and use of depth confuses the viewer, makes it harder and harder the letters and numbers
• The literal representation of numbers or letters contrasts the ambiguous representation of the forms that can’t be derived, artist is playing with the viewer in a way
Picasso Still Life with Chair-Caning 1912 , Cubism 
• Introducing the found object into high art, very interesting, precurses Du Champ and dada
• A collage is a composition of bits of objects, or cloth glued to the surface
• Including utilitarian objects in art has never been done before
• The forms are dissected and broken dow, strict study of form itself, neutral coloring to make sure the viewer knows this is about form in itself
• Employing objects that artists should not expect to but into painting, framed with a piece of rope, not typical use of artistic elements
• This is a pitning in which the artist imprints a pattern of can chair seat on the canvas and then pastes a piece of oil cloth on it 
• Challenges viewer's understanding of what art is, the char caining is real but is also representational in the sense that it repsents the chair
• Fragmentation, artist eliminates illusionistic qualities 
• The word JOU, journal in france, or jouer, to play, he is playing with art and the viewer's expectations, tension between whats represented and representation
Picasso Still Life with Chair-Caning 1912 , Cubism
• Introducing the found object into high art, very interesting, precurses Du Champ and dada
• A collage is a composition of bits of objects, or cloth glued to the surface
• Including utilitarian objects in art has never been done before
• The forms are dissected and broken dow, strict study of form itself, neutral coloring to make sure the viewer knows this is about form in itself
• Employing objects that artists should not expect to but into painting, framed with a piece of rope, not typical use of artistic elements
• This is a pitning in which the artist imprints a pattern of can chair seat on the canvas and then pastes a piece of oil cloth on it
• Challenges viewer’s understanding of what art is, the char caining is real but is also representational in the sense that it repsents the chair
• Fragmentation, artist eliminates illusionistic qualities
• The word JOU, journal in france, or jouer, to play, he is playing with art and the viewer’s expectations, tension between whats represented and representation
Pablo Picasso Guernica 1937 Cubism
• Oil painting, done in gray, blacn an white, is known as one of the most moving a powerful antiwar painting in history 
• Large mural shows the suffering of people, animal and buildings wrenched by violence and chaos
• The apinting is believed to be a response to the bombing of Guernica a Basque country village in northern Spain, by German and Italian warplanes 
• Center shows a horse falling in aga=ony as it had been run through by a spear
• Daed soldier beneath him
• A light bulb blazes in the shape of an evil eye over the suffering horse's head, word lightbulb in Spanish in bombilla, bomba is bomb in Spanish 
• Fragmented forms, study of form purely, no sense of foreground or background, as in cubism, neutral colors to emphasize the focus of form
• Random juxtaposition of elements, yet symbolic
• Fragmentation of objects and the dislocation of anatomical features
• The Cubist fragmentation gave visual form to the horror
• The severity and darkness also evokes the motions and despair of the situation depicted
Pablo Picasso Guernica 1937 Cubism
• Oil painting, done in gray, blacn an white, is known as one of the most moving a powerful antiwar painting in history
• Large mural shows the suffering of people, animal and buildings wrenched by violence and chaos
• The apinting is believed to be a response to the bombing of Guernica a Basque country village in northern Spain, by German and Italian warplanes
• Center shows a horse falling in aga=ony as it had been run through by a spear
• Daed soldier beneath him
• A light bulb blazes in the shape of an evil eye over the suffering horse’s head, word lightbulb in Spanish in bombilla, bomba is bomb in Spanish
• Fragmented forms, study of form purely, no sense of foreground or background, as in cubism, neutral colors to emphasize the focus of form
• Random juxtaposition of elements, yet symbolic
• Fragmentation of objects and the dislocation of anatomical features
• The Cubist fragmentation gave visual form to the horror
• The severity and darkness also evokes the motions and despair of the situation depicted
• Early 20th century movement, pursued many of the dieas that the Cubists explored, equally important was the socio-political agenda
• Also came from the angry response to the economic and poltical decline of Italy at this time, they had particular interest in the speed and dynamism of modern technology
• Marinetti, for example, insisted that a racing “automobile adorned with great pipes like serpents with explosive breath.. is more beautiful than the Victory of Samothrace.”
