Art Quizzes

The vocabulary of art includes ________________________________; these are the visual or plastic elements.
line, shape, light, value, color, texture, space, time, and motion
In The Creation of Adam Michelangelo uses the glances of the figures in the composition to direct the eyes of the viewer to the hands of God and Adam, and the action of God reaching out to spark spiritual life into Adam, the focal point. The direction the figures in a given composition are looking is one of the most powerful kinds of ________________.
visual element
implied line
actual line
Leonardo da Vinci uses the figures in this work to define a pyramid structure, which serves as the central focus and the organizational device of the composition. The pyramid is formed using _______________ with the head of the Virgin Mary as the apex and the extension of her arms and glance forming sides.
implied line
The artist used _____________ to create the illusion of depth. The columns seem to have continually varying contours and to be fully rounder in spatial volume. When the hatching and cross-hatching of the parallel lines are close together they create a darker value and recede and areas without lines create highlights.
A Bronze sculpture occupies three-dimensional space and has measurable volume and weight. So it has ________________ .
actual mass
In the drawing pictured in question four, the columns, the artist creates the illusion of three dimensions so the objects in the drawing have the illusion of having volume and weight. It is said to have _______________.
implied mass
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Drawing a person in a naturalist way would call for the use of soft curvilinear lines and would create ______________, but to make a drawing of office buildings would require an artist to use _______________ that are regular, easy to measure, and easy to describe.
organic shapes and geometric shapes
The forms or shapes in this work or unclear. Claude Monet uses ______________ and pulsating colorfields in his work Haystack at Sunset near Giverny to create a powerful emotional impact.
amorphous shapes
Gestalt psychologists have noted that shapes can be ambiguous, so as to encourage ______________ with viewers that is we tend to perceive objects within their context.
figure-ground reversal
Which of these figures has the most contrast?
B and C
Pierre-Paul Prud’hon used _______________ the technique of gradual shifting from light to dark through successive gradation of tone across a curved surface in the work.
Even through The Sleeping Gypsy is a color composition we can still discuss the relative lightness and darkness in the work or its use of _____________.
Which of these is an example of cool colors?
blue, green, periwinkle
Which of these is an example of warm colors?
yellow, orange, red
Which of these is a shade of red?
Which of these is a tint of red?
Which of these is an example of primary colors?
blue, yellow, red
Which of these is an example of secondary colors?
orange, green, violet
In the work, Woman at Her Toilette by Edgar Degas, with its yellow and orange family of colors; which type of color combination dominates this work?
If I were to change the colors in the previous question (19) work of art to red and green, colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel; what type of color combination would then dominate this work?
If I gave you a sculpture made out of rough, course, and splintery wood and as you held it you got a splinter in your hand that would be an example of ______________.
actual texture
_______________ Is a painting technique in which paint is applied in thick layers or strokes to create a rough three-dimensional paint surface on the two-dimensional surface.
_________________ is a French term meaning to “fool the eye.” The objects are in sharp focus and delineated with meticulous care to create an artwork that almost fools the viewer into believing that the images are the actual objects. As in this work we almost feel like we are looking at the real object that we see painted.
trompe l’oeil
This sculpture is an example of _________________ because it contradicts our expected tactile experiences with teacups.
subversive texture
The mosaic Justinien and Attendant uses one of the simplest ways of creating the illusion of depth in a work, by simply placing one object in front of another. This device for showing spatial depth is called _____________.
Lopez achieved the illusion of depth by simply creating the figures in different sizes. The figures that appear to be farther away are smaller in size; this technique is _______________.
relative size
The fresco The Schools of Athens uses ____________________ a system for depicting the depth, in which parallel lines receding into the distance converge at a point on the horizon line known as the vanishing point. Forms get smaller in proportion to the receding lines.
linear perspective
The Japanese painting Kumano Mandala employs a system of perspective to represent spatial depth in which distant forms are made to seem smaller, but parallel lines do not converge. The system is called ______________.
isometric perspective
linear perspective
Thomas Cole uses _______________________ a convention to give the illusion in depth in which he methodically changes the definition of the shapes in the distance so they are less sharply defined. He also modifies the color, value contrast, and texture so they are also less defined.
atmospheric perspective
Bernini has ____________________ in the sculpture Apollo and Daphine one by the fact that she is caught in the midst of her transformation, the other in the fluid strides of Apollo and the seamless transfiguration of Daphine.
implied motion and implied time
Bridget Riley painting Gala is an Op art painting, a style of painting in which an artist uses bold and apparently vibrating lines and colors to create ___________________.
illusion of motion
_______________ is the organization of the visual elements in a work of art.
The overall composition of the work Saturday Night is unified by red color scheme, but there is still plenty of __________ in this composition in the captivating array of characters and movements.
extreme unity
In Los Jovenes _____________ is achieved by the color scheme. Also in the repetition of the eight figures that are lined up from one side of the photograph to the other and their continuity that is reflected in their youthful ages, ethnicity, and a suggested bond of friendship.
visual unity
In this work the artist uses _________________ which focuses on the relationships between the meaning and functions of the images. The work shows two images of the “ideal” human form according to Western art flanking the seminude figure of an African woman. The concept behind the images is a challenge to the viewer to address the standard and canon of the “ideal” human form.
conceptual unity
In art, __________ refers to the distribution of the actual or apparent weight of the compositional elements.
Unlike two-dimensional compositions, three-dimensional objects such as sculptures often have __________.
actual balance
The _______________ in Welcome the World Famous Brand by The Lou Brothers is not a mirror image on both sides, but is more subtle with slight variations that provide more visual interest on both halves.
symmetrical balance
If a vertical axis were drawn through the center of the work, the two halves of the central figures and the geometric motifs and animal motifs extending to the sides would be exact mirror images balancing each other. This work has ____________________
bilateral symmetry
In Wu Jide’s River Dwellers patches of white and well-placed touches of color are responsible for the overall visual balance. If the figure if divided by a vertical axis the sides have visual differences in shapes but they have equivalent visual weight. This means the work has _________________.
asymmetrical balance
The Iranian tabletop has an intricately painted tile centerpiece surrounded by a circular garland of flowers, birds, and clusters of grapes. Eight separate pictorial segments fan out and encircle at equal distance the central image. This decorative tabletop from the 19th century Iran is a classic example of _____________.
radial balance
__________ is often a major design element in art forms such as ceramics, basketry, jewelry, and stained glass.
radial balance
By allowing the composition to be weighted on the left, the drama of the movement is intensified. As the soldier stumbles from the impact of the bullet physically losing his balance, the long back shadow on the ground seems to pull hin down. The photographer has used visual ___________ in the compostion to play upon the viewer’s discomfort and increase the emotional impact of the image.
The painting Lady Liberty Leading the People by Delacroix has as its emphasis lady liberty. Which of the following techniques are used to create this emphasis?
all of the above
What is the focal point in Woman Leaning Near a Vase of Flowers and why?
The woman because a viewer’s gaze is always drawn toward the sight of a human face.
The repetition of curvilinear lines and shapes create _______________ in the painting Palisades, which unifies and directs the viewer eye through the work of art.
King Narmer is shown in commanding position, larger than the surrounding figures, this use of relative size to indicate the importance of teh figure of King Namer is know as _______________.
hierarchical scaling
Oldenburg uses __________________ in the 45-foot tall sculpture Clothespin in which he takes on item from our lives that are not even worth a second thought and by blowing it up to a massive size and placing it in a Public place; he makes to form grand and heroic.
distortion of scale
In the sculpture Doryphorus the sculptor Polykleitos used the __________________, which is a set of proportions for the human figure that were established by the Greeks in which the head was used as the standard for measurement.
canon of proportions
The ancient Greeks developed the concept of the __________ because they believed that it created ideal proportions in architecture.
golden mean
In the visual arts, ______________ refers to a distinctive handling of elements and media associated with the work of an individual artist, a school or movement, or specific culture or time period.
This portrait has not been idealized or distorted, but is a careful recreation of the real world, making this an example of _______________ .
In this work the couple is portrayed in a style that departs from strict realism, yet the viewer clearly identifies the caricature-like renderings of the figures as that of a man and woman, making this an example of _________________.
representational art
In The Tempest the artist distorted and exaggerated the natural appearance in order to stress the psychological and emotional content of the work. Reclining figure’s occupy the center of a dark, imaginary landscapes. Images of earth, water, and flesh merge in a common pallets and bevy of strokes; little distinguishes one from another. This an example of _________.
This image has had the essence of the form extracted from the human figures to the point where that they no longer reflect conventional reality. The human torso is reduced to a simple block form on which can be discerned an upper torso, arms, eyes, and hair. This makes the sculpture an example of _______________.
abstract art
Judy Pfaff’s Voodoo is a ______________ work of art. The highly saturated colors and jagged shapes comprise the content and the spirit of the work with no references to make sure our reality.
_______________ includes the elements that one uses, design principles and the way they are organized in the composition.
From the statements below which is not an example of formalist criticism for the work Sketch I for Composition VII?
Kandinsky used the Apocalypse or the end of the world as foretold in the biblical Book of Revelation as inspiration for this work of art..
How is it possible to objectively evaluate both realistic and non-objective works?
They both rely on the same elements of design
There are three levels of ____________ subject matter, elements and composition, and underlying or symbolic meaning or themes.
_________________ in the visual arts and art history is the study of the themes and the significance attached to symbols that can help identify subject matter and place a work of art in its historical context.
The word art encompasses many meanings, including _________________.
ability, process, and product
As _________ art is the human capacity to make things of beauty and things that stir us; it is creativity.
As __________ art encompasses acts such as drawing, painting, sculpting, designing, buildings, and using the camera to create memorable works, any action resulting in a work of art.
As ________ art is the completed work an etching, a sculpture, a structure, a tapestry; any thing that an artist declares as their finished work of art.
The language of art includes ____________________
includes the visual elements, principles of design, style, form, and content.
Examining a work in its _________________ will enable you to have a more meaningful dialogue with the work.
historical, social, and political content
Prints make is possible for the general public to own original works of art, because prints are less expensive than unique works by the same artist.
