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string(775) " fear of being overwhelmed by the Catholics, they supported the Act of Toleration in 1649 Toleration of Christians Bad for Jews, atheists ‘freedom of worship’ \(how tolerant\? Limits\? \) Dominion- Many colonies, forced upon them New England Confederation -4 colonies, joined willingly Colonzing the Carolinas Carolina was founded un 1670s Rice was main export North Carolina separated from South Carolin in 1712 Most independent minded and least aristocratic of the 13 Late Coming Georgia: The Buffer Colony last of the 13 Georgia was to serve as abuffer Protected the valuable Carolinas \(sugar/rice\) from Spaniards \(FL\) and French \(LA\) Name after George II Founded by high minded group of philanthropists Produced silk/wine Haven for sould imprisioned for depts\."

Shaping of North America – Pangea Split North America formed – “America’s Mountains” = Rockies, Sierra Nevada, Cascades, Coast Ranges Peopling the Americas – 35,000 years ago = Ice Age Glaciers that connected Eurasia with N. America (present day Bering Sea) Nomadic Asian hunters (immigrant ancestors of the Natives) Trekked across the Bering isthmus for 250 centuries Reached far tip of S. America (15,000 miles from Siberia) By the time Europeans arrived in 1492, 54 million people inhabited the two Am.

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Continents Incas in Peru

Mayans in Central America Aztecs in Mexico – Four Great Nations (Natives, before colonists) Aztecs Maya Inca Cahokia – Maize = Indian corn – Built elaborate cities and carried on far-flung commerce – Mathematicians (made accurate astronomical observations) – Aztecs Sought the favor of their gods by offering human sacrifices (over 5,000 people ritually slaughtered for crowning of ONE chieftain) The Earliest Americans – Agriculture Corn growing Accounted for size and sophistication of Na. A. in Mexico and S. A. 000 BC, hunter-gatherers in highland Mexico developed wild grass into the staple crop of corn – Became staff of life and foundation of complex, large-scare, centralized Aztec and Incan nation-states that eventually emerged Process went slowly and unevenly Corn planting reached American Southwest by 1200 BC – Pueblo people (Rio Grande valley) constructed irrigation systems to water their cornfields.

Dwelled in villages of multistory buildings. – No dense concentrations of population or complex nation states comparable to the Aztec empire existed in N. Am. outside of Mexico when the Europeans arrived. Mound Builders (Ohio River valley), Anasazi (Southwest) sustained large settlements after incorporating corn planting. – Cultivation of MAIZE, BEANS, SQUASH – “Three-Sister” Farming: Beans growing on trellis of cornstalks and squash covering the planting mounds to retain moisture in the soil – Highest population densities: Creek, Choctaw, Cherokee – Natives in N. Am. lived in small, scattered, impermanent settlements – Women tended to crops, Men hunted, fished, gathered fuel and cleared fields for planting – Iroquois Developed matrilinear cultures, power and possessions passed down the female side of the family line.

Natives didn’t want to manipulate nature aggressively – Revered physical world and endowed nature with spiritual properties Indirect Discoverers of the New World – Norse seafarers from Scandinavia had chanced upon the northeastern shoulder of N. Am. AD 1000. – Landed near present day Newfoundland Lots of grapes – Named Vinland Forgotten except for in song Europeans Enter Africa – Marco Polo (Italian adventurer) returned to Europe 1295, telling tales about China – Portuguese Columbus Comes upon a New World – Oct 12, 1492 = Sighted island in Bahamas – Discovery convulsed four continents Europe Africa

Two Americas – Global economic system When Worlds Collide – Columbus Exchange “Discovered” America Old New: Wheat, sugar, rice, coffee, horses, cows, pigs, smallpox, measles, bubonic plague, influenza, typhus, diphtheria, scarlet fever, slave labor New Old: Gold, silver, corn, potatoes, pineapples, tomatoes, tobacco, beans, vanilla, chocolate, syphilis New race Hispanic/Latino The Spanish Conquistadores – 1500s God, glory, GOLD. Encomienda Any Spaniard with a farm or a mine can force natives to work for them – 1512: New laws of Spain (to address the above about Encomienda) – Europe + Africa + Americas