• Futurist focused on the motion in time and space, incorporating the Cubist discovering derived from the analysis of form
Futurism
Giacomo Balla Dynamism of a dog on a leash 1912 Futurist • The futurist's interest in motion and the cubist dissection of form is eident here
• Viewer sees the passing of a dog and its owner, Ball receieves the affects of motion by repeating shapes as in the dog's lefs and tail and in the line swinging of the leash
• Their interest was in motion, related to the falling and decline of Italian economic and social conditions, pushed toward industrialization, cars, mechanism, 
• Futurist manifesto was written in an attempt to apply Marinetti's views on literature to visual arts
• The aggressive lines move backwards, evoking since of movement and modernity
Giacomo Balla Dynamism of a dog on a leash 1912 Futurist • The futurist’s interest in motion and the cubist dissection of form is eident here
• Viewer sees the passing of a dog and its owner, Ball receieves the affects of motion by repeating shapes as in the dog’s lefs and tail and in the line swinging of the leash
• Their interest was in motion, related to the falling and decline of Italian economic and social conditions, pushed toward industrialization, cars, mechanism,
• Futurist manifesto was written in an attempt to apply Marinetti’s views on literature to visual arts
• The aggressive lines move backwards, evoking since of movement and modernity
Marcel Duchamp Nude Descending a Staircase 1912 Futurism 
• Presents futurist's interest in form and movement, the futurist manifesto in Italy, relating to decline of Italy's social and economic condition
• Artists like Boccioni, Balla wanted to express in interest in dynamism, mechanical production, the future
• Also present in the cubist interest in dissecting form and purely studying form and not necessarily color 
• Done for the cubists, but cubist thought is more in the realm of futurism
• Hybrid of futurism and and cubism
• Conveys the rhythm and movement of figure merging into itself
• Emphasize dynamism, 
• Depicts motion by successive superimposed imagery
• Painting of Boccioni's Unique forms of Continuity in space
Marcel Duchamp Nude Descending a Staircase 1912 Futurism
• Presents futurist’s interest in form and movement, the futurist manifesto in Italy, relating to decline of Italy’s social and economic condition
• Artists like Boccioni, Balla wanted to express in interest in dynamism, mechanical production, the future
• Also present in the cubist interest in dissecting form and purely studying form and not necessarily color
• Done for the cubists, but cubist thought is more in the realm of futurism
• Hybrid of futurism and and cubism
• Conveys the rhythm and movement of figure merging into itself
• Emphasize dynamism,
• Depicts motion by successive superimposed imagery
• Painting of Boccioni’s Unique forms of Continuity in space
Umberto Boccioni Unique Forms of Continuity in Space 1913 Futurist 
• Boccioni cosigned the futurist manifest, focusing on the idea that a racing automobile is more beautiful than anything static like a classical apaintign or classical architecture
• Abolishing the enclosed status
• Interst in the study of form, relates back to Braque and Picasso in their interest in dissecting form 
• Highlights the spatial and formal effects of motion 
• Presents a striding figure, the figure almost disappears in the blur of its movement and dynamism
• Expressing dynamic action, upset by the political and economic state in Italy, wanted to move forward, celebrating technology and the future
• Relates to Nike of Smothrace, modern work departs from ancient static forms, blurring its movement
Umberto Boccioni Unique Forms of Continuity in Space 1913 Futurist
• Boccioni cosigned the futurist manifest, focusing on the idea that a racing automobile is more beautiful than anything static like a classical apaintign or classical architecture
• Abolishing the enclosed status
• Interst in the study of form, relates back to Braque and Picasso in their interest in dissecting form
• Highlights the spatial and formal effects of motion
• Presents a striding figure, the figure almost disappears in the blur of its movement and dynamism
• Expressing dynamic action, upset by the political and economic state in Italy, wanted to move forward, celebrating technology and the future
• Relates to Nike of Smothrace, modern work departs from ancient static forms, blurring its movement
Piet Mondrian Composition with red, blue, and yellow, 1930 De Stijl Non-objective art
• Utopian spirit, the movement De Stijl, believed there needed to be a rebirth of society in the birth of a new age post WOrl War 1