The four major categories of printmaking processes are ____________, _________, __________, and __________.
relief, intaglio, lithography, serigraphy
__________ is any printmaking technique in which the printing plate or matrix is carved with carving tools so that the areas that are not meant to be printed (that is, that are not meant to leave an image) are below the surface of the matrix. The image is printed from the remaining raised surface.
____________ is a relief printmaking technique in which the plank side of a block of wood is carved so as to leave the image areas raised from the background. Also the resultant print.
_________ is a printmaking technique in which a block of linoleum is carved so as to leave the image areas raised above the surface of the block. It is softer and easier to carve than a woodcut block, but it is less durable in printing multiple impressions, which results in a smaller edition.
Similar to woodcut, __________ is a relief printmaking process in which the image is cut on the end grain of a wood block or a hard, laminated, no directional wood surface, resulting in a “white-line” impression. The tool used for cutting makes fine, narrow grooves in the wood, and these grooves, which do not take the ink, result in white lines when the inked wood block is pressed to paper. This technique allows for greater detail.
wood engraving
This technique is the reverse of relief printmaking, in that it is any printmaking technique in which the lines are image areas to be printed are recessed below the surface of the printing or metal plate. The __________ technique includes engraving, drypoint, etching, mezzotint, and aquatint.
_________ is an intaglio printmaking technique in which the image is produced by cutting a metal plate directly with a V-shaped carving tool called a burin. It is these incised lines that receive the ink and make the image. This technique produces a precise clean line, like drawing in pen and ink or a sharp pencil point.
___________ is an intaglio printmaking process, similar to engraving, in which a sharp needle is used to draw on a metal plate, raising a thin ridge of metal or burr. When the plate is inked, the burr holds the ink, so when it is printed it makes a softer less sharply defined line than in engraving.
In this intaglio process the metal plate is coated with a acid resistant ground . The artist then draws the image onto the surface removing the ground and exposing the metal. The plate is placed in an acid bath and the exposed metal is eaten into by the acid leaving a depression. It is these depressions that hold the ink in the printing process. The lines are not as sharp and precise as those made by the engraver’s burin, because the biting action of the acid is slightly irregular. This technique is ______________.
In this intaglio printmaking technique the plate is worked from dark tones to light. The surface is first roughened with a rocker or roulette so that the plate is coved by rough spots that catch ink, if inked it would print a rich, solid black. Smoothing or rubbing out rough spots with a burnisher wears down the roughened burrs and creates lighter tones, because it does not trap as much ink. This technique is _____________.
In the intaglio technique of ___________ a metal plate is dusted with acid-resistant resin and heated, causing the resin to melt. Before printing areas of the plate are then exposed by a needle, and the plate receives an acid bath before being printed. It only prints areas of tone, no lines. If the particles are thinly dusted and far apart acid bites into larger areas so it prints darker, but if they are heaver and closer together the acid has limited space to penetrate so it etches less and prints lighter.
In the technique of ____________ the printing surface remains flat. The image areas are drawn onto a Bavarian limestone slab or an aluminum plate by the artist using a greasy material. The stone or plate is placed in an acid bath so that the nonimage areas absorb water and only areas that accept ink are the (greasy) image areas when inked.
_____________ is a variation of the stencil process. A finely meshed silk, nylon, or fine metal mesh fabric (screen) is stretched onto a frame and the image is made by painting a substance onto the fabric in the areas that are not meant to print. The screen is placed over paper and ink is forced through the open areas of the mesh.
In ____________ an artist draws or paints on any material that has a nonabsorbent surface. A piece of paper is then laid on the surface and the image is transferred by hand rubbing the back of the paper or passing both the plate and the paper through a press. Either way the original is destroyed resulting in one unique print.
The word _______________ is derived from Greek roots meaning “to write with light.”
The scientific aspects of photography concern the ways in which images of objects are made on a photosensitive surface by light that passes through a _______.
The photographer must understand films and grasp skills related to using the camera and, in most cases, to develop _______.
Photography is a matter of _____________________.
selection and interpretation
Adams composition is as much about ____________ as it is a visual document of the California landscape.
design elements
The camera is similar to the human eye, in both cases, light enters a narrow opening and is projected onto a ____________ surface.
____________ a type of photosensitive surface which is used for recording photographs.
The _________________ is a early camera consisting of a large dark chamber with a len’s opening through which an image as projected onto the opposite service. This device was used by Renaissance artist to reflect an image that can be traced to achieve a proper perspective.
camera obscura
A major step in the history of photography came with the introduction by Louis Lumiere of the ______________ color process in 1907.
Having a likeness of oneself was formerly reserved for the wealthy who could afford to commission painters. _______________ became the democratic equalizer.
__________________ revolutionized the capacity of news media, with the ability to bring realistic representation of important events before the public’s eyes.
Dorothea Lange _______ her photograph close to here subjects: they fill the print from edge to edge, forcing us to confront them rather than allowing us to seek comfort in a corner of the print not consigned to such an overt display of human misery.
With the introduction of the camera, ____________ synergistically moved toward abstraction because the obligation to faithfully record nature was now assumed by the photographer.
______________ founded the Photo- Secession, a group dedicated to advancing photography as a separate art Form.
Alfred Stieglitz
____________ is the art of making motion pictures by manipulating the technology and processes to achieve desired effects.
_______ is achieved by filming 100 or more frames per second. When they are played back at 22 or 24 frames per second, movement appears to be very slow yet smooth and natural.
slow motion
In early films, actors entered and exited a stage before a _________ camera, much as they do in plays.
_______ is the separating and assembling, sometimes called “patching and pasting,” of sequences of film. It helps make stories coherent and heightens dramatic impact.
_______ cinematography came into use in the 1930’s with one early example being The Wizard of Oz.
_____________ is the creation of the motion picture of photographing a series of drawings, each of which shows a stage of movement that differs slightly from the one preceding it. As a result, projecting the frames in rapid sequence creates the illusion of movement.
A simple example of ___________ is ketchup on a shirt to simulate blood or tiny exploding capsules planted in the ground to simulate gunfire.
special effects
It is difficult to believe that digital images are stored in computers as series of ______________, and not as pictures, but they are.
zeroes and ones
_______________ is the production of images by artists with the assistance of the computer.
digital art
Lynn Hershman’s Digital Venus is a comment on the voyeurism we find in the _______. In this work he addresses feminist issues pertaining to the male gaze and the exploitation of women.
video medium
Just as photography was once termed a “democratizer” in the visual arts, so has the ubiquitousness of the _______________ opened the door to limit was experimentation among artist and outsiders alike.
digital camera and computer
___________ is the art of carving, casting, modeling, or assembling materials into three-dimensional figures or forms.
__________ sculpture is similar to two dimensional works in that you view both from a frontal vantage point. In this sculpture figures or other images are attached to a background but project from it to some degree. A coin is an example of it in its simplest form.
This work is an example of the subtractive process of ___________ in which the artist starts with a mass of material larger than the planed work of art and then subtracts or takes away material until only the desired image remains. Wood or stone are the materials most often used in this technique.
In the additive sculpture process of ____________ a pliable material like clay is used to form the finished work. The advantage to this technique is the artist does not have to have a finished idea in mind because the materials can be reworked until they have a finished design. Materials like wax can also be used.
______ is frequently used to make three-dimensional sketches or models for sculptures that are to be executed in more durable materials.
In this indirect sculpture making process the artist first makes a model to the size of the desired sculpture. A mold is made of that model and the finished work of art is created from a wax model made using this mold. A second mold is made around the wax model. The wax is melted out of the mold and the finished work is created by pouring a liquid material (clay, metal, plastic..) into that mold, which is then allowed to harden. After it is removed from the mold and it is cleaned and polished, this becomes the finished work of art. This work is an example of the __________ technique using bronze.
In the lost wax process, molten metal is poured into a fire-resistant mold known as a(n) __________.
Like stone, _______ can be carved and polished, but unlike stone, it can also be molded and bent.
________ an alloy of copper, has been the most popular casting material because of its surface and color characteristics. Sculptures made of this material are more durable than wood or stone, in that projecting parts of the sculpture such as fingers are less likely to break off.
An artist builds or constructs the form of the sculpture from materials such as wood, paper, string, cardboard, celluloid, translucent plastic, sheet metal, or wire, just about any thing, when an artist creates a work in the technique of __________. Oldenburg’s Soft Toilet is an example of this technique that is made out of Vinyl.
________ is a form of constructed sculpture in which pre-existing or found objects, are integrated into combinations that take on a life and meaning of their own.
Marcel Duchamp declared that found objects, or _____ could be literally elevated as works of art by being placed on pedestals-literally or figuratively as exemplified by his work Fountain.
According to Marcel Duchamp, the function of a readymade was to __________.
prompt the viewer to think and think again
___________ are construction and assemblage works, in which sculptors use a combination of mediums and materials sometimes in combination with found objects. They can be two or three dimensional works of art.
Sculptors have always been concerned with the portrayal of movements, but ________ sculptures actually do move. Some of the most popular examples of this type of sculpture in the twentieth century are the mobiles of Alexander Calder.
The American sculptor __________ was one of the early pioneers of the __________, the first form of art that made motion a basic element.
calder; mobile
It has always been an important elements in defining a sculpture, but only in the past century did sculptors begin to experiment with the use of artificial _______ in their compositions.
Materials have always been traditional and innovative: they have always been enduring and transient.
The term __________ came into use in the 1960’s and 1970’s as a blanket category for art that was created for or in a specific location.
Site-specific works are distinguished from other artworks in that they are produced ________.
in or for one location
______________, a site-specific work that is created or marked by an artist within natural surroundings.
land art
____________ A work of art in which large amounts of earth or land are shaped into a sculpture.
Robert’s Smithson’s Spiral Jetty is an example of land art, which was created by large amounts of earth that have been shaped into a spiral. More specifically it is an example of a / an ______________.
