APUSH Unit 3 Study Guide Terms

Lancaster Turnpike
Road that stretched for 62 miles from Philadelphia to Lancaster
Year that Slave Trade Ended
1808
19th Century educators
Noah Webster, William H. McGuffy, Emma Willard,
Mary Lyon
Fears of South-Tariff of 1828
The South was harmed directly by having to pay higher prices on goods the region did not produce, and indirectly because reducing the exportation of British goods to the US made it difficult for the British to pay for the cotton they imported from the South. The reaction in the South, particularly in South Carolina, would lead to the Nullification Crisis that began in late 1832.
Second Great Awakening
Many converts. Shattered and reorganized churches. New Sects. Evangelicalism led to prison reform, temperance, women’s movement, and abolition. People met in camp meetings. Methodists and Baptists grew-Peter Cartwright was a prominent Methodist.
Transcendentalism
The belief that every person possesses an inner light that can illuminate the highest truth and put him or her in direct touch with God
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Cult of Domesticity
Glorified the customary functions of the homemaker
Horace Mann
Graduate of Brown University who worked in the Massachusetts Boards of Education for more and better schoolhouses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and expanded curriculum
Temperance Movement
1826-American Temperance Society Formed (known as the “Cold Water Army”). T.S. Arthur wrote Ten Nights in a Barroom and What I Saw There. Neal S. Dow sponsored the Maine Law of 1851(banned manufacture and sale of liquor)
The Erie Canal
Clinton led the construction of this. It linked the South to New York with use of the Mississippi River
Dorothea Dix
Reported on insanity and asylums. In 1843 she petitioned to the Massachusetts legislature.
Abolition
By 1804 nine states north of Maryland and Delaware had either emancipated their slaves or adopted gradual emancipation plans.
William Lloyd Garrison
Published the antislavery newspaper, The Liberator. I WILL BE HEARD.
Seneca Falls
Women’s Rights Convention (1848) where Stanton read a “Declaration of Sentiment.”
Utopia’s goals
Individuals who believed in the perfectibility of the social and political order tried to achieve this
Oneida
Utopian Community that practiced free love, birth control, and selection of parents to produce superior offspring.
1824 Presidential Election
The “Corrupt Bargain.” Jackson had more votes, but not the majority of electorates, so the House of Representatives decided. Speaker of the House Henry Clay picked John Quincy Adams. It was the last of the old-style politics elections
John C. Calhoun
South Carolinian who anonymously published the “South Carolina Exposition,” an essay that advanced the principle of nullification.
Cherokee Indians- Supreme Court Decisions
The Cherokee people had adopted a constitution asserting sovereignty over their land. The state responded by abolishing tribal rule and claiming that the Cherokee fell under its jurisdiction. The discovery of gold on Cherokee land triggered a land rush, and the Cherokee nation sued to keep white settlers from encroaching on their territory. In two important cases, Cherokee Nation v. Georgia in 1831 and Worcester v. Georgia in 1832, the Supreme Court ruled that states could not pass laws conflicting with federal Indian treaties and that the federal government had an obligation to exclude white intruders from Indian lands.
Jackson’s dealing with the Bank
Jackson vetoed the bill in a forceful message that condemned the bank as a privileged monopoly created to make rich men richer by act of Congress.
Specie Circular
Jackson believed that the only sound currencies were gold and silver.
Wilmot Proviso
Slaver should never exist in any of the territory acquired from Mexico. This was enforced in all but one of the states.
1790-1840 Pop Movement
In the 1830s, when the development of the steam printing press dramatically cut printing costs and speeded production, the first mass-circulation newspapers began to appear. From just five American magazines in 1794, the number rose to nearly 100 in 1825 and 600 in 1850.
Commonwealth vs. Hunt
Massachusetts supreme court ruled that labor unions are not illegal conspiracies.
Immediate Cause of Rise of Manufacturing
New England stony soil bad for agriculture. Dense population=labor and accessible markets. Snug seaports=easy importation/exportation. Rapid rivers=abundant water power.
Henry David Thoreau-Resistance to Civil Government
Strong influence in furthering idealistic thought
The Whigs-prominent members
Henry Clay, William Henry Harrison, General Zachary Taylor
Delaying of the Annexation of Texas
The North decried the Southern “slavocracy.”
The result just might be a war with Mexico.
Britain was eager to have an ally in Texas to help undercut the growing American power.
1844 Election Issues
The Texas question was the major political issue in the Presidential campaign of 1844. James Polk, the Democratic candidate, ardently supported annexation. To vote for Polk was to vote for expansion.
1830’s source of conflict between US and Mexico
Mexico was not happy and charged that the U.S. had underhandedly stolen Texas away.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Mexico confirmed the American title to Texas and yielded the enormous area stretching westward to Oregon and the ocean and embracing coveted California. The US payed $15 million for the land.
Maysville Road Veto
President Andrew Jackson vetoed a bill which would allow the Federal government to purchase stock in the Maysville, Washington, Paris, and Lexington Turnpike Road Company, which had been organized to construct a road linking Lexington and the Ohio River, the entirety of which would be in the state of Kentucky.
Aroostook War
Britain and Americans fighting over the Maine-Canada border. Lumberjacks were the main fighters.
Webster-Asherburto Treaty
The treaty drew a line generally at the Aroostook River and roughly split the difference of land. The U.S. also got the Mesabi range in Minnesota. Unbeknownst then, the Mesabi iron ore range became an extremely valuable piece of land and helped supply the American industrial revolution’s need for iron ore to make steel.
Black Hawk War (1832)
The Sauk and Fox Indians fought to recover ceded tribal lands in Illinois and Wisconsin.
Consequences of the US War with Mexico
The war started a turning point in American-Latin relations, a turning point for the bad.
Slavery in the new lands was brought up again
Results of Mexican American War
Trist’s deal, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo had a huge scope…
It ended the war.
America got land, the Mexican Cession, entailing California, but also the future states of NV, AZ, NM, CO, and UT.
The U.S. would pay $15 million for the land, and assume $3.5 million in debts owed from Mexico to the U.S.
In essence, the U.S. had forced Mexico to “sell” the Mexican Cession lands.
Trail of Tears
Reasons for Development of Early American Industrial Revolution
Growth of Business 1820-30’s: Government Help