Elizabeth Energizes England Francis Crake was a sea dog of Queen Elizabeth Sir Walter Raleigh organized a trip in 1585 in North Carolina’s Roanoke Island to try to colonized it England on the Eve of Empire 27-28: enclosing [enclosure]; tenancy; joint-stock companies since only the eldest son of the family could inherit, the others wuld look for fortune somewhere else the men joined joint stock exchange companies where they pooled together their finances England Plants the Jamestown Seedling Virginia Company; ‘rights of Englishmen’

Received charter form Kind James I for a settlement in the New World Mainly for gold and passage to the Indies Guaranteed to overseas settlers the same rights of English men Even if their not in the country This would be the start of resentment from colonists before the revolution because of lack of rights of Englishmen 1606 2 ships landed near Chesapeake Bay May 24, 1607 Jamestown was founded After many voyages to Jamestown Many of the colonists were unaccustomed to fending for themselves and also wasted time looking for gold John Smith; Powhatan John Smith

Young adventure took control of Jamestown in 1608 His rule was : “he who shall not work shall not ear In December1607 he was kidnapped by Powhatan and subjected to a mock execution Pocahontas saved him by putting her head on top of his Symbolism was to impress Smith with Powhatans power and Indians desire for peaceful relations with the colonist Pocahontas was a intermediary between the 2 side to preserve shaky peace and provide for foodstuff ‘starving time’=winter People would eat dogs, cats, mice, corpses, one man even murdered his wife and ate her Only 60 settlers survived 609-1610 Pocahontas married John Rolfe and ended the First Anglo-Powhatan War in 1614 The Second Anglo-Powhatan War in 1644 defeated the Virginians

Virginia: Child of Tobacco Economy ‘built on tobacco’ John Rolfe became the “father of tobacco” and saved the economy of Virginia 1612 he perfected the methods of raising and curing weeds The Virginians were so concentrated planting tobacco that they had to important some of their food It ruined the soil 1619 (year before pilgrims came on the Mayflower)a Dutch ship came and sold 20 Africans House of Burgesses epresentative self government born in Virginia in 1619 London Company authorized settlers to summon an assembly known as House of Burgesses Royal Colony (what went wrong? ) **1624, James I(detested tobacco and he distrusted the House of Burgesses) revoked charter of the bankrupt Virginia Company, making Virginia a royal colony under his control Maryland: Catholic Haven Lord Baltimore; Maryland 2nd plantation colony was founded in 1624 by Lord Baltimore who is of a prominent English Catholic family(4th colony to be planted) he created Maryland as refuge for his fellow Catholics

The Catholics were rewarded with great manors and land Source(s) of tension between Catholics and Protestants? The Catholic were barons while the Protestants were planters There was resentment which then brewed into the rebellion near the end of the century Maryland prospered because of the tobacco In fear of being overwhelmed by the Catholics, they supported the Act of Toleration in 1649 Toleration of Christians Bad for Jews, atheists ‘freedom of worship’ (how tolerant? Limits? ) Dominion- Many colonies, forced upon them New England Confederation -4 colonies, joined willingly

Colonzing the Carolinas Carolina was founded un 1670s Rice was main export North Carolina separated from South Carolin in 1712 Most independent minded and least aristocratic of the 13 Late Coming Georgia: The Buffer Colony last of the 13 Georgia was to serve as abuffer Protected the valuable Carolinas (sugar/rice) from Spaniards (FL) and French (LA) Name after George II Founded by high minded group of philanthropists Produced silk/wine Haven for sould imprisioned for depts. Plantation Colonies Note characteristics: Southern Colonies

Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia They were devoted to exporting commercial agricultural products Tobacco and rice Wide scattered plantations made building schools and churches expensive and difficult Most except for some in NC and GA perfered aristocratic atmospheres All permitted relisious toleration sometax supported Church of England Relied on indentured servants/slaves later on First slaves were not Africans, they were Native Americans Constructed on rivers, easily transported * “God hath sifted a nation that he might send Choice Grain into this Wilderness” — what does this mean?

