apush unit 6

What was Turner’s thesis about?
saw the frontier as the key to understanding American history.
what was the 1887 Dawes Severalty Act designed to do?
undermine tribal bonds by treating Indians as individuals.
Describe the 19th century conservation movement.
It attempted to educate the public about the destruction of the environment.
What did the Desert Land Act allow western ranchers to do?
it made 640 acres available at $1.25 an acre on condition that the owner irrigate part of it within three years.
List the Five Civilized Tribes.
The Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole.
What was required by the Fort Laramie Treaty?
northern Plains Indians move to a reservation in South Dakota.
What were the “Ghost Dance’s”?
a cycle of ritual songs and dance steps designed to bring about the destruction of European Americans and their removal from Indian lands.
Explain the Homestead Act.
offered 160 acres of land to any settler who would pay a $10 registration fee, live on the land for five years, and cultivate it.
What happened at the Battle of Wounded Knee and why is it important?
an excited Indian fired a gun hidden under a blanket. The soldiers retaliated with cannon fire. Within minutes 300 Indians, including 7 infants, were slaughtered.
Describe cowboys.
The cowboy, once scorned as a ne’er-do-well and drifter, was now glorified as a man of rough-hewn integrity and self-reliant strength.
Most cowboys were men in their teens and twenties who worked for a year or two and then pursued different livelihoods.
Of the estimated 35,000 to 55,000 men who rode the trails in these years, nearly one-fifth were black or Mexican.
How did the transcontinental railroad impact society?
Helped with the battles against natives. Once Indian resistance had been broken, the railroads not only expedited the shipment of new settlers and their supplies; they also provided fast access for the shipment of cattle and grain to eastern urban markets.
Why were there violent clashes between cattle ranchers and farmers during the late 19th century?
Barbed wire, patented in 1874, was another crucial invention that permitted farmers who lived where few trees grew to keep roving livestock out of their crops. But fencing the land touched off violent clashes between farmers and cattle ranchers, who demanded the right to let their herds roam freely until the roundup.
What were “Yellow Dog” contracts?
workers promised not to strike or join a union.
What communication system did the railroads use at the end of the Civil War?
the telegraph.
How did industrialization affect skilled craftsmen?
Subdividing the manufacture of a product into smaller jobs meant that an individual no longer manufactured an entire product.
What did the Supreme Court rule in the United States v. Knight Company and how did it effect the Sherman Anti Trust Act?
it argued that the Knight firm, which controlled more than 90 percent of all U.S. sugar refining, operated in illegal restraint of trade. Asserting that manufacturing was not interstate commerce and ignoring the company’s vast distribution network that enabled it to dominate the market, the Court threw out the suit.
What is the Sherman Anti-Trust Act?
outlawed trusts and other monopolies that fixed prices in restraint of trade.
What did Adam Smith argue in “The Wealth of Nations?”
Self-interest acted as an “invisible hand” in the marketplace, automatically regulating the supply of and demand for services.
What was Karl Marx’s argument about society?
that capitalists would eventually bring about their own destruction by driving impoverished workers to revolt.
Describe the causes and effects of the Haymarket Square bombing 1886.
At a protest rally the next evening in the city’s Haymarket Square, someone threw a bomb from a nearby building, killing or fatally wounding seven policemen. In response, the police fired wildly into the crowd and killed four demonstrators. Eight men were arrested. It resulted in intensified animosity toward labor unions.
Where did Carnegie learn his successful management methods and list 4 ways he revolutionized the steel industry?
as an employee of the Pennsylvania Railroad. incorporating the Bessemer process in his steel manufacturing factories. standardizing workplace procedures to achieve greater efficiency. utilizing vertical integration to minimize costs and maximize profits. applying rigorous cost accounting.
What is the American Federation of Labor and what made it successful in the late 19th century?
It had a strong leader in Samuel Gompers. It limited its membership to skilled workers allowing the union more unity. It clearly defined its objectives. It focused on practical tactics aimed at bread-and-butter issues.
How was the settlement-house movement different from other urban social-welfare organizations?