• They felt a desire to balance the individual and universal values,
•
Piet Mondrian Composition with red, blue, and yellow, 1930 De Stijl Non-objective art
• Utopian spirit, the movement De Stijl, believed there needed to be a rebirth of society in the birth of a new age post WOrl War 1
• They felt a desire to balance the individual and universal values,
• “There is an old and a new consciousness of time. The old is connected with the individual and the new is connected with the universal”
• reveals the underlying external structure of existence, wanted to reduce the structure of art to simple geometric elements
• influenced from cubism as they too just focused on form, wanted to purge his art of any objective or external reference to the outside world
• he moved away from cubism because he wanted to express a more pure art, without any references at all to literalobejcts
• to express this he limited his formal vocabulary to the three primary colors,
• he divided his two goals into two balances, 1) the balance of being one with nature and the universe, reflected by the horizontal lines and 2) the connection to spirituality and the indivudal
• he wanted a pure art, harmonious composition this is why he uses the primary colors and sumple forms
• dynamic tension between color and shape
• perfection, harmonious, art for arts sake
Brancusi, Bird in Space, 1923 , Nonobjective abstract art 
• No literal depictions, he wanted simplicity and thus could not present anything objective, what is real to Brancusi is the essense of things, it is impossible for anyone to express anything real by imitating its external or exterior surface
• Wanted to emphasize the essence of the world, as did Monrian, the natural and the organic
• Is sculptures refer to the essence or spirit of the object depicted
• Elegant and rhythmic, suggests the bird about to soar into flight through the heavens
• Contrasts Rodin's agitated and textured surfaces, the polished surface of this does not allow the eye to linger too long
Brancusi, Bird in Space, 1923 , Nonobjective abstract art
• No literal depictions, he wanted simplicity and thus could not present anything objective, what is real to Brancusi is the essense of things, it is impossible for anyone to express anything real by imitating its external or exterior surface
• Wanted to emphasize the essence of the world, as did Monrian, the natural and the organic
• Is sculptures refer to the essence or spirit of the object depicted
• Elegant and rhythmic, suggests the bird about to soar into flight through the heavens
• Contrasts Rodin’s agitated and textured surfaces, the polished surface of this does not allow the eye to linger too long
Malevich Suprematist Composition, White on White, 1918, Nonobjective abstract art 
• Malevich, as did Mondrian, looked for a universal and pure art that could represent the essence of life, no external referenced
• Supreme reality is pure feeling which attaches to no object, like Brancusi
• The square, straight line and rectangle, perhaps referening the balancing between nature and spirituality 
• Wanted a pure language of shape and color, to which everyone could respond to with feeling
• He rejected illusionistic realistic art that the government suppressed on him which horrified him
• Focus on form in itself
Malevich Suprematist Composition, White on White, 1918, Nonobjective abstract art
• Malevich, as did Mondrian, looked for a universal and pure art that could represent the essence of life, no external referenced
• Supreme reality is pure feeling which attaches to no object, like Brancusi
• The square, straight line and rectangle, perhaps referening the balancing between nature and spirituality
• Wanted a pure language of shape and color, to which everyone could respond to with feeling
• He rejected illusionistic realistic art that the government suppressed on him which horrified him
• Focus on form in itself
-reaction against Worl War II, did not want to celebrate technology like Futurist (boccioni, balla)
-believed humanity needed a new art
• Dada emerged in reaction to what artists thought was a collective homicide
• Dada was more of a mindset than an identifiable style, reaction against humanity
• Andre Breton, the founder of the surrealist movement said, “cubism was a school for painting, futurism a political movement: DADA is a state of mind.”
• Believed reason and rationality caused the war, so the only way to escape this mindset was through elements of the absurd, irrational etc.
Dada
“cubism was a school for painting, futurism a political movement: DADA is a state of mind.”
