Aronson Social Psychology-Chapter 13

Which of the following statements about prejudice is false?
a. Everyone, no matter their origin, is a potential target of prejudice.
b. While our enemies regard us in distorted fashion, our allies perceive us without prejudice.
c. Prejudices exist for nationalities, gender, sexual orientation, religion, and aspects of appearance and health.
d. Prejudices tend to “cut both ways”; if we have prejudice about one group, they will have prejudices about us.
B
According to the authors, one nearly inevitable consequence of being the target of relentless prejudice is
a. genocide.
b. discrimination.
c. lower self-esteem.
d. rebellion.
C
Prejudice against ethnic minorities is well-known. Which of the following is true about the limits of who experiences prejudice?
a. Only ethnic minorities experience prejudice and discrimination.
b. Only ethnic minorities and women experience prejudice.
c. Any group can experience prejudice.
d. Prejudice is a thing of the past; no groups experience it anymore.
C
________ refers to an attitude toward a distinguishable group of people based solely on their group membership.
a. Discrimination
b. Stereotypes
c. Racism
d. Prejudice
D
Lucas reads an article in the newspaper about a man recently arrested for polygamy. “Yuck! That lifestyle disgusts me!” Lucas says with disdain. Lucas is expressing his ________ about polygamy.
a. stereotypes
b. beliefs
c. prejudice
d. politically correct opinion
C
According to your text, prejudice can be considered a(n)
a. attitude.
b. cognition.
c. belief.
d. estimation.
Answer: A
A
Which of the following best exemplifies the concept “prejudice” as used by social psychologists?
a. At parties, Lynne tends to seek out people who, like her, are psychology majors.
b. Kevin feels mistrustful of and uncomfortable around people from the Middle East.
c. Maria seldom hangs out with people who are not Catholic.
d. Barbara believes that women are smarter than men.
B
Kevin only buys clothes made in America. He never buys clothes made in India or Pakistan. This demonstrates the ________ component of his attitude.
a. affective
b. behavioral
c. cognitive
d. disabling
B
________ is to affect as ________ is to cognition.
a. Stereotype; prejudice
b. Discrimination; stereotype
c. Prejudice; discrimination
d. Prejudice; stereotype
D
One reason why logical arguments often fail to change stereotypes is that they are emotion-based arguments. The other reason is that
attitudes are organized such that schema-consistent information is given more attention.
stereotypes are perpetuated so strongly in the news media.
people who are prejudiced tend to also have lower I.Q.s.
stereotypes are usually ingrained since birth
A
Which of the following examples best captures the social-psychological concept of a stereotype?
a. Arlene refuses to enter an elevator in which men are riding.
b. Mitch believes that women are seductive, duplicitous, and not to be trusted.
c. Aaron becomes uncomfortable when a man sits too close to him.
d. Nicole avoids homeless people on the street.
B
Stereotypes are perpetuated in a culture. Thus, members of a culture may not believe the stereotypes, but most
a. will subscribe to them as adults.
b. will be aware of what the stereotypes are.
c. will use them to judge others.
d. have experiences that are in line with the stereotype.
B
The term ________ was coined by journalist Walter Lippman (1922), who referred to these phenomena as “the little pictures we carry around in our heads.”
a. generalization
b. heuristics
c. prejudgments
d. stereotype
D
Stereotypes are the ________ component of a negative attitude toward a group of people.
a. denotative
b. behavioral
c. cognitive
d. affectiv
C
Although psychologists usually refer to stereotypes only in a ________ sense, it is possible for a person to have a ________ stereotype about a particular group.
a. benign; destructive
b. positive; negative
c. negative; positive
d. specific; diffuse
C
When asked to imagine someone who fits the description “construction worker,” many people picture a man in a hard hat and work clothes. Such mental images of a group of people are examples of
a. prejudices.
b. stereotypes.
c. evaluations.
d. scripts.
