ART 111/157

To gain entry to an artisan guild one had to
produce a masterpiece
Based on the discussion in the text, what was meant by a masterpiece in fourteenth-century Europe?
a work of art that met the guild’s highest standard of quality
What social change was particularly influential to the production of art in the fourteenth century?
the emergence of the wealthy merchant class
At the beginning of the fourth century, which royal court was the arbiter of taste in Western Europe?
Paris
What is the English art of opus anglicanum?
finely detailed emboidery
What historical artistic tradition is evident in Sienese painting of the early fourteenth century?
Byzantine
What theme is represented in Andrea Pisano’s doors of the Bapistery of San Giovanni in Florence?
the life of John the Baptist
Cimabue’s influence can be seen in Giotto’s “Virgin and the Child Enthroned” in the
symmetrical composition
A typical feature of Duccio di Buoninsegna’s style that can be seen in the “Raising of Lazarus” is
dramatic urgency
What are included in Giotto’s frescos at the Arena Chapel?
Personifications of the Virtues painted in grisaille
Narrative scenes from the life of Christ
A scene of the Last Judgement
What detail in “The Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux” might suggest hopes for the patron to bear a male heir?
the rabbit
We know that “The Hours of Jeanne d’Evreux” was illuminated by Parisian painter Jean Pucelle because
Jeanna d’Evreux mentions him in her will
Which part of Exter Cathedral is specific to the Perpendicular style?
the tracery of the stained glass window seen from the presbytery
Designed by Thomas of Whitney, the 57-foot high bishop’s throne at Exter Cathedral has an elaborate wooden canopy made to resemble
emboidery
St. Hedwig was known for having particular affection for a(n)
ivory statue of the Virgin and Child
Charles IV of Bohemia replaced Constantinople as the “New Rome” when he moved his capital to
Prague
What distinguishes German art of the fourteenth century from other European cultural centers of the period?
a mystical religiosity that emphasized extreme joy and suffering
According to the text, Petrach was among the first to identify what characteristic of Renaissance society?
the human potential for great individual accomplishment
Unlike their Northern counterparts, Italian painters sought to render the illusion of physical reality through
adherence to a strict mathematical system for depicting receding space
Donatello’s “David” was the first statue since antiquity that was
a life-size, free standing nude
Flippo Brunelleschi’s major contribution to Florence Cathedral was his design for
the dome
Nanni di Banco’s “The Four Crowned Martyrs” was commissioned by the Florentine stonecarvers’ and woodworkers’ guild to decorate which building?
Orsanmichele
What was the function of Fra Angelico’s paintings in the monastery of San Marco?
to inspire the monk’s meditation and devotion
What biblical figure played an important role in Florentine sculpture as a political symbol of the city?
David
“Chirst Giving Keys to Saint Peter” is a painting from Perugino’s fresco cycle in
The Sistine Chapel
Which term applies to Andrea Mantegna’s treatment of the Camera Picta’s domed ceiling in the palace of Ludovico Gonzaga?
di sotto in su or “from below upwards”
The Renaissance symbol of the ideal ruler prominent in the decorative scheme of the Studiolo was the
Squirrel
The carefully constructed formal correspondences within Piero della Francesca’s “Baptism of Christ” infuse the painting with a feeling of
calm and peaceful stasis
In painting the term “allegory” refers to
a symbolic illustration of a concept or principle
What Renaissance characteristic led Northern European artists to describe their subjects so precisely?
Curiosity about the natural world
Giovanni Arnolfini’s success in commissioning Jan van Eyck to paint the “Double Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife” can be understood as evidence of
the interdependence of society’s power brokers
What development in fifteenth-century art seems paralleled by the increasing practice of artists to sign their work?
The rising popularity of the portraiture
In the painted altarpiece by Melchior Broederlam, the pot of lilies represents
Mary’s virginity
Few tapestries survived the French Revolution because they were
burned to obtain precious metals woven into them
What element of Claus Sluter’s “Well of Moses” was in keeping with Gothic sculptural tradition?
the painted surfaces and added metal details
What subject appears in the lunettes in the upper part of the pages in the “Tres Riches Heures?”
The signs of the Zodiac
What established artistic tradition gave rise to the production of opus anglicanum used through Europe?
Pictoral needlework
The term grisaille refers to
painting in shades of gray with minimal color
How does the production of a woodcut differ from that of an engraving?
The image appeared raised on the block surface
The exacting attention to fine details that characterizes Flemish paintings such as “A Goldsmith in his Shop” reflects the influence of what northern European artistic tradition?
Manuscript illumination
What probably contributed to the development of engraving techniques used by artists such as Martin Schongauer?
Established metalworking practices
The Studiolo of Federico da Montefeltro is remarkable for its use of
trompe l’oeil
What characteristic of fifteenth-century Italian art is demonstrated in Ghiberti’s architectural setting for “Jacob and Esau?”
the use of linear perpective
Most scholars believe that Jan van Eyck’s “Man in a Red Turban” is
a self portrait
Unlike Italian artists, Flemish painters preferred using oil rather than tempura paint because it
allowed for easy changes
The central panel of the “Merode Altarpiece” depicts the
Annunciation
As opposed to the first generation of Flemish painters, the second generation created works that were
emotionally powerful
What detail of Rogier van der Weyden’s “Deposition” references the paintings commission by the Louvain crossbowmen’s guild?
crossbows can be seen in upper corners
Michael Pacher was one of the greatest artists to work in the tradition of
polychromed wood carvings
Common in Flamboyant architecture, the small, knobby, leaf-like ornaments that line steep gables and slender butresses are known as
crockets
In Jean Fouquet’s “Etienne Chevalier and St. Stephen, Virgin and Child” what detail references St. Stephen’s role as the first Christian martyr?
the rock sitting on the closed book
The setting for Konrad Witz’s “Miraculous Draft of Fishes” is the
Lake of Geneva
“The Nuremberg Chronicle” is a history of
the world
The first movable type printing press in Europe was achieved by
Johann Gutenberg
Typical of many devotional images sold to pilgrims in the fifteenth century, “The Buxheim St. Christopher,”
is a woodblock print
Oil paint is more luminous than tempera because
light reflects off layers of pigment
How does Hugo van der Goes’s “Portinari Altarpiece” differ from other Flemish paintings?