William Bradford pilgram leader2 Rhode Island is the most liberal of the 13 colonies Makers of America: The English (50-51) Compare demographics of N. and S: ie, indentured males vs. families North was extreme weather, steril soil South hotdiseases Crash crops tobacco, rice, cotton Puritans vs. Indians Review Metacom’s War 1675 Metacom (King Phillip by the English)was Massasoit’s son (chief when the pilgrams landed) forged an alliance and mounted a series of coordinated assaults on English billages throught New Engalnd 1676 the war ended and 52 Puritan towns had been attacked 2 towns were destroyed entirely drastically reduced the number of colonoist Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence New England Confederation (note the date) 1643, 4 New England colonies banded together to form the NE Confederation defense against foes or potentional foes Indians, Dutch, French Runaway servants also were the Confederation’s problem Each member only had 2 votes Exclusive Puritan club Why does Charles II provide charters to Rhode Island and Connecticut? What does this say about the relationship between the colonies (esp. Massachusetts) and England in the 17th century?

Connecticut 1662 a sea to sea charter grant which legalized the squatter settlements 1663 Rhode Island received charter which gave kingly sanction to the most religious toleraent government to try and get more colonies of the King’s side Andros Promotes the First American Revolution Dominion of New England 1686 How is it different from New England Confederation? It was imposed from London Embraced all New Engalnd and then included NY and East and West Jersey Aimed at bolstering colonial defence in the event war with the Indians What is its relationship to the Navigation Acts?

Designed to promot urgently needed efficiency in the administration of the English Navigation Laws Laws reflected the intensifying colonial rivalries of the 17th centery Sought to stitch Engalnd’s overseas possessions more tightly to the motherland by throttling American trade with countries not ruled by England Caused lots of smuggling Why does the Dominion break up? Head of he Dominion was Sir Edmund Andros Military background Harsh, strict He generated much hostility by his open affiliation with the despised Church of England Colonist were outraged by noisy and Sabbath profaning soldiers He stopped town meeting

Restrictions of church, school, press… Taxed people without consent Enforced unpopular Navigation Laws, suppress smuggling 688-1689 colonists engineered the memorable Glourious (Bloddless) Revolution broke up because of the Glourious War in England Dethrouned Chaotlic James II and enthroned Protestean rulars of Netherlands William III and Mary Found him because he dressed as a human How does turning Massachusetts into a Royal Colony affect Puritan control of politics? Why do William and Mary of England do this? Turned into royal colony in 1691

New charter and governer *****What is Salutary Neglect, why does it begin, and what were its limits? New monarchs relaxed their grip on colonial trade Period of salutary neglect Hands off approach Sort of taxation, didn’t really enforce it Friction with English and Swedish Neighbors & Dutch Residues in New York *Peter Stuyvesant Expedition in 1655 led Lost his leg soldiering in the West Indies Charles II and the founding of New York 1664 Charles II granted the area to his Brother Duke of York New Amsterdam rename New York Dutch legacy

Dutch peppered place names all over including Harlem, Brookyn, Hell Gate, Easter eggs, Santa, waffles, bowling, sleighing, skating, and Kolf (golf) Penn’s Holy Experiment in Pennsylvania; Quaker Pennsylvania and Its Neighbors Quakers Arose in England during mid 1600s Offensive to authorities, civil and religious No clergy Deep conviction, abhorred strife and warfare Refused military service Advocates of passive resistance Pacifist (some of the 1st abolitionists) William Penn 1681 he secured a grant of fertile land from the king