Andre Breton
Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1913 , Dada Ready Made 
•
Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1913 , Dada Ready Made
• “ready made” sculpture
• bringing utilitarian, found object and removing its functionality by turning it on its side and calling it art
• not selected due to aesthetic quality, bluring the line between art and non at
• forcing people to look at the object in a new light
• Arp, chance, irrationality, reaction against the war
• Bringing found object into art precurses the future of art with Rauschenberg, David Smith allowing the artist to be more passive, the viewer has more of an active role
• By removing its functionality creates a new light for the object
• Interesting how Du Champ, with nude descending a staircase was initially considered a futurist which celebrated techonology war, the future, dynamism, here this is exact reaction against that completely irrational
Marcel Du Champ LHOOQ 1919DADA 
• This is an assisted ready made, taking a functional utilitarian object not normally considered art and transforming them into the realms of high art
• Renaming them as renamed the urinal Fountain
• A cheap postcard reproduction of Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa, drew moustache and beard, found object, no longer serves its paper
• Pun for she has a hot ass, mocking art, after the war who really cares
Marcel Du Champ LHOOQ 1919DADA
• This is an assisted ready made, taking a functional utilitarian object not normally considered art and transforming them into the realms of high art
• Renaming them as renamed the urinal Fountain
• A cheap postcard reproduction of Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa, drew moustache and beard, found object, no longer serves its paper
• Pun for she has a hot ass, mocking art, after the war who really cares
Marcel Duchamp The Bride Stipped Bare by her bachelors, Even, 1915-1923 Dada
• This is most conceptually challenging work, this is both playful (as Du Champ usually is0 and serious examination of humans as machines, reference to world War 1, futurist focus on movement 
• Introducing obkects that were not considered high art, also introducing chance as did Arp with her Collage arranged by Chance
• Consists of oil paint, wire, and lead foil in between two large glass panels 
• Array of mechanical material others more natural
• The top half of the work represents
Marcel Duchamp The Bride Stipped Bare by her bachelors, Even, 1915-1923 Dada
• This is most conceptually challenging work, this is both playful (as Du Champ usually is0 and serious examination of humans as machines, reference to world War 1, futurist focus on movement
• Introducing obkects that were not considered high art, also introducing chance as did Arp with her Collage arranged by Chance
• Consists of oil paint, wire, and lead foil in between two large glass panels
• Array of mechanical material others more natural
• The top half of the work represents “the bride” who Duchamp has depicted as “basicallya motor” fueld by a love gasoline
• Richard Sttankieics Bride of 1955 also took this to the next level, the bride being a machine of society, the norms of bride, spending so much money for one day, mocking societal norms
• The bachelors appearas uniformed male fiure in lower half of the work
• They also move mechanically, the chocolate grinder representing masturbation
• Chance completed the work as the glass broke in traveling, Du Champ thought this was good
• Rethinking the role of art in the wak of World War I, more ironic, more about chance and irrationality, introducing utilitarian objects and removing their functionality
• Dada emerged as a reaction against World War I and the futurists (political movement) cubist (school of painting) and Dada irrationality mocking it all
• By 1924, everyone joined the surrealists
• Dadaist’s improvisational techniques were taken along with the surrealists
• The surrealists sought to explore internal psychology and the realm of fantasy/ unconscious
• Inspred by Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, had special interest in the nature of dreams
• They believed dreams as occurring at the level connecting all hman consciousness and an area that people could move beyond the restrictions and cultural restraints of society
• The Surrealists wanted to combine the aspects of outer and inner reality
surrealism
Salvador Dali: The Persistence of Memory, 1929 Surrealism
• The Surrealists' desire for inner exploration and the internal psyche by way of the dreams, which through the influence of Sigmun Freud and Carl Jung, thought that dreams were what connected the human consciousness 
• Wanted to materialize irrationality, unlike Dada which focused purely on being irrational, Dali wanted to emerge this irrationality 
• Time his ended, haunted allegory of empty space
• Things juxtaposed in a random fashion 
• Melting time, time does not exist
• Ants swarm a wath, whie a fly walks along the face of its alrge neighbor
• Decaing of life? 