Walter de Maria’s, The Lightning Field is considered a spectacular example of __________, it combined nature and man-made materials. The field is constructed of 400 stainless steel poles (lighting rods) anchored in a 1-by-.62-mile plot of earth.
land art
The artist Christo and Jeanne-Claude stated that “the temporary quality of their projects is an aesthetic decision,” it “endows the works of art with a feeling of urgency to be seen.” Their _________________, The Gates, was only up for 16 days in Central Part, in New York City in 2005. This work basically full feels the three definitions I gave you for _________________, it is a series of gates that the viewer walks thought set up in the outdoor environment of a city park that has been transformed “a ‘Golden river’ snaked through a barren winter scene, lighting the landscape with flashes of color”
environmental sculpture
Cai Guo Qiang’s classic example of_______________, Transient Rainbow, came and went in about 15 seconds in June of 2002, in which the video document and still photographs are an essential part of the work.
ephemeral art
The Serpent/Salamander by Antoni Gaudi, is classic example of ________________. It is a lively mosaic serpent that stands at the entrance of the park Parc Guel , Barcelona, Spain, and is one of the most recognizable symbols for the city and one of Barcelona’s most treasured public sites.
public art
The Oklahoma City National Memorial is a site-specific public art that is a ___________ . This multipart memorial site dedicated to the victims, survivors, and rescuers of the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P Murrah Federal Building incorporates a number of symbolic elements, the most arresting being the Field of Empty Chairs.
______________ is the art and science of designing building, bridges, and other structures to help us meet our personal and communal needs. It is experienced from within as well as without.
The art that probably has the greatest impact on our lives is _________________.
Climate, site, materials, building codes, clients, contractors, service systems, and the amount of money available are just some of the variables that the architect must employ to create an aesthetically pleasing, functional structure.
The Egyptian Temple of Amen-Re at Karnak uses the structural system of _________ in which two uprights support a horizontal crosspiece. The paintings, relief sculptures, and overall smoothness of the columns belie the columns function as the bearers of stress.
post and lintel construction
Early stone structures were erected without benefit of mortar. Their _________ relied on masterly carving of blocks, strategic placement, and sheer weight for durability.
dry masonry
______ allow an architect to make structures with a much larger span than was possible with the Post and Lintel. It is constructed out of wedge-shaped stones that fit into the semicircular form and once the keystone is in place equal pressure is exacted by each stone on its neighbors and it will support itself.
A ________ creates a large interior space and is created by extending the arch in depth one after another. Tunnels formed by this construction method are very dark because inserting openings for light would compromise their strength.
By placing two barrel vaults at right angles to cover a square one has constructed a _____________. This allows the sides to be open because the load of the intersecting vaults is transmitted to the corners which are buttressed to support it.
groin vault
__________ are constructed by placing barrel vaults at right angles to cover a square space known as a___________.
groin vaults; bay
The greatest loads in the groin vault are thrust onto the four __________ that comprise the sides and the arches that run diagonally across them.
The ______ is an architectural structure generally in the shape of a hemisphere or a half globe and is commonly defined as an arch rotated 360 degrees.
One advantage that wood has over stone and metal as a construction material for building is it is a renewable resource.
________________ primarily used for covering roofs of structures, acquire their strength from the fact that the sides of a triangle, once joined, cannot be forced out of shape.
____________ is a product of the industrial revolution. Mass-produced factory milled studs like two-by-fours are assembled on site using mass-produced factory formed metal nails to create the frame of a house which is them covered in either wood, brick, stone veneer, aluminum and so on. This method is used to mass produce suburban housing.
balloon frame construction
The Crystal Palace was one of the first buildings to use the skeleton-and-skin system of ___________. This building was prefabricated with iron parts cast at the factory and transported to the site and assembled there. This solid iron frame work covered in a glass skin, which was non-load-bearing paved the way for 20th-century architecture.
cast-iron construction
The Wainwright Building is an early example of _____________. A skeleton and skin arrangement in which builders erect a skeleton out of light, narrow, prefabricated I-beams that are capable of sustaining the entire weight of the building. The skeleton is then covered with another material.
steel-cage construction
The most important advantage __________ gives is its ability to take on natural curved shapes such as eggshells, seashells, or other organic shapes. It can do this because it will assume the shaped of any mold and it gets it strength from embedding iron rods and/or steel mesh inside the concrete before it hardens. This gives it greater tensile strength than either material alone. Eero Saarinen building is an dramatic example of its ability to span distances with curving organic forms.
reinforced concrete or ferroconcrete construction
The structural system of_____________ is primarily associated with bridges. In this system many parallel wires share the stress of the structure, which is suspended from these cables and are supported on vertical pylons driven into the ground. The Golden Gate Bridge is an example of this type of bridge.
steel cable or suspension construction
The U. S. Pavilion used the structural system called _________. It is essentially a bubble, formed by a network of metal rods arranged in triangles and further organized into tetrahedrons.
geodesic dome
Why do some people choose to build “green buildings”?
all the above
The director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s, Thomas Hoovings reaction to the Calyx Krater was one in which he dismissed the vessel as a mere support on which an extraordinary painting was placed. The art critic Arthur C. Canto warns that “‘the painting (on the vase) is there to decorate an object of conspicuous utility’ and cannot be considered without reference to the vase itself. In fact, doing so precludes any real understanding of the work in the _______ context in which it was created.”
historical and artistic
__________ involves making objects from clay a naturally occurring substance and then hardening them into a relatively permanent material by firing.
The oven that ceramists use to fire their work in is called a _______.
The work of art, Bowl with plumed serpent by Maria Martinez and Julian Martinez is an example of the ceramic technique of _____________. In this technique ropes of clay are fashioned, then stacked upon one another. The walls of the pot are then scraped to a smooth finish and molded to the desired vessel shape.
This ceramic technique produces a symmetrical pot whose walls can be thin and uniformed in thickness. A pot can be _______ quite rapidly and effortlessly on a wheel once this technique has been mastered.
________ in ceramics, is a hard, glossy coating formed by applying a liquid suspension of powdered material to the surface of a ware, which is then dried and fired at a temperature that causes the ingredients to melt together.
Ceramic objects and wares are classified according to the type of clay and the temperature at which they are fired: ______ fires at a relatively low temperature blow 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit, the clay is usually red or tan in color, it is somewhat porous and is used for course pottery; ______ fires at about 2,300 to 2,700 degrees Fahrenheit, the clay is usually gray, but can be reddish or tan, nonporous or slightly porous and used for dinnerware and ceramic sculptures; and ____ is bisque fired at a relatively low temperature and the glaze at a high temperature, the clay is usually white or gray, nonporous, and used for fine dinnerware.
earthenware; stoneware; porcelain
_______, like ceramics, has had a long history, predating the Phoenicians and the Romans and has been used to create fine art and functional objects.
In _______ a hollow tube or blowpipe is dipped into molten glass and then removed. Air is blown through the tube, causing the hot glass to form a spherical bubble whose contours are shaped through rolling and pulling with various tools.
The _______ refers to a number of techniques in which fibers are combined to make functional or decorative objects or works of art. They include, but are not limited to weaving, embroidery, crochet, and macrame.
textile arts
_______ is the making of fabrics by the interlacing of horizontal and vertical threads or fibers, as on a loom. The lengthwise fibers are the warp, and the crosswise threads are the weft. The material and type of weave determine the weight and quality of the cloth.
This method of weaving is found in carpeting and in velvet. In _______ loops or knots are tied: when the knotting is done, the ends are cut or sheared to create an even surface.
pile weaving
The refining and working of _______ has been known for thousands of years, from iron for arrowheads…, stainless steel for kitchen utensils…, brass for beds…, and the most prized of all silver and gold for jewelry, ritual vessels, sacred objects.
_______ , ever-growing in popularity to this day, spans history and geography.
body ornament
_______ has a multiplicity of meanings. As a discipline or profession, it includes experts in industrial design (objects), fashion design (clothing), graphic design (communication), and web design (the Internet) to name a few.
Objects are three-dimensional products designed for consumer use by ______________, also known as product designers.
industrial design
It enters our consciousness and our lives in a steady stream on a daily basis. _______ is an artistic process used to communicate information and ideas through writing, images, and symbols that are connected to contemporary human experience.
graphic design
A _____ is an emblematic design used to identify and advertise a company or an organization.
We can think of Web design as having two key tasks, first is technical and involves programming, and the second concerns _______________.
aesthetics and marketing
__________ has always reflected the culture and society of its time as much as it has contributed toward contemporary taste.
fashion design
________________ is a surface on which a two-dimensional work of art is made, for example paper, wood, or canvas.
Some drawings are mostly linear while others are constructed completely by ________ contrast.
The quality of line or shading in a drawing is affected by the texture of the drawing surface or ________________.
Drawings fall into 3 categories. Which statement below is not one of these categories?
Works of art for the general public, because paper and pencil are inexpensive they can be owned by the general public not just the wealthy few
___________ are abrasive and scratch the surface of the support, leaving particles of the material being used where they come into contact with the support. They include the mediums of silverpoint, pencil, charcoal, chalk, crayon, and pastel.
dry media
___________ is the coloring material of a medium. It is made from various organic or chemical substances. When mixed with a binder such as water, oil, gum arabid, or other substances, it creates a drawing or paining medium.
This drawing uses the drawing media of _________ in which the support is coated with a ground of chalk mixed with gum, water, and pigment. Historically it would have been bone dust instead of chalk. Small flacks of metal adhere to the surface and will oxidize to darken the line with time. Delicate, uniform lines characterize this drawing medium and it is unforgiving and allows little or no correction of mistakes because the line or mark is incised into the surface.
This drawing uses a medium that came into use during the 1500’s and eventually replaced metalpoint. Drawing with the point creates a thin, light line with a straight edge the is suitable for meticulous details. Areas of tone can be created in several ways, with a build up of parallel lines (hatching), smudging, or drawing with the side of the graphite tip. The _______________ is inexpensive, easily obtained, and mistakes are easily corrected by erasure.