Pennsylvania (Penn’s Woodland) Best advertised of all colonies Unlike others Penn’s inducements were truthful Liberal land policy William Penn & Pennsylvania Launched his own colony in 1681 Philadelphia (brotherly love in Greek) Penn bought land from the Indians including Chrief Tammany He was so fair that the Quakers were among them unarmed and even used them as babysitters Philadelphia Quakers and Indians; Quaker tolerance (others; religions; slavery) and the Scots Irish Very civil Other non Quaker and non Europeans moved in and

Was unusually liberal and had a representative assembly elected by land owners No tax supported state church Death penetly only for treason and murder Forced by king to deny Jews and Catholics boting rights Attarted rich mix of ethic groups Quakers were shwerd businessmen By 1700 Penn surpassed BA and MA’s population and wealth New Jersey started in 1664 The Middle Ways in the Middle Colonies Name the “middle colonies: NY, NJ DE, PN ‘bread colonies’ [bread-basket of the British colonies in America] PN NY NJ Heavy wheat economy (now it’s Midwest , Nebraska, Iowa….

Make the comparison: “Middle Colonies” in more than just name: land holding politics, industry Midway between New England and the southern Generally intermediate in size (except NY) Fewer industries than north no plantation like the south Religious tolerance Good economy “Most American” – explain: All rounded Made it too the big city on his own Very successful Ethnically mixed Different religions Most democratic – Europeans and Africans adapted to the New World, Natives adapted to newcomers – Rigid doctrines of Puritanism softened – All colonies remained tied to England Regional differences – Increasing importance of slave labor to southern way of life The Unhealthy Chesapeake – Nasty, brutish, shot life for Chesapeake

Malaria, dysentery and typhoid took lots of lives – Majority of immigrants were single men in their late teens and early twenties (most perished soon after arrival) – Weak family ties – Chesapeake eventually acquired immunity – More women, more families – End of 17th century, white population of Chesapeake grew based on birthrate The Tobacco Economy – Chesapeake immensely hospitable to tobacco cultivation Intense cultivation exhausted soil – This enormous production depressed prices, but colonial Chesapeake tobacco growers responded to falling prices in the familiar way of farmers: by planting still more acres to tobacco and bringing still more product to market

More tobacco = More labor – Indians died too quickly – African slaves cost too much – England had may displaced farmers – “Indentured servants” – Virginia and Maryland “Headright” System = Encourage importation of servant workers – Masters reaped benefits of landownership – Investments in servants into vast holdings in real estate “White slaves” represented more than ? of all European immigrants to Virginia and Maryland in the 17th century – Indentured servants Hard but hopeful life. Freedom dues. Frustrated Freemen and Bacon’s Rebellion – Broken hopes of acquiring land – Hard to find single woman to marry – “having little interest in the country” and causing ‘tumults at the election to the disturbance of his majesty’s peace” – William Berkeley (Virginian governor) – About 1,000 Virginians broke out of control in 1676 – Revolt led by Nathaniel Bacon (planter) *

Rebels mainly frontiersmen – Fiercely resented Berkeley’s friendly policies toward Indians (whose thriving furtrade the governor monopolized * – Fell murderously upon Indians, friendly and hostile alike, chased Berkeley from Jamestown, and put the torch to the capital * – Berkeley hung over 20 rebels * – Distant English King could scarcely imagine depths of passion and fear that Bacon’s Rebellion excited in Virginia Ignited smoldering unhappiness of landless former servants Pitted frontiersmen against haughty gentry – Less troublesome laborers to toil in the restless tobacco kingdom – Eyes it on Africa. Colonial Slavery – 10 million Africans – 400,000 of them ended up in N. Am. – Africans brought to Jamestown 1619, but as late as 1670s, numbered only 2,000 in Virginia – 1680s – Rising wages in England shrank pool of penniless folk – By mid-1680s, black slaves outnumbered white servants among the plantation colonies new arrivals – 1698, Royal African Company lost monopoly on carrying slaves to colonies – Rhode Islanders rushed to cash in on lucrative slave trade – Blacks accounted for nearly half the population of Virginia by 1750 S.

