Art history B

corps
body or group
laterally reversed
mirror image
lithograph
produced by etching an image onto a flat surface, then copying the etched surface by applying ink (or some equivalent) to it and pressing another material against it
monochrome
one color in various hues; black and white
tonally reversed
dark appears light and light appears dark
topography
topography
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immediacy
a sense of capturing a single moment in time
details
including those not planted by the photographer
avant-garde
military term meaning “front line”; today means “cutting edge”
ethereal
momentary, quickly vanishing
eurhythmy
body movements in harmony to musical rhythm
formal
using composition and design for an artistic effect
juxtaposition
the placement of one object against or side by side another
nuance
delicate and subtle; not obvious, but artful
quintessential
primary example
subversiveness
quality of that which undermines the established
Dante’s Inferno
part of The Divine Comedy, an epic poem that deals with Dante’s imagined trip through the hell, purgatory, and heaven while guided by the poet Virgil
molds
shape or form used to create an exact likeness
caricature
a painting or drawing of a person that exaggerates specific features of that person such as big ears or nose
pastoral
peaceful farming scenes
prolific
characterized by creating large numbers of works
pointillism
a painting technique that uses small individual dots that when combined create the illusion of a whole picture
subjective
an individualized viewpoint
en vogue
French for “in style”
Expressionism
visual product of emotional spontaneity
connotation
the implied meaning rather than the dictionary meaning
graphic art
two-dimensional art forms such as drawing, engraving, etching and illustration in their various forms
macabre
gruesome; a fascination with horror
metaphorical
meaning something else
mysticism
belief in direct communication with God
suggestive
implying something else
high-key
greater contrast with bright whiteness and light tone
optical color
the effect of color as seen in lighting conditions other than white daylight, such as rain, sunrise, sunset, candlelight, and so on
dynamism
characterized by a sense of energy and movement
fascism
the subordination of the individual to the state
nonobjectivity
art representing no natural object, figure or scene
superimposing
placing one image on top of the other
mobile
a sculpture meant to hang in the air and twist in the wind
nihilism
complete denial or rejection of all established authority and institutions; a belief in nothing
Works Progress Administration
a governmental relief program that pumped millions of dollars into the economy and helped people work through and survive the Great Depression
secularism
a movement that places focus upon mortal men, rather than God
secular humanism
a belief system that prioritizes the study and progress of human interests over all others
Africanist
someone who studies the influence of African culture and history
Works Progress Administration
a governmental relief program that pumped millions of dollars into the economy and helped people work through and survive the Great Depression
iambic pentameter
the rhythm of a Petrarchan sonnet; lines consist of ten syllables each, with the accent on the even-numbered syllables
octave
the first eight lines of the Petrarchan sonnet, in which the topic is introduced and the problem is established
sestet
the final six lines of the Petrarchan sonnet, in which the problem is reflected upon and resolved
volta
the turning point at the beginning of the sestet, where the poet transitions from the problem to reflection and resolution
Africanist
someone who studies the influence of African culture and history
irony
meaning something other than what is indicated, often the opposite
Works Progress Administration
a governmental relief program that pumped millions of dollars into the economy and helped people work through and survive the Great Depression
posthumously
after death
public art
art generally paid for by government to beautify parks, buildings, and other public property
taboo
forbidden subject or behavior
deft
quick and neat in action; skillful
graphite
a grayish-black form of carbon that is used in paints, pencils, and lubricants
suffragette
a woman who advocated suffrage, or the right to vote, for women
aficionado
one who appreciates and admires something
automatism
performing a task unconsciously
curator
The person in charge of collecting the exhibits. This person will also determine the worth of each piece based on a series of steps
static
not moving
high art
fine art of great quality generally seen in museums and galleries
installation
an art form that manipulates the experience of space, often using media and sculpture
still
photograph, as opposed to a motion picture, can be a single frame from a movie
appropriation
using the works of others to create a new piece
austerity
a harsh plainness; no frills or decorations
pastiche
a work of art that intentionally imitates other works, often to ridicule or satire
documentary
style of photography that aims to tell a true story
stoic
possessing an ability to suffer without complaint
tonality
the hue of a black-and-white photograph and the gradation of black to white throughout the photograph
catharsis
the release of emotional tension the audience or reader feels at the end of a tragedy
problem play
a label given to a few of Shakespeare’s plays because they lack the basic characteristics of comedy or tragedy, have a somber mood, and have morally ambiguous characters
Shakespearean tragedy
a play depicting the fall and death of a prominent character
tragic flaw
a fundamental problem in a character that results in the character undergoing suffering
tragic hero
a person of high social position who suffers a reversal of fortune in part because of a tragic flaw and dies but gains insight or a deeper humanity as a result of suffering
revenge tragedy
a popular form of Elizabethan drama that centered on the central character’s desire to exact revenge for a crime committed against him or his family and ended in many deaths
source
a story from history, folk literature, or other from which an author draws plots or characters when creating a new work
anchorage
a place to anchor or hold on to something
lattices
a crisscross design
undulate
to move or appear to move like waves