Both of these drawings were created using what is probably the oldest drawing medium. Our ancestors used it when they took sticks from their fires to draw on cave walls. Today the best quality _______ is made from special vine wood that is heated in a kiln until only the carbon remains. It is available in a number of harnesses due to the hard woods used. The softer harnesses create a diffused line and areas of varied tone.
_____________ is the substance in a medium that causes particles of pigments to adhere to one another and to the support.
The effect of _______ when drawn on paper is very similar to charcoal and pastels. Drawings using this media exist from prehistoric times. It is a soft limestone and it is made into a powder and mixed with a binder such as gum arabid, and a pigment (in the case of colored versions), which is then compressed into a stick form.
Softer than chalk, they are a chalky stick made of powdered pigment plus filer and bound with a small amount of gum or resin. _________ come in a full range of brilliant colors offering almost a painters palette to the more spontaneous medium of drawing. Because they are fine-textured, most artist smudge and blend them on the paper and it lends itself especially well to the kind of blending of hues that creates gradated tones.
____________ is a fine textured grease-free stick made of powered graphite and clay to which red ocher, soot, or blackstone has been added to give it a red, black, or brown color. It is a versatile drawing medium because it can be applied to create gently shaped areas or the crayon can be sharpened to a point to create a hard, crisp line or shapes.
conte crayon
The primary ___________ used in drawing is ink, and the instruments used to carry the medium are pen and brush.
liquid media
This work used _____________, which is essentially a line medium and gives a smooth, uninterrupted line. Hatching and cross-hatching are used to convey tone and shade. The line is clean, precise, and of uniform width because a fine, rigid nib was used. There is little possibility for correction once the lines have been inscribed.
pen and ink
_______________ has for centuries been a favorite tool of Asian artist. It is used there for every type of calligraphy, ranging from works of art to everyday writing. The soft tip is an ideal tool for producing the calligraphic line, allowing for the control of the width of the line by the amount of pressure applied to the tool.
brush and ink
Pen and ______ are often combined to create a tonal emphasis the pen alone cannot always accomplish. This media is ink diluted with water and applied with a brush, to provide greater solidity to the form. The work pictured in the figure above uses it.
____________ is more versatile than brush and ink in that it can create an image through tonal contrasts without the use of line. The ink is diluted with water in varying degrees to produce a wide range of tones.
brush and wash
A ______ was originally defined as a full-scale preparatory drawing made for projects such as a fresco, stained glass, or tapestries usually on paper and drawn to scale with the large work. It has come to mean a humorous and satirical drawing that caricatures or satirizes an event or person of topical interest.
Modern cartoons rely on ______________, the gross exaggeration and distortion of natural features.
The main criterion for a successful ____________ is to hold the pigments together. Different kinds are employed in different painting media, each have different properties such as how quickly they dry and characteristics like how transparent or opaque they are. So if the same pigment is combined with different kinds, they will have varying degrees of transparency and a different look for each.
The task of the ________ is to provide fluency to the paint, so that the color may be readily dispensed over the surface. Water or turpentine are frequently used as thinning agents for this purpose. It is also used to clean the brush.
solvent or medium
In this wall painting technique pigments are suspended in water and then applied to a support (wall or ceiling) covered in lime plaster. The plaster can be either wet or dry. When wet plaster is used, it absorbs the wet pigments with the lime of the plaster wall and acts as a binder. As it dries the paint becomes permanent, literally becoming part of the wall and forming a fine, transparent, vitreous layer on its surface. This makes for a more durable ________ than a painting on the dry plaster, which only leaves a layer of paint on the top of the plaster, though both are vulnerable to moisture.
Used by the ancient Egyptians and Greeks to apply tint to their sculptures as well as paintings, this method consists of suspending pigments in molten beeswax. Because the wax must be keep at a constant temperature it is difficult to manipulate. ____________ is an extremely durable medium and has an extraordinary luminous quality whose colors remain vibrant and the surface maintains a hard luster even after a thousand years.
Most supports are to absorbent to allow easy application of paint, the painter must first prime that is apply a preliminary coating of a paint like material called _________ to the support. It also gives the painter a smoother surface to work on or it creates a uniform texture across the support. When it is white it increases the brightness of the final work.
This media’s traditional composition was ground pigments mixed with a vehicle of egg yolks or whole eggs and thinned with water giving it a semi-matt sheen. _________ was widely used throughout Europe and was exclusively used during the middle ages. It is a extremely durable medium with pure and brilliant colors and allows for a great deal of precision, but it doesn’t allow the subtle gradations of tone like oil paint.
Oil paint consists of ground pigments combined with a linseed oil vehicle and a turpentine medium. Colors can be blended easily and it’s slow drying quality allows for the reworking of problem areas. Oil paint has a broad range of capabilities one of which is _______ or the application of multiple layers of transparent film of paint to a surface. Light penetrates the layers and reflects off the opaque underpainting or ground and back up through layers of paint, creating a radiant or luminous quality that is a special characteristic of oil painting.
________ is an oil painting technique in which oil paint is applied so thickly that it can physically construct the image. It is any thick application of paint in which the strokes of the brush or palette knife are recorded as an actual texture on the surface of the paint.
In the scheme of things ___________ painting is a new addition to the list of painting media. It is a mixture of pigment and a plastic vehicle that can be thinned with water. Its advantage over oil is that it dry’s quickly so an artist must have their objective clearly in mind and be a skilled painter, because drying quickly is also a disadvantage in that problem areas cannot be repeatedly reworked like oil. Other advantages are colors maintain their brilliance overtime, easier and safer cleanup, and it can be used on a variety of surfaces that need no special preparation.
Contemporary ___________ is composed of pigments and a gum arabic vehicle, and thinned with water. Transparent films of pigment are applied to a white, absorbent surface and tints are achieved by diluting the colors with various quantities of water. White does not exist as a pigment in this media and is derived by allowing the white of the paper to show through the color of the composition or by leaving areas of the paper exposed.
_________ is watercolor mixed with Chinese white chalk, making the medium opaque. It is difficult to blend brushstrokes of this media together so that it lends itself to the creation of large, flat colored forms. Applied in the same way as watercolor, it gives a chalky finish similar to that of tempera painting.
The media ___________ is used in the urban areas to create graffiti, of stylized signatures, or “tags,” which on the street are called master works. Some of the artist are legendary and have even had there works show and sold in galleries.
spray paint
This work uses acyclic, tempera, cattle markers, oil stick, paper, polymer photo-transfer, and vinyl taper on sewn canvas making this an example for _____________.
mixed media
First used by Picasso and Braque __________ has come to mean an assemblage of two-dimensional objects to create an image: works of art in which materials such as paper, cloth, and wood are pasted to a two-dimensional surface, such as a wooden panel or canvas.
Associated with the Roman and Byzantine Empire ____________ is an art form in which small pieces of title, glass, or stones are fitted together to make a pattern or image, which is set into a ground of wet plaster on an architectural feature such as a wall or floor.
The _____ culture has had more far-reaching and lasting influence on art and civilization than any other culture. Even today its influences can be felt in science, mathematics, law, politics, and art.
The Greek spirit of ___________ lived on in the glorious days of the Roman Empire.
Even though the Greeks believed in naturalism or truth to reality, based on a keen observation of nature and they used this to base their representation of the human body in art. They could not resist perfecting it according to the notion of ________ that is the representation of forms according to an accepted notion of beauty or perfection and in the realm of art it ruled the Greek mind.
The Dipylon Vase is an example of _________ that covered the years 900 to 700 BCE in Greece. Geometric patterns predominated and like Egyptian art the human figure was conceptual and was usually reduced to a combination of geometric forms such as circles and triangles. The vase is decorated in horizontal bands of pictorial or geometric motifs or solid black.
geometric period
During the _____________ of vase panting the human figure became the preferred subject and the figures of both man and animals were given substance and an attempt at naturalistic gestures was made. The vase was still divided into horizontal bands of images.
archaic period
Some of the greatest accomplishments of the greeks can be witnessed in their ____________.
Though in Greek architecture the dwellings for the people were simple; the dwellings for their gods still influence architecture today. The standard for Greek architecture was established in the ______________.
archaic period
The three styles or orders in Greek architecture: _________, __________, and ___________.
doric, ionic, and corinthian
A prime example of sculpture of the ______ and the characteristics that it entails would be the Kouros Figure. The figure is very stiff and ridge even though all the body parts are freed from the block of marble the shape of it adheres essentially to the block shape. The lines of musculature are stylized following anatomical patterns and not optical fact and the muscles are flexed unrealistically. The face is stylized with the hair in an intricate pattern and thick-lidded eyes. It is the facial expression and the smile that is seen in most sculpture of the period, so much so that the smile is named after that period.
archaic period
Greek architecture and sculpture was painted. Statues and wooden panels were painted with _________ a durable and permanent medium. In this technique the pigments were mixed with wax and applied to the surface while hot.
Greek sculpture reached a height of perfection during the Classical period with one of the most significant developments early in the period with the introduction of ___________ in figure sculpture.
implied movement
Greek architecture is divided into three styles. The Parthenon is an excellent example of the __________ style with a single row of columns surrounding a two-roomed cella that housed a 40 foot statue of Athena. One of the main architectural features of this Greek style is the column. The Parthenon’s columns have no base and the capital is simple and cushion like; it is the simples of the three styles.
During the Classical period, the Greek sculptor Polykleitos’s developed a __________ from which he would derive his ‘ideal’ figures. He has idealized the athletic figure by imposing on it a set of laws relating part to part, such as the entire body is equal in height to eight heads.
canon of proportions
An important improvement from Archaic sculpture in depicting a more realistic human figure in __________ sculpture that can be seen in Polykleitos’s Doryphoros is the weight shift principle. The human figure is situated so that the legs and hips are turned in one direction and the chest and arms in another. This shifting of weight results in a diagonal balancing of tension and relaxation.