B
Shane believes that women are more dependent, more nurturing, more intuitive, and less rational than men. These are examples of Shane’s ________ women.
a. prejudice toward
b. stereotypes about
c. discrimination against
d. negative affect toward
B
________ are generalizations about a group of people in which identical characteristics are ascribed to all members of the group, regardless of within-group variations.
a. Schemas
b. Stereotypes
c. In-group biases
d. Negative stereotypes
B
Stereotyping is a way of ________ the complex information around us, and thus is sometimes ________.
a. coding; destructive
b. simplifying; adaptive
c. justifying; reassuring
d. judging; decisive
B
When Gordon Allport (1954) described stereotyping as “the law of least effort,” he was suggesting that stereotypes arise
a. from personal experience.
b. to help us conserve cognitive energy.
c. at the service of the ego.
d. to justify objectionable actions quickly and easily.
B
Stereotypes are harmful to the extent they
a. exist.
b. are overgeneralized to members of a group.
c. are based on experience.
d. reduce cognitive effort.
B
Stereotypes are beneficial to the extent that they
a. are selectively applied.
b. simplify a complex social world.
c. are reserved for ambiguous situations.
d. minimize differences within a group of people
B
Keep in mind Gordon Allport’s (1954) description of stereotyping as “the law of least effort.” From Allport’s perspective, people are often
a. motivated tacticians.
b. cognitive misers.
c. prone to scapegoating.
d. lay scientists.
B
A cashier at the store assumes that because his next customer is elderly, she will take a long time to pay. The cashier is using his stereotypes about the elderly and not taking the time or energy to carefully consider each customer in his line as an individual. His use of stereotypes best exemplifies Allport’s idea of
a. the contact hypothesis.
b. the law of least effort.
c. scapegoating.
d. natural prejudice.
B
If someone from Texas and someone from Massachusetts were asked about their stereotypes of Hollywood actors, they would probably have remarkably similar stereotypes. This is because stereotypes are perpetuated in a culture on a large scale through
a. heredity.
b. religion.
c. the media.
d. politicians.
C
Alan just met Tina who is from a small rural town in the South. Alan believes that people from the South are narrow-minded, conservatively religious, and prudish. Tina, however, is none of these. What will Alan think?
a. His stereotype about southerners is incorrect.
b. Tina is an exception to his stereotype about southerners.
c. His stereotype needs revision.
d. His emotions about Tina aren’t appropriate.
B
A(n) ________ refers to the tendency to see relations between objects or events that are not actually related.
a. artificial association
b. incidental inference
c. illusory correlation
d. bogus association
C
You don’t know very many people with blue hair, but you happen to observe that when fights break out, they seem to involve people with blue hair. You draw the conclusion that people with blue hair are particularly violent, even though they are not. This conclusion reflects a(n)
a. subliminal prime of stereotypic information.
b. automatic activation of a stereotype.
c. artificial association.
d. illusory correlation
D
You have seen few people with nose rings, and few car accidents in your life. You happen to observe several car accidents involving people with nose rings, and come to the conclusion that people with nose rings drive badly. You have just created a(n)
a. illusory correlation.
b. plausible judgment.
c. incidental inference.
d. artifactual connection.
A
In the past, journalists would routinely report the race of an alleged criminal when he or she was black, but not when he or she was white. This media practice was likely to confirm in some readers’ minds the tendency of African Americans to commit criminal behavior. This phenomenon illustrates
a. a liberal media bias.
b. automatic activation of stereotypes.
c. an illusory correlation.
d. cognitive busyness.
C
You don’t know very many people with visible tattoos, but you happen to observe that when fights break out, they seem to involve people with tattoos. You draw the conclusion that there must be an association between having tattoos and being prone to aggression. This conclusion reflects a(n)
a. subliminal prime of stereotypic information.
b. automatic activation of your stereotype.
c. artificial association.
d. illusory correlation.
D
Research on the illusory correlation indicates that a correlation is found between minority status and negative events because minority status is
a. informative.
b. powerless.
c. distinctive.
d. poor.
C
Researchers exposed participants to a twenty-minute audiotape of a college basketball game. Half of the participants were led to believe that one player, Mark Flick, was African American, and the other half were led to believe that Mark Flick was Caucasian. When participants were asked to rate Mark Flick’s performance,
a. they rated the “white” Mark Flick as a uniformly better player.
b. white participants and black participants demonstrated a “same race” bias.
c. they rated the “African American” Mark Flick as more athletic.
d. they did not rate the “African-American” and “white” Mark Flick differently.