• He renders in realistic and intense control 
• Dreamlike dissociation of image and meaning, which would create meaning, psychological introspection
Salvador Dali: The Persistence of Memory, 1929 Surrealism
• The Surrealists’ desire for inner exploration and the internal psyche by way of the dreams, which through the influence of Sigmun Freud and Carl Jung, thought that dreams were what connected the human consciousness
• Wanted to materialize irrationality, unlike Dada which focused purely on being irrational, Dali wanted to emerge this irrationality
• Time his ended, haunted allegory of empty space
• Things juxtaposed in a random fashion
• Melting time, time does not exist
• Ants swarm a wath, whie a fly walks along the face of its alrge neighbor
• Decaing of life?
• He renders in realistic and intense control
• Dreamlike dissociation of image and meaning, which would create meaning, psychological introspection
Rene Magritte, The Treachery of Images, 1928, 1929 , Surrealism 
• Relies on irrationality, depicting the irrational that manifests in dreams, tells about the actual human being 
• Freud Carl Jung, inner exploration, the dream manifest colelective unconscious
• This is not a pipe, discrepancy between the image and caption 
• What is this? Viewer does not know, viewer irrationality, dreams 
• Insertion of language: ties to Picasso, flat
Rene Magritte, The Treachery of Images, 1928, 1929 , Surrealism
• Relies on irrationality, depicting the irrational that manifests in dreams, tells about the actual human being
• Freud Carl Jung, inner exploration, the dream manifest colelective unconscious
• This is not a pipe, discrepancy between the image and caption
• What is this? Viewer does not know, viewer irrationality, dreams
• Insertion of language: ties to Picasso, flat
• In the 1940s the center of Western art shifts from Paris to New York because of the devastation of WWII that inflicted in Europe
• Americans took on energy of Cubism and Dada and Surrealism,
• Formalism: an emphasis on an artowrk’s visual elements rather than its painting
• Greenberg wanted to develop an art that avoided any external references, an art for itself, rejecting illusionism completely
• Greenbergian formalism changed, purity in art
• “Purity in art consists in the acceptance, willing acceptance, of the limitations of the medium of the specific ar”
• painting should celebrate flatness because that’s what painting is
• The Abstract Expressionists turned inward for psychological introspection but no illusionism like in surrealism, instead they would convey through the spontaneity, and allowing chance to take part of the work as Ar did
Abstract Expressionism
Jackson Pollock Lavender Mist 1950 Abstract Expressionism• all over composition, which Greenberg formalism liked, no reference to the external world
• art for arts sake
• allowing chance to take over, like Arp, relingquishing control to natural forces like gravity 
• artist becomes more of a passive player
• indexical: shows the artist's presence 
• he flung and dripped the paint, worked with the canvas on the floor
• spontaneous yet choreographed like a dnace
• celebrated flatness, no relationship between the foreground or background
• he improvisational nature ties to thea rtist's subconscious
Jackson Pollock Lavender Mist 1950 Abstract Expressionism• all over composition, which Greenberg formalism liked, no reference to the external world
• art for arts sake
• allowing chance to take over, like Arp, relingquishing control to natural forces like gravity
• artist becomes more of a passive player
• indexical: shows the artist’s presence
• he flung and dripped the paint, worked with the canvas on the floor
• spontaneous yet choreographed like a dnace
• celebrated flatness, no relationship between the foreground or background
• he improvisational nature ties to thea rtist’s subconscious
Mark Rothko no. 14 1960 Abstract Expressionism 
• Greenbergian formalism: no external references
• Art is its own, rejecting illusionism completely 
• Wanted to express pure human emotions, the essence of things (kind of like Branusi and Malevich) 
• Color producing pure optical effects and conveying certainemotions to the viewer
• The brushy hazy edges show indexical references to the artists presence
• Color = basic human emotions, the simplicity brings a compelling visual experience 
• No center of attention, more limited expression than Pollock 
• Simply pigment on a flat surface, precursor for Frankenthaler and Ellsowrth Kelly who would take this to the next level, there is still emotional connection here