C. , outnumbered whites two to one – Death rates on ship as high as 20% – Few of earliest African immigrants gained freedom (some became slaveowners) – White colonist reacted remorselessly to racial threat – RACE – 1662, statues appeared that formally decreed the iron conditions of slavery for blacks – “Slave Codes” made blacks and their children the property (or “chattels”) for life of their white masters – Not even conversion to Christianity could qualify a slave for freedom – Slavery begun because of economic reasons Racial discrimination powerfully molded American slave system Africans in America – South, slave life especially severe – Climate hostile to health – Only fresh imports could sustain the slave population under conditions – Slave population rose – Few slave societies in history to perpetuate itself by natural reproduction (Chesapeake) – Native-born African-Americans contributed to growth of a stable and distinctive slave culture – Af. Ams. = Mixture of African and American elements of speech, religion and folkways – S.

C. , unique language Gullah Blended with English and several African languages – Ringshout, West African religious dance performed by shuffling in a circle while answering a preacher’s shouts, was brought to colonial America, and contributed to development of jazz – Banjo and bongo drum also part of African contributions – Slave revolt erupted in NYC in 1712 that cost the lives of dozens of whites and caused execution of 21 blacks (burned at stake) – S. C. lacks along Stono River exploded in revolt in 1739 and tried to march to Spanish Florida (stopped by local militia) – No slave uprising in American history matched Bacon’s Rebellion Southern Society – As slavery spread, gaps in South’s social structure widened – Rough equality defined hierarchy of wealth and status in early 18th century – Owning gangs of slaves and vast domains of land, planters ruled region’s economy and monopolized political power

House of Burgesses Before Revolutionary War, 70% of leaders of Virginia legislature came from families established in VA before 1690 – the famed “first families of Virginia” or “FFVs” – Merchant planters Not gentlemanly Cultivated arts and accumulated distinguished libraries Businessmen (labored long hours) – One governor allowed servants to get drunk the next day if they would only lay off the liquor long enough to look after his guests at a celebration or the queen’s birthday in 1711 – Small farmers – Largest social group – Landless whites – Luckless former indentured servants – Indentured servants – Black slaves = basement of society Few cities sprouted in colonial South (professional class slow to emerge and revolved around great plantations) – Waterways provided principal means of transport – Roads hard to travel by The New England Family -New England settlers have good lives: 10 additional years of life expectancy, clean air and water, cool temperature. -New Englanders migrated as families. -Women wedded early (around 20) and had babies every 2 years until menopause. -Because women we’re dying from giving birth, many women began to fear pregnancy. -Children received guidance from their parents and their grandparents.

Strong family relationships. -Southern men frequently died young and left wives as widows. The southern colonies later allowed married women to retain separate title to their property. They were also given the right to inherit their husband’s estate. -New England lawmakers worried that recognizing women’s separate property rights would undercut the unity of married people. So, women gave up their property rights when married. -Women couldn’t vote, morally weaker than men. -New England authorities begin to restrain abusive spouses. -Divorce was rare and authorities encouraged couples to get back together.

Life in the New England Towns -Puritans- concerned about whole community. -After proprietors received grants of land, they moved with their families and started a town. -Consisted of meeting house, houses, village green. -Each family received several parcels of land, a woodlot for fuel, and 2 tracts (for growing and pasturing) -A majority of adults knew how to read and write. -1636- Harvard is established/ -Regular town meetings. The Half-Way Covenant and the Salem Witch Trials -New form of sermon “jeremiad” -Individuals testify that they had received God’s grace and therefore deserved to be admitted to the church. 1662 Half-Way Covenant- the agreement between the church and its adherents to admit to baptism.