In vase painting of the ___________ bands are eliminated and a large dominate area of the surface if covered in human figures in a variety of positions in an attempt to create a three-dimensional space by the technique of position. The great improvement of the representation of the human figure in this period and its use of the principle of weight shift and the naturalistic use of implied movement is very evident in this vase.
classical period
In the ______________, art is characterized by excessive, almost theatrical emotion and the use of illusionistic effects to heighten realism. In sculpture the space surrounding the figures is treated as an extension of the viewer’s space, at times narrowing the fine line between art and reality. An example of art from this period would be the The Dying Gaul, which illustrates the artist’s preoccupation with dramatic subjects, harsh realism and passionate emotion.
hellenistic period of greek art
Rome’s unique contribution to the arts is that of _________ in its portrait sculpture. It came from their tradition of making wax death masks that were sometimes translated into more permanent mediums. Because they were made from the actual heads and faces of the subjects and no attempt was made to idealize them; they are true representations of the subject.
Ulysses in the Land of the Lestrygonians, is an example of the _________ . Works in this style give the illusion of an opening of space away from the plane of the wall, as if the viewer were looking out a window.
architectural style of roman painting
The most significant design in Roman construction was the __________.
The other most significant building desing was the use of ________ to replace cut stone.
________________ shows this cultures engineering skills. The main part of the building is circular and it is 144 feet in diameter and is crowned by a dome equal in height to the diameter. Supporting the massive dome are 20-foot-thick walls.
pantheon of the early roman period of roman
The sculpture Augustus of Primaporta is a curious juxtaposition of an individualized head and an idealized anatomically perfect body in classical pose. It is an example of how the ___________ sculpture took on political concerns. Every facet of the Paratroop statue was designed to carry a political message. promoting himselves and his achievements.
empire period of roman
Some of the earliest surviving Christian Art is found in _________, secret underground burial places for Christians beneath the city streets. Some times small chapels were carved out in them and here early Christians worshiped and prayed for the dead. These chapels were very simple but sometimes they were decorated with frescoes such as the The Good Shepherd in St. Pietro and Marcellino.
Perhaps because early Christians were persecuted they adopted many symbols that were already present in Roman art for their own proposes like a fish for Christ and grapes for the promise of salvation through the blood Jesus had shed. But after the persecution stopped the symbolism still remained and important part of Christian Art. So when interpreting a Christian work of art, it is important to interpret its symbolic meaning or its ______, such as, the The Good Shepherd in St. Pietro and Marcellino, in which the symbolizing of Jonah’s deliverance, after three days, from the belly of the monster as a prefiguration of Christ’s resurrection.
In the _____________ Constantine completed the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine, Rome. The large public meeting hall was 300 by 215 feet, and was divided into three rectangular sections or aisles. The central aisle, called a nave, was covered by a groin vault. This basilica set a precedent for Christian church architecture. It would serve as the basic plan for basilicas and cathedrals for centuries to come.
late empire period of roman architecture
After Constantine issued an edict of tolerance for all religions, Christians could come out of hiding and build churches. One of the most important of these Churches was the Old St. Peter’s, which drew on the __________ and derived a plan for Christian cathedrals that functioned for centuries to come. Some important features that were incorporated into other churches were the long central aisle or nave, at the end of it is the apse in which the altar sets.
basilican plan
Even though this church has a traditional plain exterior like other Christian churches, the Church of San Vitale is an example of the __________ church, which was the popular style in the East and the art of Byzantine. This church is know for its spatial effect. It is octagonal with a domed central space; its circular nave is ringed by an aisle or ambulatory eliminating the longitudinal axis of the Early Christian basilica.
central plan
Justinian and Attendants from the Church of St. Vitale, is an example of ________ . This art style comprised most of the ornamentation of the Early Christian churches. In this medium a design is formed by embedding small pieces of colored stone or glass in cement.
a mosaic
Justinian and Attendants from the Church of St. Vitale, is an example of the art style that comprised most of the ornamentation of the Early Christian churches. Which of these statements is/are true about this work of art.
A, C, and E
The dome of Hagia Sophia rests on supports called ____________. Although the dome of Hagia Sophia is massive, it appears to be light and graceful due to the placement of a ring of _________ at its base.
pendentives; arched windows
In the ___________, such as that found at St. Mark’s Cathedral in Venice, the “arms” of the cross are equal in length.
greek cross plan
There are works of art from the ____________ like the page from the Lindisfarne Gospels that have characteristics similar to those that appear in the small carvings and metalwork of the Celtic-Germanic culture, “barbarians” tribes who migrated throughout Eurasia for centuries. Surrounding the cross in the page from the Lindisparne Gospels are repetitive linear patterns of the interlacement’s of fantastic animals and snakes. This combination of interlace with animal figures was only common in these “barbarian” tribes.
early middle ages
The cultural achievements of Charlemagne’s reign and __________ was the decipherment of the true biblical text and the collecting and copying of ancient Roman literary texts. Over time with repeated coping of these manuscripts by illiterate scribes with illegible hand writing made the text of the bible was barely decipherable.
carolingian art
The panel Adam and Eve Reproached by the Lord from the bronze doors of St. Mary’s Cathedral in Hildesheim depicts God confronting Adam and Eve pointing his finger accusingly at them. The accusing finger of the Lord is the focal point of the drama as it points to the cringing figures of Adam and Eve. The subject matter of this work reflects a theme that will be depicted repeatedly in ____________. That is God as the merciless judge and humans are quivering creatures who must beware of God’s wrath and the salvation from the fires of hell in the afterlife.
romanesque art
As we can see in the subject matter of the art of the __________ salvation in the afterlife was a great preoccupation. It also served as the common denominator among classes, with nobility, clergy, and peasantry all directed their spiritual efforts toward this goal.
middle ages
The church of St. Sernin in Toulouse, France, fitted all the requirements of a (1)___________ cathedral, such as a prominent transept crowned by a multilevel spire above the crossing square. Most importantly it was fire proof because it was constructed out of stone using the ceiling structure called a (2)_________. But they still had the same problem as the Romans had, that is there is little light in the interior of the cathedral because openings weaken the structure.
romanesque; barrel vault
Structurally, the central problem of __________ architecture was the need to develop a masonry vault system that admitted light but was fire proof. The builders of the cathedral of St. Etienne helped in the solution with the use of the first true rib vault, which made it possible to pierce the walls directly above the tribune gallery with windows. This series of windows that appears cut into the slightly domed modules of the ceiling is called a _______ . It became a standard element of the Gothic cathedral plan.
romanesque; clerestory
Sculpture of the _________________ periods was mainly restricted to architectural decoration in relief sculptures around the portals or principle entrances. Some of the most important and elaborate sculptural decoration is found in a semicircular space above the cathedral doors called the _________.
romanesque and gothic; tympanum
Instead of looking to nature for models the __________ artist sought stylistic inspiration in Roman works, the small carvings of the pre-Romanesque era, and especially manuscript illumination. The artist goal was to convey their message with the details and emotionalism that would have the most dramatic impact on the viewer (sinner) making realism unimportant.
The Romanesque Manuscript Illumination of The Annunciation to the Shepherds, uses the technique of _____________, which implies that humans are less significant than celestial beings and that animals are lower than humans. We know this because of this works use of relative size to indicate relative importance.
hierarchical scaling
In the Middle Ages there was one art form that women of all social classes and walks of life were taught, ___________________. The most famous surviving example of works created by women is the Bayeux Tapestry, which describes the invasion of England by William the Conqueror in a continuous narrative that was at least 230 running feet long.
the fiber arts of weaving and embroidery
The choir of the Benedictine abbey church of Saint-Denis is believed to be the beginning of the _________ style of Architecture. In the construction of the choir the pointed arch is used instead of the round arch of the Romanesque. Innovative rib vaults resting on pointed arches cover the ambulatory chapels creating exceptionally light vaults. Because of this lightness, the walls between the chapels were eliminated and the outer walls were opened up and filled with stained-glass windows. This new type of vaulting and the use of stained glass became the hallmarks of the ________________.
gothic; french gothic architecture
Which statements are true about Gothic architecture?
A, C, D, and E
The theme of ________ sculpture took on a new mood from the Romanesque. The iconography is one of redemption rather than damnation. No more threats of damnation, instead of scenes of judgment day, the viewer sees scenes, such as events from the life of Christ or the Virgin Mary, or apocalyptic visions.
Compare and contrast the portal sculpture of the Chartres Cathedral and the Reims Cathedral. Which of these statements are true?
all of these
__________ is a Greek word meaning “Rebirth” spanning roughtly the 14th – 16th centuries.
_____________ is known for a revival of Classical themes in art and literature, a return to the realistic depiction of nature through keen observation, and the revitalization of the Greek philosophy of humanism, in which human dignity, ideas, and capabilities are of central importance.
Two of the most significant areas of art in the Renaissance period were one (1) ______, which never really adopted Gothicism and readily simulated elements of Greek and Roman art. The other was _________, which was steeped in medieval tradition and continued to concern herself with the spiritualism of the Gothic era, enriching it with a supreme realism.
italy; flanders
“May” from Les Tres Riches Heures de Duc de Berry, by the Limbourg brothers is an excellent example of the _______________ of painting of the late 14th and early 15th centuries. This style appealed to the aristocracy with its themes involving splendid processions of knights and ladies complete with entourages, horses, and hunting hounds and courtly scenes. Brilliant color, embellishment with gold leaf, and attention to details are some of its characteristics.
international style
Robert Campin’s, Merode Altarpiece (16-2), is a ____________ whose three
panels from left to right, contain the kneeling donors of the Altarpiece; an Annunciation
scene with the Virgin Mary and the angel Gabriel; and Joseph, the foster father
of Jesus, at work in his carpentry shop.
The Merode Altarpiece: the Annunciation with Donors and St. Joseph, is a work from the Northern Renaissance believed to be by Robert Campin. Which of these statements is true about this work?
A, B, D and E
During the 15th century in nothern Europe we have the developement of what is know as ______ __________, painting that depicts ordinary people engaged in ordinary activities.
genre painting
In this painting by Jan Van Eyck we see as in most Flemish paintings of this time, that the items scattered about are invested with __________ relevent to the occasion. The furry dog in the foreground stands for fidelity, and the oranges on the windowsill may symbolizes victory over death.
