APUSH Unit 3

Jay-Gardoqui Treaty
A treaty between Spain and the United States. It guaranteed Spain’s exclusive right to navigate Mississippi River for 30 years. It also opened Spain’s European and West Indian seaports to American shipping.
Land Ordinance of 1785
It set up how the new land gained after the revolution would be distributed and organized. The ordinance set up townships that were 36 sq miles where each plot of land was 1 sq mile and the 16th plot was sold for public schooling. The action was a huge success for the new government; it prevented a second revolution and was used for the later frontier states.
Northwest Ordinance; 1787
It declared that once a territory had a population of 60000, it would gain full statehood. However, before this, it would remain as a subordinate of the federal government. The action was a huge success for the new government; it prevented a second revolution and was used for the later frontier states.
Daniel Shays
a leader in a rebellion against the state of Massachusetts due to the amount of discontent of farmers that lost their land due to mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies during the war while they were off fighting. The rebellion, though put down by the state militia, signaled the need for a stronger central government.
Annapolis Convention
As a result of the commerce squabbles among the states, Virginia called for a convention in Annapolis to revise articles of confederation. It led to another one in Philadelphia, which was later to be the Constitutional Convention.
Great Compromise
A compromise that proposed two houses of Congress; one where the population would determine how many representatives a state has, and another to ensure that all states are represented equally. Created the House and Senate while resolving the dispute between the large and small states. – Roger Sherman
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3/5 Compromise
It was a compromise between the northern states with the southern ones that decided that although slaves were not citizens, each one would count as 3/5 of a man for representation. It got Southern states to ratify the constitution.
Commerce Compromise
Compromise that made it so that only congress could regulate interstate commerce. It ended the commercial dispute where states would have different tariffs for other states.
Federalism
It was a belief in a strong and powerful central government. It had a strong influence for a couple of decades in the early country.
Separation of Powers
A system that separated the powers of government into three separate braches to limit arbitrary excesses by the government. It led to the system of checks and balances so that the government would not become centered on one branch.
Checks and Balances
A system that ensured that no particular branch of government gained too much power over another. It demonstrated the fear of absolute power in one group/individual as well as preventing one branch from overpowering the others.
Preamble
First sentence of the constitution. Outlined the purpose of writing the constitution.
Impeachment
The act of by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.This is part of the system of checks and balances so that the judicial and the executive do not abuse their powers.
Filibustering
This is an attempt to obstruct a particular decision from being taken by using up the time available, typically through an extremely long speech. This would prevent the “opposing” party to pass an unfavorable law and ultimately force a compromise.
Elastic Clause
It states that Congress has the power “to make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper” for governing the country. This was made due to the fact that no one knew what the country would be like in the future, and therefore this clause gave congress power to adjust to the times in order to preserve the strength of the union.
Habeas Corpus
Common law where a judge could release a state prisoner if he was held unlawfully It protected the rights of all and prevented abuse of power.
Ex Post de Facto
A law that makes illegal an act that was legal when committed increases the penalties for an infraction after it has been committed, or changes the rules of evidence to make conviction easier This was prohibited by the constitution in order to keep the justice system equal and fair.
Electoral College
The system that the United States used and still uses to elect the president. Each state has a number of electoral votes based on the number of representatives it has in congress. The system showed the lack of trust the founding fathers had in the common man.
Judicial Review
It was a power given to the judiciary branch in order to sustain checks and balances. This power let judges examine a law or act passed by the government to see if it was constitutional or not.
Treason
An act against one’s country One can be tried for treason if two witnesses witness the act of treason.
Federalist Papers
The papers were a collection of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison explaining how the new government/constitution would work. Their purpose was to convince the New York state legislature to ratify the constitution, which it did.
Federalists
A political group who believed in a strong and powerful central government/executive branch. They were influential during Washington’s presidency and taught America how to walk. Initiated political party system with the Republicans.
Republicans
Rivals of the Federalists who believed in a smaller government based on state rights. Their rivalry sparked tensions with Federalists, creating a political party system.
Funding
An economic policy of Hamilton where the government would pay the national debt at face value. It would help relieve the government out of its huge debt.
Assumption
Economic policy of Alexander Hamilton where the central government would assume the debts of all the states. It would tie the states closer to the federal government.
Bank of the US
The central bank of the nation designed to facilitate the issuance of a stable national currency and to provide a convenient means of exchange for the people. The bank was responsible for providing the nation economic stability.
Whiskey Tax
Part of the excise taxes, the whiskey tax added a tax on whiskey at seven cents a gallon This helped pay of some of the debt.
Report on Manufactures
A proposal written by Hamilton promoting protectionism in trade by adding tariffs to imported goods in order to protect American industry Though congress did not do anything with it, the report later influenced later industrial policies.
James Madison
A co-author of the Federalist Papers, he was an influential delegate of the Constitutional Convention later to be called the Father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. By writing the Bill of Rights, he secured the faith of those who were not sure about the Constitution.
Neutrality Proclamation
A proclamation issued by Washington that proclaimed that The United States was a neutral state when war erupted again between France and England This illustrated the truism that self-interest is the glue of alliances.
Citizen Grant
sent to the U.S. by the French to find soldiers to attack British ships and conquer the territories held by Spain -act of how many did not take the neutrality proclamation seriously. He was a French representative that landed at Charleston and took part in un-neutral activities not authorized by the alliance unknowing of the real American opinion Showed that America was not willing to fight in a European war.
Jay Treaty
A treaty which offered little concessions from Britain to the U.S Jay was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. This resulted in a vitalization of the Democratic-Republicans and Pinckney’s Treaty with the Spanish.
Pinckney Treaty
agreement between Spain and the United States, fixing the southern boundary of the United States at 31° N latitude and establishing commercial arrangements favorable to the United States. U.S. citizens were accorded free navigation of the Mississippi River through Spanish territory as well as privilege of a tax-free deposit. This treaty showed that the U.S. was slowly becoming a world player, as they made a treaty with Britain the previous year.
John Adams
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
Farewell Address
The address was Washington’s farewell letter that was written by Hamilton and published in newspapers It warned against permanent alliances and political parties.
XYZ Affair
A diplomatic incident when made public in 1798, nearly involved the United States and France in war The incident ended the Franco-American treaty and resulted in the undeclared war between the two countries and prompted the build up of the U.S. Navy.
Barbary Pirates
These were Muslim pirates operating from the coast of North Africa that hampered merchant shipping in the area by breaking treaties, attacking ships, and taking hostages/prisoners. The attacks prompted the build up of the U.S. Navy to stop the attacks
Alien and Sedition Acts
the alien act allowed the exportation of any alien believed to be a threat to national security and during times of war; sedition act made it a criminal offense to plot against the government -oppressed people’s first amendment rights
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions; Jay-Gardoqui Treaty
protest to the Alien and Sedition Acts; Virginia resolution said states had the right to intervene in unconstitutional acts in government; Kentucky resolution stated that federal government could not extend powers outside of constitutionally granted powers