Relief workers would have to take up residence in poor neighborhoods where, in the words of Jane Addams, an early advocate of the movement, they could see firsthand “the struggle for existence, which is so much harsher among people near the edge of pauperism.”
What type of building did most urban poor people live in the late 19th century?
tenements.
Why were the Young Men’s and Young Women’s Christian Association formed?
provided housing and wholesome recreation for country boys who had migrated to the city. The Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) similarly provided housing and a day nursery for young women and their children.
Describe what the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union showed about women in the late 19th century.
they had unique moral virtues.
What theatrical entertainment drew the largest audiences in the late 19th century?
vaudeville shows.
What was the importance of “culture” for American Victorians?
Good manners, especially a knowledge of dining and entertaining etiquette, and good posture became important badges of status.
Give 4 examples of the philosophy of Walter Rauschenbusch.
a truly Christian society would unite all churches, reorganize the industrial system, and work for international peace. wanted christian unity.
Explain the similarities and differences between the “old” and “new” immigrants.
“Old immigrants” from northern and western Europe
“New immigrants” from southern and eastern Europe
Why did leisure time activities become increasingly important to the working class during the late 19th century?
factory work became ever more routinized and impersonal.
Why did young farm women lead the exodus from rural areas to cities?
With the growing mechanization of farming in the late nineteenth century, farming was increasingly male work.
Why was the development of the flush toilet and indoor plumbing so significant?
Indoor plumbing not only reinforced higher standards for personal hygiene; it also enmeshed the home- owner in a web of local and state regulations.
Why did President Cleveland propose a reduction of the tariff rates?
He thought that the government had no right to meddle in the economy.
What did the Supreme Court rule in Plessy v. Ferguson?
Racial segregation was constitutional, the Court held, if equal facilities were made available to each race.
What was the Teller Amendment?
it stated that the United States claimed no “sovereignty, jurisdiction, or control” over Cuba.
What did the “separate but equal” doctrine mean?
they could have separate facilities as long as they were equal.
What did the Pendleton Act do?
Allowed the president to decide which federal jobs would be filled according to rules laid down by bipartisan Civil Service Commission.
What event triggered the Panic of 1893?
The collapse of a railroad early in 1893.
What happened in the Philippines after the Spanish American War?
In the peace treaty signed that December in Paris, Spain recognized Cuba’s independence and, after a U.S. payment of $20 million, ceded the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific island of Guam to the United States.
What impact did the McKinley Tariff have on tariff rates?
pushed rates to an all time high.
What 2 issues dominated national politics in the 1870s and 1880s?
the money supply and the protective tariff
What was the Grange?
A group of farmers working together to better their situation
What was the main importance of the government’s establishment of the Interstate Commerce Commission?
Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act (1887), reaffirming the federal government’s power to investigate and oversee railroad activities.
What was the main issue in the 1896 presidential election?
free and unlimited coinage of silver.
Where and why did the U.S. and Germany almost have a naval clash in the 19th century?
Germany had ambitions in Samoa as well, and in March 1889 the United States and Germany narrowly avoided a naval clash when a hurricane wrecked both fleets.
What region of the U.S. was the Democratic party strongest in the late 19th century?
The south.
Describe voter participation during the late 19th century.
Between 1876 and 1896, the intense competition between parties produced an incredible turnout of voters.
What was ceded to the U.S. by Spain as a result of the Spanish-American War.
the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Pacific island of Guam
List 4 tools that southern states used to disfranchise blacks after Reconstruction.
ntimidation, terror, and vote fraud, literacy tests, poll taxes, and property requirements, and the grandfather clause.
Who became famous for the “Cross of Gold” speech and what was it about?
William Jennings Bryan, Bryan praised western farmers and scorned advocates of the gold standard.
Why was the 1892 election significant to U.S. history?
further eroded confidence in the dollar. Although Cleveland endorsed the gold standard, his party harbored many advocates of inflationary policies.
“Buffalo Bill” Cody’s Wild West show.
presented mock battles of army scouts and Indians as morality dramas of good versus evil.