The development of the _____ _______ made it possible for Albrecht Durer
to disseminate the works of the Italian masters throughout Northern Europe.
printing press
In Albrecht Durer’s Adam and Eve one can see his admiration for ___________ by his emphasis of the idealized beauty of the human body in his Adam’s young muscular body and Eve’s substantial and well-rounded form.
classical style
Throughout the Renaissance as ___________ went, so went the country
When we look at the Late Gothic work Madonna Enthroned by Cimabue and the Early Renaissance work Madonna Enthroned by Giotto, we see both similarities and differences. Both works can be considered transitional works.
By use of observation, knowledge learned in previous chapters, and reading this chapter, which of these statements is/are true about these two works.
all of these
In Florence, Italy at the beginning of the 15th century there was a major competition for the commission to create and design the Baptistery of Florence’s doors. Ghiberti’s depiction of Abraham’s sacrifice of his only son Isaac won. He rendered Isaac in the manner of the 5th century sculptor, possibly making Isaac’s torso the first nude made in this style since _________ times.
In order to create a naturalistic representation of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface Renaissance artist developed rulers of perspective. In Masaccio’s Holy Trinity one sees the use of ___________ as he creates the illusion of an extension of the architectural space in the church.
one-point linear perspective
The artists of the Renaissance, along with the philosophers and scientists, tended to share the sense of the universe as an orderly place that was governed by natural law and capable of being expressed in mathematical and geometric terms. One of the artist that practiced this philosophy was Piero della Francesca. A development of his believes can be seen in his work Resurrection in which all the figures in the painting are contained within a triangle with Christ at the apex. This would become a major compositional device in Renaissance painting and can be seen in many other works of the time, another example would be ___________________.
Painters have used ________, or the contrast of light and shade to create a scene of roundness and mass in their figures and objects in an effort to render a realistic impression of three-dimensional forms in space since the time of Giotto (1310). But if we look at the work of the Renaissance painter Sandro Botticelli as in The Birth of Venus painted in 1486 we see a work that has very little spacial depth because he had constructed his composition with ___________.
chiaroscuro; line instead of tonal contrasts.
The Last Supper by Leonardo’s da Vinci displays, the Renaissance ideals of Classicism, humanism, and technical perfection. Remembering our lessons from Chapter 2: Visual Elements of Art and Chapter 3: Principles of Deign, which of these would be examples of “technical perfection.”
B, C, E and G
__________ or a system of belief in which humankind is viewed as the standard by which all things are measured. One of the main expressive painting to capture this spirit in sixteenth-century Renaissance art is Leonardo da Vinci’s Madonna of the Rocks.
Remembering our lessons from Chapter 2: Visual Elements of Art and Chapter 3: Principles of Deign compare Leonardo da Vinci’s The Last Supper and Raphael’s The School of Athens we see these similarities.
all of these
Which of these statements are true about the three David’s by Donatello, Verrocchio and Michelangelo.
A, B, C, E and F
Titian uses color and strokes of paint and layers of varnish as a compositional device rather than line and chiaroscuro giving him more in common with the artist who would follow him than with his Renaissance contemporaries in Florence and Rome. An example of his work and his use of the _________ technique is Titian’s Venus of Urbino.
Tintoretto an artist of the Late Renaissance has a unique painting technique in comparison of the other artist of the time. He painted the canvas with dark colors and then quickly painted in lighter sections giving his work a dark appearance. He used broad areas of loosely switched paint. This loose brushwork and dramatic white spotlighting on a dark ground anticipated the _______ style.
A comparison of Tintoretto’s The Last Supper with Leonardo’s The Last Supper will show the dramatic changes that had taken place in both art and the concept of art over almost a century.
A, B, C and D
El Greco an artist in Spain during the Late Renaissance incorporated elements from different styles in his work. In the work The Burial of Count Orgaz which of these statements are/is true.
all of these
The __________ artist abandoned the Renaissance rule to observe and emulate nature and instead observed and copied art. In Jacopo Pontormo’s Entombment we see several other characteristics of this style such as distorted and elongated figures, lack of a defined focal point, and the use of discordant pastel hues.
The Oath of the Horath by Jacques-Louis David is an example of the __________ style. Some of the characteristics of this style we see in this work are the harsh sculptural lines that define the figures and setting, a subdued palette, and the use of planar recession into space.
Artist classified as __________ advocated asserting emotion and intuition over rationalism and the importance of the individual over social conformity. The sense of emotion is enhanced by virtuoso brushwork and a brilliant palette.
The Romantic movement’s most famous artist is __________ and example of his work is The Death of Sardanapalus. The extremes of emotion the Romantic artist sought was enhanced by virtuoso brushwork and a brilliant palette as we can see in this work.
eugene delacroix
_______ is considered the greatest painter at the time of the Neoclassical and Romantic periods, but did not belong to either group. He is known for work devoted to man’s inhumanity to man with political overtones. His works range from social satire to savage condemnations of the disasters of war and his style was influenced by Baroque artist like Velasquez and Rembrandt. An example of his work is The Third of May, 1808.
francisco goya
The most popular type of painting during the Neoclassical and Romantic periods and the one that had the least impact on the development of modern art was ___________. Its style and subject matter were derived from conventions established by the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture in Paris. One of the most popular members was Adolphe William Bouguereau with his oeuvre of mythology, religious, and historical paintings in the grand classical manner.
academic art
_____________ painters attempted to paint objects as they saw them, optically, rather than conceptually, how they knew them to be. They rejected conventional academic themes such as mythology and history in favor of everyday life and carefully observed social settings. This movement is synonymous with the artist Gustave Courbel. He used the term to describe his work and issued a manifesto on the subject. An example of his work is The Stone-Breakers. The critics were offended by his quick application of paint onto the canvas with a palette knife that resulted in a coarsely textured surface (impasto).
The artist Edouard Manet was pivotal in the development of Impressionism and one of his most important works was Le Dejeuner sur L’Herbe (Luncheon on the Grass). Which of these statements is/are innovations within this work that met with disapproval from critics and the public, but would change the future of art?
a, b, c, and d
This ____________ movement originated in France and its artist wanted to depict real life, to paint straight from nature, and to capture the changing effects of light. Their styles were diverse, but all experimented with effects of light and movement and of color juxtaposed on the canvas rather than mixed on the palette.
____________ was the most fervent follower of the Impressionist technique. The dissolution of surfaces and the separation of light into its spectral components remained central to his works of art. His ability to capture in painting this visual phenomen of when objects are bathed in sunlight they are optically reduced to facets of pure color. This can be seen in his work Rouen Cathedral. In his works he has also captured how actual color-or local color- of the objects is altered by different lighting effects and how solids tend to dissolve into color fields. Shadows are not black or gray but a combination of colors as in this work the shadows have been transformed into patches of bright blue and splashes of yellow and red.
claude monet
Which statement applies to this work of art?
Perhaps the most significant figure painter of the Impressionism movement was Piette-Auguste Renoir. One of his favorite subject matters and of the Impressionist artists was painting members of the middle class enjoying leisure time activities. In Le Mounlin de la Galette we see his primary interest of painting the effect of light as it players across the surface of objects and his characteristic feathery brushstrokes.
In the work Young Girl by the Window by the Impressionist painter __________ we see the importance that brush work had in Impressionist painting. The surface dissolves into an array of loose brushstrokes, applied; it would seem, at a frantic pace. The vigor of these strokes contrasts markedly with the tranquility of the scene. But what is most impressive is her ability to suggest complete forms through a few well placed strokes of pigment.
berthe morisot
Which statement applies to this work of art?
In the work The Rehearsal by the Impressionist painter Edgar Degas we see the influence that Japanese woodcuts had on the Impressionist. We also see the influence that photography had on his work. As in Japanese prints we see the use of line to direct the viewers eye. In this case the diagonals of the floorboards carry our eyes briskly from outside the canvas to the different groups of congregated figures. He has framed his work as a camera image often does by slicing off figures and forms in a seemingly arbitrary fashion.
A group of artist came together during the nineteenth century. They were united in their rebellion against Impressionism or what they considered an excessive concern for fleeting impressions and a disregard for traditional compositional elements. The __________ individual styles differed considerably and included such artist as Vincent van Goth, Paul Gaugiun, George Seurat, and Paul Cezanne.
At first the works of Georges Seurat seem like they would be part of the Impressionist movement, except he disciplined the free and fluent play of the Impressionist into a calculated arrangement of color based on scientific color theories. Seurat’s technique is called ________, after his application of pigment in small dabs, or points, of pure color. Upon close inspection, the painting appears to be a collection of dots of vibrant hues-complementary colors abutting one another, primary colors placed side by side. These hues intensify or blend to form yet another color in the eye of the viewer who beholds the canvas from a distance.
Which of these statements is true about the artist Paul Cezanne and his work Still Life with Basket of Apples?
all of these
One of the most tragic and best known figures of the Postimpressionist was ___________. He felt painting was about the expression of the artist emotions and color was an important part of this. He believed color not the form determined the expressive content of his pictures. There is a sense of expressiveness in both his use of colors and in his application of paint. The thickness, shape, and direction of his brush strokes create a tactile counter part to his intensive color schemes. One of his most famous works Starry Night is filled with ecstatic movement. Both the earth and sky pulsate with over powering turbulence, creating his own unique vision.
vincent van gogh
The Postimpressionist __________ like van Gogh desired to express his emotion on canvas, but he relied on broad areas of intense color to transpose his innermost feelings to canvas. He abstracted the scene into patterns and pure unnaturalistic color fills flat planes and shapes bounded by firm line. He developed a theory of art called Synthetism, in which he advocated this use of broad areas of unnaturalistic color and primitive or symbolic subject matter.
paul gauguin
The Postimpressionist artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was influenced by many artist and styles. This can be seen in his painting At the Moulin Rouge. Which of these statements is true about the artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and his work At the Moulin Rouge?
all of these
A group of artist arose in Europe that believed the fundamental purpose of art was to express their intense feelings toward the world. The term ____________ has come to refer to a wide range of art, but overall it refers to art that is the result of the artist’s unique inner or personal visions and that often has an emotional dimension.