The variations in scale among figures
What are some functions of the altar in Early Renaissance churches?
To serve as a site where the mass is performed, to symbolize the tomb of Christ, and to hold sacred relics.
NOT to serve as a platform for the priests
Th Flamboyant style of architecture is commonly seen in
French town halls in the fifteenth century
What is true of women artists in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance?
They were usually daughters or wives of artists
They worked as miniatures and could even gain the status of publishers
They could be admitted into the painter’s guild in some Flemish towns
What characteristic distinguishes the earliest printing block books?
Each page was made as a separate woodcut print
The leading court artist of fifteenth-century France was
Jean Fouquet
What event may have influenced both the style and subject matter in the “Strozzi Altarpiece?”
The bubonic plague
Before starting a panel painting, what does an artist do?
Apply thin strips soaked in gesso
Create an underdrawing in charcoal
Burnish a gessoed surface
Which work functioned primarily as political propaganda for the city of Siena?
Ambrogio Lorenzetti’s painting “The Effects of Good Government in the City and in the Country
How did Peter Parler’s design for the choir of the church of the Holy Cross differ from his father’s plan used to construct the nave?
the ribbing was more complex and linear
Simone Martini and Lippo Memmi’s “Annunciation” differs from the earlier Sienese style of Duccio in the apparent influence of
courtly Gothic style
The circumstances of the patronage of the Arena (Scrovegni) Chapel appear to be most closely referenced in the the panel(s) representing
Judas receiving payment for the betrayal of Jesus
Sculptures called “Vesperbild,” which depict the Virgin mourning the dead Christ, originated in Germany as
devotional aids used during evening prayers
What architectural element(s) of Exeter Cathedral characterize(s) the Perpendicular style used in the latter phase of its construction?
The tracery of the window
What social function was served by elaborately carved chests called cassoni, found in the homes of wealthy Florentine families?
They displayed the wealth brought into a marriage
Venetian painting differs from Florentine painting in its
attention to natural details and lighting effects
What leads to the speculation that Pollaiuolo’s “Battle of the Nudes” was intended as a study on anatomical form?
The figures appear based on a single model
What distinguishing feature of Italian portraiture is demonstrated by Pierro della Francesca’s “Battista Sforza” and “Federcio da Montefeltro?
The use of strict profile
Fillipo Brunelleschi’s “Ospedale degli Innocenti” has a distinct sense of harmony most notable because
it is based on a Pythagorean proportional system
Why is Botticelli’s “Primavera” considered an allegory?
It uses Classical motifs to express Neoplatonic ideas
What distinguishes Uccello’s use of perspective in “The Battle of San Romano” from earlier Florentine artists such as Masaccio?
An intellectual interest in experimenting with perspective techniques
What features of “The Tribute Money” contribute to the illusion of three-dimensionality of the image?
The use of atmospheric perspective
The use of linear perspective
The modulation of tones within forms
During the Reformation, many artists turned to secular subjects, including depictions of human folly and weakness, still life’s, and landscapes, because
Of suffer loss of patronage for religious art in the newly Protestant lands
Desiderious Erasmus of Rotterdam, Holland,
Was a reformer of the Roman Catholic Church from within
Which historical figures supported the Protestant Reformation in northern Europe?
Martin Luther, Henry VIII, and Desiderius Erasmus
Albrecht Durer made his fortune from
Publications of his prints
The main panel of Tilman Riemenschneider’s Altar piece of the Holy Blood depicts the
Last Supper
Based on the discussion in the text, what influence may have inspired Matthias Grunewald’s graphic imagery in the Isenheim Altarpiece?
The visions of St. Bridget of Sweden
In Albrecht Durer’s Adam and Eve, the symbol of Satan is represented by a/an
Mouse
According to the text, German Renaissance sculptors produced their most original work in
Wood
Where is the Cour Carrée?
Palais du Louvre
Francis I’s effort to modernize Gothic traditions in France is best demonstrated by
His hiring of Italian artists for his court
What distinguishes Jean Clouet’s portrait of Francis I from German and Flemish portraits of the period?
The more idealized facial features
When Juan de Herrera was appointed architect of the Escorial complex, he dramatically changed the design by
Adding second stories on all wings
The loose brushwork of El Greco’s paintings suggests the influence of
Venetian traditions
Quentin Masses’s Money Changer and His Wife recalls a famous fifteenth-century painting by
Petrus Christus
While traveling in Italy, Pieter Bruegel the Elder made detailed drawings of
The Alpine landscape
What city was the commercial and artistic center of the southern Netherlands in the sixteenth century?
Antwerp
Which work of art was once known as The Strawberry Plant?
Hieronymus Bosch’s Garden of Earthly Delights
Which Flemish painter developed an illustrious reputation as a portraitist during the sixteenth century?
Caterina van Hemessen
England’s first professional Renaissance architect, who designed Hardwick Hall, was
Robert Smythson
Patronized by the queen of England and other court notables, Nicholas Hilliard was known for the production of
Miniature portraits
Hardwick Hall incorporates aspects of Classicism through its
Geometric order and symmetrical arrangement
oil paint