Mark Rothko no. 14 1960 Abstract Expressionism
• Greenbergian formalism: no external references
• Art is its own, rejecting illusionism completely
• Wanted to express pure human emotions, the essence of things (kind of like Branusi and Malevich)
• Color producing pure optical effects and conveying certainemotions to the viewer
• The brushy hazy edges show indexical references to the artists presence
• Color = basic human emotions, the simplicity brings a compelling visual experience
• No center of attention, more limited expression than Pollock
• Simply pigment on a flat surface, precursor for Frankenthaler and Ellsowrth Kelly who would take this to the next level, there is still emotional connection here
Jasper Johns Three Flags 1955 Neodada 
• Johns finds the Trojan horse in Greenberg's idea of formalism, in which art should celebrate the medium as it is flatness, nonobjective, pure art for its own sake
• Here, what if you paint something flat but the object being represented is flat
• There is no difference here between the signified (the flag) and the signifier (the painting) 
• There is incongruity between the roughness, painterly aspects of the surface and the flatness of the representation
• He incorporates three dimensionality which also frustrates Greenberg, reference to Kelly, painting should celebrate flatness where as sculpture should celebrate three dimensionality 
• Also plays with perspective and illusion, as object gets closer, the viewer expects it to get bigger, here he does the opposite
• He relinquishes a bit of control to nature by allowing the shadows to show up on the surface 
• The found object is also referenced, inherent part of dada I shumor, a lot of humor is going 
• Iconic (flag) index (Painterly) symbol (US) 
Pop Art
Jasper Johns Three Flags 1955 Neodada
• Johns finds the Trojan horse in Greenberg’s idea of formalism, in which art should celebrate the medium as it is flatness, nonobjective, pure art for its own sake
• Here, what if you paint something flat but the object being represented is flat
• There is no difference here between the signified (the flag) and the signifier (the painting)
• There is incongruity between the roughness, painterly aspects of the surface and the flatness of the representation
• He incorporates three dimensionality which also frustrates Greenberg, reference to Kelly, painting should celebrate flatness where as sculpture should celebrate three dimensionality
• Also plays with perspective and illusion, as object gets closer, the viewer expects it to get bigger, here he does the opposite
• He relinquishes a bit of control to nature by allowing the shadows to show up on the surface
• The found object is also referenced, inherent part of dada I shumor, a lot of humor is going
• Iconic (flag) index (Painterly) symbol (US)
Pop Art
• Abstract expressionism, Post-painterly Abstraction, and Minimalism all adopted an artistic vocabulary of abstraction
• Other artists thought that the insular and introspective qualtities of the avant-garde alienated the public, they south to harness a more communicative power of art to talk to their audience and not alienate them
• Their focus was not on modernist issues like that of Greenberg (pure art) and Rosenberg (bluring line between art and non art)
• Pop artists reintroduced all of the tools traditionally used to convey meaning in art, such as signs symbols, metaphors, allysions, illusions and figural imagery
• They embraced representation to the next level by producing an art grounded on consumer culture and the mass media making it more accessible to the average person
• Popular mass culture and familiar imagery of th econtemporary urban environment
PopARt
Richard Hamilton: What is it about today's homes that makes them so exciting 1956 Popart 
• Sought to initiatefresh thinking in art, sharing their fascination with the aesthetics of content in popular culture like advertising, comic books and movies 
• This exemplifies the attitude of British Pop Art
• Hamilton studied the way advertising shapes public attitudes 
• Duchamp's ideas are here, combining elements of popular art and fine art, both belonged to the world of visual communication
• Bluring the distinction between art and non art as Duchamp started with Fountain in 1913 
• Includes image of Hollywood cinema, science fiction, mass media and one reproduction of a Van Gogh painting (referencing his thoughts that art should be more connected to the world, visual communication is visual communication) 
• The colalge reflects the values of modern consumer culture through figures and objects cut through glossy magazine