The central theme in the works of the Expressionist painter ________ pain and isolation. In The Scream he transforms the placid landscape into one that echoes in waves of high-pitched tone that emanates from the sunken head. This references the swirling forms of van Gogh’s works, but he has added a sense of horror to the intensity of his work. The composition speaks of his view of humanity as being consumed by an increasingly dehumanized society.
edward munch
Which statement applies to this work of art?
The expressionist artist Kathe Kollwitz sought to evoke universal symbols for inhumanity, injustice, and humankind’s destruction of itself in her works. In the work The Outbreak even though it records an event in the Peasant’s war of the 16th century, it stands as an inspiration to all those who strive for freedom against the odds.
Which statement applies to this work of art?
The Impressionist Mary Cassatt is an American artist who moved to France to become part of the inner circle of the Impressionists. In the work The Boating Party we see her style differs from the atmospherics and transitory images of other Impressionists. She constructs a more solid composition with her use of color, line, the compressed sense of space, and the simplified shapes of the boat and sail.
The French sculptor _____________ lived from 1840 to 1917 and was considered the greatest of his day. By molding soft materials he achieved highly textured surfaces that captured the play of light, much as in an Impressionist painting of his time. As he aged the works became more abstract and distinct features were abandoned in favor of solids and voids that together with light, constructed the image of a human being. Their abstracted features set the stage for yet newer and more audacious art forms that would rise with the dawn of the 20th century. One of his most famous works is The Burghers of Calais.
auguste rodin
__________ is a decorative style of about 1890 to 1910, whose influence extended from Europe to the United States. Its idiosyncratic characteristics could be found in painting and sculpture as well as architecture, furniture, jewelry, fashion, and glassware. It is marked by a lyrical linearity of sinuous lines reminiscent of unfolding tendrils, stylized flowers and flame shapes, the use of symbolism, and rich ornamentation. There is an overriding sense of the organic in all of the arts of this style, with many of the forms reminiscent of exotic plant life.
art nouveau
Motion and space were concerns of the ___________artist. The concept of time, a dramatic use of light, and a passionate theatricality complete the list of the five most important characteristics of this style of art.
The Baroque sculptor Bernini sculpture of David is remarkablely different from those of Donatello, Verrocchio, and Michelangelo. He used three of the five major characteristics of Baroque art in his sculpture, they are ________.
motion (implied), a different way of looking at space, and the introduction of the concept of time
In the Baroque period the Renaissance balance between emotion and restraint that was adopted from Classical Greek Art gives way to unleashed passion and the theatricality and the marked extension of the figure into the surrounding space of _____________.
greek hellenistic art
Donatello, Verrocchio, Michelangelo, and Bernini all created a sculpture of David. Compare and contrast these sculptures. Which of these statements is/are true?
all of these are correct
Bernini combined the arts of ________________ to archive the desired theatrical effect in the sculptural group The Ecstasy of St. Theresa for the chapel of the Cornaro family in the church of Saint Maria Della Vittoria. Uncontrollable passion and theatrical drama best describe this masterpiece of Baroque art.
architecture, sculpture, and painting
Baroque painters are known for the theatrical drama and passion created in their works and one way they achieve this is their dramatic use of light. One such work is The Conversion of St Paul by Caravaggio, in this work he used an exaggerated chiaroscuro called ______________. It usually involved one very small source of light and evoked a harsh realism or naturalism in the figures.
Considered the two works Judith and Holofernes by the two Baroque contemporary artists Caravaggio and Gentileschi, which of these statements best describes a comparison of the two works?
a, b, and d
The Baroque artists love for combining the arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture to create an unsurpassed illusionistic effect so the viewer wonders if it is real, can be seen in Baciccio’s Triumph of the Sacred Name of Jesus. To achieve this effect of ___________ Baciccio combined painted figures with white stucco modeled sculpture and a gilded stacio ceiling.
troupe l’oeil
The Baroque architect Francesco Borromini was able to incorporate the elements of ___________________ , all elements that were important to Baroque artist. We can see his use of these elements in his work, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, where its facade undulates in implied movement complemented by the concave entablatures of the bell towers on the roof. Light plays across the plane of the facade, bouncing off the engaged columns while leaving the receded areas in darkness.
motion, space, and light
Building upon the Venetian method of painting like Titian, who used strokes of paint and layers of varnish to construct the forms in his work, the Baroque painter Velasquez used a myriad of strokes to capture light exactly as it plays over a variety of surface textures. Velasquez’s method of dissolving forms into small, roughly textured brushstrokes that re-create the play of light over surfaces would be the foundation of a movement called ________________ some two centuries later.
In the work The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus, the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens created _____________ . By resting the mass of struggling forms on a single point so that we know visually that all this energy cannot be supported on this single point, so we inter continuous movement.
implied motion and time
The Dutch Baroque painter Rembrandt was a much sought after portrait painter. Rembrandt surrounded his figures in a haziness using exaggerated chiaroscuro as other Baroque artist and he used a painterly technique like Valasquez in which his brush strokes are heavily loaded with pigments and applied in thick ________.
Because of the protestant mandate that man should not create “false idols,” Dutch artist turned to secular art and paintings of everyday life and activities. The ___________ became the favorite subjects of the Dutch. The single artist who typifies this is the Dutch painter Jan Vermeer. An example of his work is Young Woman with a Water Jug
genre painting
Rome was replaced as the center of the art world, during the Baroque period by _____________ under the reign of Louis XIV.
During the Baroque period, King Louis XIV of France preferred (1) _________ so to guarantee adherence to this style he formed academies of art. They were run by the state and their faculties were populated by leading proponents of the (2) ____________ .
classicism; classical style
The Rape of Sabine Women illustrates the Baroque Classicism that Nicolas Poussin would bring to France during the Baroque period.
a, c and d
Art historians have recognized a more distinct style within the Baroque that began shortly after the dawn of the eighteenth century. This __________ style strayed further from classical principles than did the Baroque. It is more ornate and characterized by sweetness, gaiety, and light. The works subjects were delicate and sprightly representation of the leisure activities of the upper class. An example of this style is the work Happy Accidents of the Swing by Jean-Honore Fragonard.
The Rococo portrait painter Elisabeth Vigee-Librun was a complete success during her lifetime and was the official portrait painter for Marie Antoinette. In her portrait Marie Antoinette and Her Children she uses the triangular composition and the child on the lap which is reminiscent of ____________ images such as the Madonna and Child.
___________ is characterized by spontaneous execution, large gestural brushstrokes, nonobjective imagery, and fields of intense color. Many canvases are quite large, lending monumentality to the imagery.
abstract expressionism
For some Abstract Expressionists, such as Jackson Pollock, the gestural application of paint seems to be the most important aspect of their work. Pollock would walk across the surface of the work of art dripping and splashing paint across his huge canvases. The art critic Harold Rosenberg coined the term ___________ in 1951 to describe the outcome of his painting process—a painting whose surface implied a strong sense of activity, as created by the signs of brushing, dipping, or splattering of paint. An example of one such work of art is Jackson Pollock’s One.
action painting
Some Abstract Expressionists such as Mark Rothko focus on ________________ ; the creation of pulsating fields of color was more important than the gestural quality of the brushstroke. The canvases are so large that they seem to envelop the viewer with color, the subtle modulation of which create a vibrating or resonation effect. An example of one such work of art is Mark Rothko’s Magenta, Black, Green on Orange.
color field
A group of artist in the mid 1950’s reacted against the elitism of abstract art. ____ not only embraced representation, but selected commonplace and familiar subjects that are already too much with us, such as imagery drawn from advertising, comic strips, film, and television. An example of this style is Andy Warhol’s Green Coca-Cola Bottles.
pop art
It rejects the expressionism in favor of shapes and materials that are pure and simple. The characteristic style of this nonobjective work of art by Agnes Martin is a quint-essential example of ______________.
_______, or the rendering of subjects with sharp, photographic precision, is firmly rooted in the long, realistic tradition in the arts. As a movement that first gained major recognition during the early 1970’s, it also owes some of its impetus to the Pop artist’s objective portrayal of familiar images. It is also in part a reaction to the expressionistic and abstract movements of the twentieth century. An example of this style is Audrey Flack’s World War II.
To combat the exclusion of women and ethnic minorities in exhibitions and representation, an anonymous group of women artists banded together as the _________________ . The group appeared in public with gorilla masks and proclaimed themselves to be the “conscience of the art world.”
guerrillia girls
A short-lived but influential art movement, __________ choose their color and brushwork on the basis of its ability to express emotional qualities. They painted traditional subject matters of nudes, still life’s, and landscapes, but what set their works apart was their harsh, nondescriptive color, bold linear patterning, and a distorted form of perspective. We see this in Andre Derain’s painting London Bridge.
____________ was part of the Fauves movement but his reputation exceeded the short lived movement. He developed a style characterized by surface pattern, strong, sinuous lines and brilliant colors as we can see in his work Red Room. We can also see the influence Fauvism had on his style as in the distorted form of perspective seen in this work.
henri matisse
__________ was founded in Dresden, Germany by a group of artist that saw it as bridging a number of disparate styles. The work Dance Around the Golden City by the member Emil Nolde shows the expressiveness of their images is due as much to the wrenching distortion of form, ragged outline, and agitated brushstrokes as to their use of color.
die Brücke (the bridge)
__________ is a group of artist that took their name from the title of a painting by a major proponent, Wassily Kandinsky. Their work focused on the contrasts and combinations of abstract forms and pure colors and at times it was completely without subject. The artists sought to free themselves from the shackles of observable reality. Their art can be described as nonobjective or abstract.
Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider)
One of the founders of the Der Blaue Reiter movement _____ believed in colors capacity to communicate the artists in most psychological and spiritual concerns. In his essay “Concerning the Spiritual in Art” he examined the belief that artist must express the spirit and their innermost feelings by the orchestration of color, form, line, and space. In the work Sketch for Composition VII we see his application of these theories in which bold colors, lines, and shapes tear dramatically across the canvas with what looks like no preconceived fashion.