C
Researchers exposed participants to a twenty-minute audiotape of a college basketball game. In this research, “Mark Flick” was rated by participants as more athletic if the participants thought he was
Japanese.
Caucasian .
African American.
Hispanic.
C
Some would argue that the stereotype that African Americans are athletic is flattering. Which of the following is one reason why it is abusive?
a. It is a gross overgeneralization.
b. It is denying Caucasian children the opportunity to play sports.
c. It implies that African Americans are built for hard labor.
d. It is a means of scapegoating.
A
Julius is an African American and Mike is a Caucasian; both are basketball players for high-school teams. They both score same number of baskets and have similar records of assists, rebounds, and free throws. According to information from your text, who would be viewed as having more athletic ability and as having played a better game overall?
a. Mike
b. Julius
c. It depends on the ethnicity of the person you ask.
d. They would be view equally.
B
Which of the following is out of place?
a. hostile
b. nurturing
c. cowardly
d. incompetent
B
A benevolent sexist would endorse which of the following statements?
a. “Women are just not capable of doing good science.”
b. “Women should not serve in the military because they aren’t as brave as men.”
c. “Women should stay home because they are too precious and sweet to waste on the working world.”
d. “Women shouldn’t teach men because they aren’t very intelligent.”
C
One common stereotype about women that your text discusses is that they tend to be
aggressive.
better than men at throwing long distances.
more nurturing.
good at math.
C
Because we live in a ________ society, many men have feelings of ________ towards women.
a. patriarchal; ambivalence
b. patriarchal; hatred
c. modern; pleasure
d. modern; fear
A
Both benevolent sexism and hostile sexism are alike in that they
a. put women on a pedestal.
b. idealize women romantically.
c. have uniformly negative views of women.
d. view women as the weaker sex.
D
Men who are “benevolent sexists” have positive feelings about women as a group, but
a. while their views may be old-fashioned, there is no harm in them.
b. unconsciously have a strong underlying hatred of women.
c. are not inclined to put women on a pedestal or idealize them romantically.
d. their views also serve to justify relegating women to traditional, stereotyped roles.
D
Tara’s boss always calls her “Miss,” but refers to his other employees by name. He also goes out of his way to hold open a door for her, and has asked her a number of times to bring in some of her fabulous cookies for the office. Tara is experiencing ________ sexism from her boss.
a. hostile
b. puerile
c. benign
d. benevolent
D
At work, Julie is often told, “Get out of the way, this is man’s work, little woman.” Her coworkers will often belittle her when she makes a tiny mistake, but let it slide when another man makes a similar mistake. Julie is experiencing ________ sexism.
a. hostile
b. puerile
c. malignant
d. benevolent
A
Tina’s dad is a benevolent sexist. He’s most likely to approve of which of the following as Tina’s choice of major?
a. Law. He’s looking forward to her becoming a defense attorney.
b. Art. He wants her to continue making the world beautiful.
c. Chemistry. He would like for her to use her talents to make an incredible amount of money.
d. Criminal justice. He wants her to be the first female chief of police of their town.
B
Findings in research (Dovidio & Gaertner, 2008) on prejudice suggest that for many people, prejudice
lurks just below the surface.
does not exist.
is consciously active all of the time.
leads to aggression
A
According to some research, the degree of ________ prejudice has declined, but the degree of ________ prejudice keeps it alive under the surface.
a. implicit; explicit
b. explicit; implicit
c. benevolent; hostile
d. hostile; benevolent
A
According to some research, the degree of explicit prejudice has declined, but because of implicit prejudice it has
a. gone underground and become more overt.
b. gone underground and become more covert..
c. become a thing of the past.
d. become irrelevant to the lives of students today.
B
Discrimination is the ________ component of negative attitudes toward a group of people.
a. cognitive
b. pejorative
c. affective
d. behavioral
D
The definition of ________ is “unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because of his or her membership in that group.”
a. affirmative action
b. prejudice
c. discrimination
d. racism
C
Jessica isn’t invited to a Super Bowl party her coworkers are throwing because she’s a woman. Jessica is experiencing ________ from her coworkers.
discrimination
prejudice
hostile sexism
race-based exclusion
A