• Mass media: the television, the theater marquee, the newspaper
• Advertising (Hoover vacuums, Ford Cars, Armour hams, Tootsie Pops)
• Popular culture (the girlie magazine, body builder Charles Atlas, romance comics) 
• Speculates society's values, as possibly Duchamp's the Bride Stripped bare by her Bachelors
Richard Hamilton: What is it about today’s homes that makes them so exciting 1956 Popart
• Sought to initiatefresh thinking in art, sharing their fascination with the aesthetics of content in popular culture like advertising, comic books and movies
• This exemplifies the attitude of British Pop Art
• Hamilton studied the way advertising shapes public attitudes
• Duchamp’s ideas are here, combining elements of popular art and fine art, both belonged to the world of visual communication
• Bluring the distinction between art and non art as Duchamp started with Fountain in 1913
• Includes image of Hollywood cinema, science fiction, mass media and one reproduction of a Van Gogh painting (referencing his thoughts that art should be more connected to the world, visual communication is visual communication)
• The colalge reflects the values of modern consumer culture through figures and objects cut through glossy magazine
• Mass media: the television, the theater marquee, the newspaper
• Advertising (Hoover vacuums, Ford Cars, Armour hams, Tootsie Pops)
• Popular culture (the girlie magazine, body builder Charles Atlas, romance comics)
• Speculates society’s values, as possibly Duchamp’s the Bride Stripped bare by her Bachelors
Andy Warhol: Soup Cans, 1964 , Popart
• His early career as a commercial artist and illustrator precursed his knowledge in advertising visual rhetoric and the mass media, 
• Icon of mass produced consumer culture of the time 
• He used visual printing techniques that reinforced its connection with consumer culture, repetition and its omnipresence related to the dominance of marketing and advertising int Maerican Society 
• He also called his studio the factory 
• Mocking visual language and rhetoric in consumer culture 
• Not interested in the formalist discussion of Greenberg ad Rosenberg, wanted to make art that did not alienate the public as did abstract expressionism with itsfocus on the artist's introspection or the lofty intellectual concepts behind post-painterly abstraction
Andy Warhol: Soup Cans, 1964 , Popart
• His early career as a commercial artist and illustrator precursed his knowledge in advertising visual rhetoric and the mass media,
• Icon of mass produced consumer culture of the time
• He used visual printing techniques that reinforced its connection with consumer culture, repetition and its omnipresence related to the dominance of marketing and advertising int Maerican Society
• He also called his studio the factory
• Mocking visual language and rhetoric in consumer culture
• Not interested in the formalist discussion of Greenberg ad Rosenberg, wanted to make art that did not alienate the public as did abstract expressionism with itsfocus on the artist’s introspection or the lofty intellectual concepts behind post-painterly abstraction
Roy Lichtenstein Hopeless 1963 Popart 
• Uses commercial art as a subject matter in painting, not interested in loft intellectual stuff or introspection, connecting art to the real world
• It does not like a painting of something, but it is the thing itself
• Comic books appealed to Lichensteain because they were of major importance to American consumerism and popular culture 
• Meant to be read and then discarded 
• The pop art movement immortalized their images on large canvases 
• Excerpted an image from a comic book, a form of entertainment meant to be read and then discarded and immortalized it into large canvas
• Comment on consumer culture
• Unmodulated color areas, retained dark outlines, typical of the style of comic books 
• Also used benday dots, called attention to the aspects of mass production 
• Transferred the visual shorthand language of the comic book to the realm of monumental painting
Roy Lichtenstein Hopeless 1963 Popart
• Uses commercial art as a subject matter in painting, not interested in loft intellectual stuff or introspection, connecting art to the real world
• It does not like a painting of something, but it is the thing itself
• Comic books appealed to Lichensteain because they were of major importance to American consumerism and popular culture
• Meant to be read and then discarded
• The pop art movement immortalized their images on large canvases