Wassily Kandinsky
________ can trace its heritage to the analytical and intellectual work of Cezanne. It built upon his geometrization of nature, abandonment of scientific perspective, rendering of multiple views, and emphasis on the two-dimensional canvas surface.
______________ was a pivotal work of art in the development of Analytic Cubism with its extreme faceting of form, the use of multiple views, and the collapsing of space. These are all characteristics that were used to develop the style of Analytic Cubism.
Pablo Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
In _______________ we see the theory of Analytic Cubism at its high point. Numerous planes intersect and congregate at the center of the canvas to form a barely perceptible triangular human figure, which is alternately constructed from and dissolved into the background.
Georges Braque’s The Portuguese
The work Guernica by ________ was a mural executed in 1937 for the Pavilion of the Spanish Republic at the Paris International Exposition. It was inspired by the bombing of civilians in Guernica, Spain by Germany, during the Spanish Civil War. It evokes the agony, brutality, and inhumanity of war through a series of powerful emotional images.
pablo picasso
The Futurist sculptor ___________ search to express dynamic movement reached a monumental expression with his work Unique Forms of Continuity in Space. The human form is expanded, interrupted, and broken in plane and contour as it seeks to convey the elusive, surging energy of motion that causes the form to disappear behind the blur of its motion.
Umberto Boccioni
A group of avant-garde artist came together in Italy and sought to portray the dynamism of modern life. In the ________ movement the artist often focused on motion in time and space by incorporating the Cubist discoveries from analyzing form. They aimed to capture the dynamism of motion by the simultaneous repetition of forms. As we can see in the work Street Light by the artist Giacomo Balla, the light of the lamp pierces the darkness in reverberating circles. V-shaped brushstrokes simultaneously fan outward from the source and point toward it, creating a sense of constant movement.
The American painter ________ captured the essence of her subjects by simplifying their forms. In the case of her flower pictures as in the White Iris she magnified and abstracted the details of her botanical subjects.
georgia o’keeffe
__________ was an assemblage of works by leading American artist and an impressive array of Europeans ranging from Goya and Delacroix, to Manet and the Impressionists; from Van Gogh and Gauguin, to Picasso and Kandinsky. The International Exhibition of Modern Art was held in 1913 at the 69th Regiment Armory in New York City. It raised the artistic consciousness of the Americans. In the years following the show, American artist explored abstraction to new heights.
armory show
_______________ sculpture featured geometric shapes and planes and were constructed of industrial materials like plastic, metal and glass. They challenged conventional materials and techniques like carving, modeling, and casting that emphasized the manipulation of mass rather than space.
No matter how abstract they appear the sculptures of ___________ are rooted in the figure. He reduces the figure to a form with sparse indications of its features. In his works, he reached for the essence of the subject by offering the simplest contour that along with a descriptive title, could fire recognition in the spectator. We see this in his work Bird in Space.
Constantin Brancusi
The Fantastic artist ______ abandoned representational elements in his art and turned to ethnographic and children’s art, seeking a universality of expression in their extreme simplicity. Many of his works combine a charming naivete with wry commentary. His work Twittering Machine offers a humorous contraption composed of four fantastic birds balanced precariously on a wire attached to a crank. Does he satirize contemporary technology or does he have something more sinister in mind?
paul klee
In a spirit of rebellion and disillusionment during World War I, a group of artist established the ______ movement. It declared itself against art, responding to the absurdity of war and the insanity of a world that gave rise to it. They declared that art, a reflection of this sorry state of affairs was stupid and must be destroyed. In its nihilistic mocking of traditional values in the arts and by extension Western society as a whole, the artist Marcel Duchamp created the Mona Lisa (L.H.O.O.Q.). In which he impudently defiled a color print of Leonardo da Vinci’s masterpiece with a moustache and goatee.
The Surrealist followed Freud’s theory of the unconscious and his free association technique for by passing the conscious mind. The Surrealist were inspired by the thoughts and visions of the subconscious mind and sought to record them in their art. One of the two methods of Surrealism is Illusionistic Surrealism. It rendered the irrational content, absurd juxtapositions, and metamorphoses of the dream state in a highly illusionistic manner. It is exemplified by ______________.
Salvador Dali’s The Persistence of Memory
The Surrealist followed Freud’s theory of the unconscious and his free association technique for by passing the conscious mind. The Surrealist were inspired by the thoughts and visions of the subconscious mind and sought to record them in their art. One of the two methods of surrealism is Automatic Surrealism. It was a direct outgrowth of automatic writing and was used to divulge mysteries of the unconscious through abstraction. It is exemplified by ________________ .
Joan Miro’s Painting
Even thought the ________________ only lasted 15 years its director, Gropius concepts that “form follows function”, “less is more” and his emphasis on simplicity and in the economical use of space, time, materials, and money. It gave birth to designers that would change design of the twentieth century.
The sheer quantity of and the impressive array of ____________ in which humans and animals are represented would suggest a principle role of images and symbols in the stuggle for human survival for Stone Age man.
sculptures and paintings
Images, symbols, supernatural forces–these were but a few of the concerns of prehistoric and ancient artists. __________ were the first to forge links between religion and life, life and art, and art and religion.
stone age people
Hall of Bulls, Lascaux, France is a splendid example of Stone Age painting from the ____________ period. These superimposed realistic images of horses, bulls, and reindeer appear to be stampeding in all directions. The artist used a variety of techniques to capture foreshortening and contrast of light and shadow to create the illusion of three-dimensional forms.
This work of art is from the Paleolithic period, the female form is highly abstracted, with the emphasis placed on the anatomical parts associated with fertility (the breast, swollen abdomen, and enlarged hips) and the other parts are subordinated. In this small sculpture called ______________ prehistoric artist attempted to “capture” fertility.
venus of willendorf
During the ______________ period in some areas of the world, crops were cultivated, metal implements were fashioned, and writing appeared. Also huge architectural monuments were erected the most famous of which is the post-and-lintel construction of Stonehenge in southern England. It consists of two concentric rings of stones that surround others stones that are placed in a horseshoe shape. Some of these stones are quite large and weigh several tons.
_________ societies are marked by a written language, advanced social organization, and developments in the areas of government, science, and art. They are also often linked with the development of agriculture.
The Sumerians developed a system of writing called ____________, from the Latin cuneus, meaning “wedge”: the characters in this writing style are wedge shaped.
When the major cities of this society were excavated it revealed sculpture, craft art, and monumental architecture that appears to have been created for worship. An example of art and architecture of the religious-oriented the ________ society was the ziggurat,. The ziggurat and temple on top was the focal point of the city and towered high about the fields and dwellings.
_____________ art differs from its predecessor of Sumerian art in that it commemorates rulers and warriors instead of offering homage to the gods; it is of violence instead of prayer. An example would be the Victory Stele of Naram-Sin.
The representation of the figures are similar in the Akkadian work the Stele of Naram-Sin and the _____________. In both the artist renders the human body of important personages in a combination of frontal and profile views. The figures legs and face are shown in profile, and his torso faces front again.
Babylonian work Stele Inscribed with the Law Code of Hammurabi
Carved stone relief’s depicting scenes of war and hunting are common art forms in ____________ art. One such example is The Dying Lioness from Nineveh a sculpture relief of a royal hunting expedition and its carnage. It depicts a naturalistic representation of a lioness bleeding and paralyzed in the assault as she emits a pathetic, helpless roar.
Unlike the art of Mesopotamian civilizations the _________ art styles proceed from the three periods of Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms with very few variations.
The ____________ work the Narmer Palette is an example of the conceptual approach to rendering the human figure, that was encounter in Mesopotamian art such as Victory Stele of Naram-Sin and the Stele Inscribed with the Law Code of Hammurabi.
egyptian, old kingdom
Compare these three works of art, Narmer Palette, Old Kingdom Egyptian, Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, Akkadian and the Stele Inscribed with the Law Code of Hammurabi, Assyrian. Which of these statements is/are true.?
a,b, and c
Compare these two works of art, Narmer Palette, Old Kingdom Egyptian and Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, Akkadian. Which of these statements is/are true?
a,b, and d
The __________ Statue of Khafre is an example of tomb sculpture. The artist has confined the figure to the block of stone from which it was carved instead of allowing it to stand freely in space. Permanence was essential as sculptures like Khafre were created to house the ka, or _________ if the mummified remains of the deceased disintergrated.
egyptian, old kingdom; soul
Some of the most spectacular remains of Egypt are architectural structures built for their pharaohs. The Old Kingdom (1)________________. the Middle Kingdom (2) _____________. The New Kingdom (3) ___________.
A. constructed lavish palaces for their kings and royal entourage.B. produced a new architecture that of the mortuary temple that was carved out of the living rock but their function was not as a final resting place for the pharaohs but served as their place for worship during their life and a place at which they could be worshiped after death.

C. also made tombs for their pharaohs but these were carved out of the living rock, and their entranceways were marked by columned porticoes of post-and-lintel construction.

D. is famous for the tombs constructed to provide a resting place for their pharaohs, the Great Pyramids of Giza. These load-bearing constructions are built with limestone blocks that weight about 2 1/2 tons each.

E. built strong fortifications, such as Citadels that were ornamented with frescoes and sculpture, some of which served as architectural decorations.

C) 1 is D, 2 is C, and 3 is B
In Egyptian art the depiction of the figure followed a strict conventionalism that lasted for thousands of years. The exception to this was the ______________ when the wedge-shaped stylizations that stood as a rigid canon for the representation of the human body were replaced by curving lines and full-bodied forms.
amarna period
The _________ civilization of the island of Crete was unlike that of Mesopotamia and Egypt in that its architecture was not tombs, mortuary temples, or shrines. It instead, constructed lavish palaces for their kings and royal entourage.
The peoples of the Cyclades Islands, the island of Crete and the Mycenaens formed the seeds of one of the world’s most influential and magnificent civilizations that of ancient ________.