• Excerpted an image from a comic book, a form of entertainment meant to be read and then discarded and immortalized it into large canvas
• Comment on consumer culture
• Unmodulated color areas, retained dark outlines, typical of the style of comic books
• Also used benday dots, called attention to the aspects of mass production
• Transferred the visual shorthand language of the comic book to the realm of monumental painting
Tony Smith, Die, 1962
Tony Smith, Die, 1962
Joseph Kosuth, One and THree Chairs, 1965
Joseph Kosuth, One and THree Chairs, 1965
Jean Tinueuely, Homage to New York 1960
Jean Tinueuely, Homage to New York 1960
Robert SMithson, Spiral Jetty, Great Salt Lake,
Robert SMithson, Spiral Jetty, Great Salt Lake,
Christo and Jeane Clause, Surrounded Island, Biscyne Bay
Christo and Jeane Clause, Surrounded Island, Biscyne Bay
Versailles; 1660-1685, Louis LeVau, Jules Hardouin_Mansart, Andre LeNotre (gardens), Charles Le Brun (decoration), Verailles, France, Baroque architecture
****ing Versailees
Versaille Hall of Mirrors, 1660-85, Jules Hardoin Mansart, Charles Le Brun (interiors) Baroque
Germaine Boffrande, Salon de la Princess, Hotel Soubise, Paris 1732 Rococo
Germaine Boffrande, Salon de la Princess, Hotel Soubise, Paris 1732 Rococo
Lord Burlington and Wm. Kent, Chiswick House, London, 1725 Neoclassical
Lord Burlington and Wm. Kent, Chiswick House, London, 1725 Neoclassical
Domenikus Zimmerman, Wies Church, Bavaria, Germany 1745-54
Domenikus Zimmerman, Wies Church, Bavaria, Germany 1745-54
Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, Charlotesville, VA 1770-82
Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, Charlotesville, VA 1770-82
Thomas Jefferson University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 1817-26
Thomas Jefferson University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 1817-26
Charles Barry and AWN Pugin, Houses of Parliament, London, 1835 Romantic/ Gothic Revival
Charles Barry and AWN Pugin, Houses of Parliament, London, 1835 Romantic/ Gothic Revival
Mckim, Mean & White, Boston Public Library 1888-95 Classical Revival
Mckim, Mean & White, Boston Public Library 1888-95 Classical Revival
Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan: The Guaranty Building, 1895, Modernism
Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan: The Guaranty Building, 1895, Modernism
Walter Gropius: Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany, 1926 Modernist
• Goals:
o A decidedly positive attitude to the living environment of vehicles and machines
o The organic shaping of things in accordance with their own current laws, avoiding all romantic embellishment and whimsicalness 
o Restriction of basic forms and colors to what is universally intelligible 
o Simplicity in complexity, economy in the use of space, material, time and money
o Bauhaus architectural manifesto: the builders constructed the skeleton of reinforced concrete but set these supports well back, covering the entire structure with a glass curtain or mirror 
o Freeflowing undivided space
Walter Gropius: Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany, 1926 Modernist
• Goals:
o A decidedly positive attitude to the living environment of vehicles and machines
o The organic shaping of things in accordance with their own current laws, avoiding all romantic embellishment and whimsicalness
o Restriction of basic forms and colors to what is universally intelligible
o Simplicity in complexity, economy in the use of space, material, time and money
o Bauhaus architectural manifesto: the builders constructed the skeleton of reinforced concrete but set these supports well back, covering the entire structure with a glass curtain or mirror
o Freeflowing undivided space “economy of space”
Miles Van der Rohe, Seagram Building, NYC, 1954-58, Modernist/Bauhaus
Miles Van der Rohe, Seagram Building, NYC, 1954-58, Modernist/Bauhaus
Frank Lloyd Wright: the Robie House, Chicago, IL, 1906-10, Prairie SChool
Frank Lloyd Wright: the Robie House, Chicago, IL, 1906-10, Prairie SChool
Le Corbusier Villa Savoye, Poissy, France, 1929, Modernist
Le Corbusier Villa Savoye, Poissy, France, 1929, Modernist
Le Corbusier, Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France 1950-55, Modernist
Le Corbusier, Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France 1950-55, Modernist
Frank Lloyd Wright, Kaufmann House, Bear Run, Pennsylvania, 1936-37
Frank Lloyd Wright, Kaufmann House, Bear Run, Pennsylvania, 1936-37
Frank Lloyd Wright: Guggenheim Museum, NYC, 1943-59,WRightian
Frank Lloyd Wright: Guggenheim Museum, NYC, 1943-59,WRightian