Weakened the distinction between the “elect” and the others. -Puritans begin to accept anyone into their faith. -Teenage girls claimed to be bewitched by older women. This began the “witch hunt” -1692-lynching of 21 individuals and 2 dogs -Most accused witches came from families associated with Salem’s market economy -ended in 1693 when the governor (wife accused of witch-craft) prohibited any further trials and pardoned those convicted. The New England Way of Life -Weather was bad in New England. Soil and climate produced a diversified agriculture and industry. -Indians are well off.

Recognized the right to use the land, but individual ownership was alien to them. -English brought pigs, horses, sheep, and cattle from Europe. -Colonists continually clearing forests. -New Englanders scattered. The Early Settlers’ Days and Ways -The majority of colonists were farmers. -Women on southern plantations and farms wove, cooked, cleaned, and cared for children. Men cleared land; fenced, planted and cropped; cut firewood; and butchered livestock. -Land was cheap. The Spanish were at Santa Fe in 1610. The French were at Quebec in 1608.

The English were at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607. England’s Imperial Stirrings King Henry VIII broke with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, launching the English Protestant Reformation, and intensifying the rivalry with Catholic Spain. Elizabeth Energizes England In 1580, Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe, plundering and returning with his ship loaded with Spanish booty. He had a profit of about 4,600%. When the English fleet defeated the Spanish Armada, Spain’s empirical dreams and fighting spirit had been weakened – helping to ensure the English’s naval dominance over the North Atlantic.

England on the Eve of an Empire Because an economic depression hit England in the later part of the 1500s and many people were left without homes, the stage was set for the establishment of an English beachhead in North America. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling In 1606, a joint-stock company, known as the Virginia Company of London, received a charter from King James I of England for a settlement in the New World. The company landed in Jamestown on May 24, 1607. In 1608, Captain John Smith took over the town and forced the settlers into line.

By 1609, of the 400 settlers who came to Virginia, only 60 survived the “starving winter” of 1609-1610. Cultural Clash in the Chesapeake Lord De La Warr reached Jamestown in 1610 with supplies and military. He started the First Anglo-Powhatan War. The Indians were again defeated in the Second Anglo-Powhatan War in 1644. By 1685, the English considered the Powhatan people to be extinct. Virginia: Child of Tobacco John Rolfe married Pocahontas in 1614, ending the First Anglo-Powhatan War. In 1619, self-government was made in Virginia. The London Company authorized the settlers to summon an assembly, known as the House of Burgesses.

King James I didn’t trust the House of Burgesses and so in 1624, he made Virginia a colony of England, directly under his control. Maryland: Catholic Haven Maryland was formed in 1634 by Lord Baltimore. Maryland was made for a refuge for the Catholics to escape the wrath of the Protestant English government. The Act of Toleration, which was passed in 1649 by the local representative group in Maryland, granted toleration to all Christians. The West Indies: Way Station to mainland America By the mid-17th Century, England had secured its claim to several West Indian Islands. Sugar was, by far, the major crop on the Indian Islands.

To support the massive sugar crops, millions of African slaves were imported. By 1700, the number of black slaves to white settlers in the English West Indies by nearly 4 to 1. In order to control the large number of slaves, theBarbados Slave Code of 1661 denied even the most fundamental rights to slaves. Colonizing the Carolinas Civil war plagued England in the 1640s. In 1707, the Savannah Indians decided to end their alliance with the Carolinians and migrate to the back country of Maryland and Pennsylvania, where a new colony founded by Quakers under William Penn promised better relations.

Almost all of the Indians were killed in raids before they could depart – in 1710. Rice became the primary export of the Carolinas. The Thirteen Original Colonies Name| Founded By| Year| Virginia| London Co. | 1607| New Hampshire| John Mason and Others| 1623| MassachusettsPlymouthMaine| PuritansSeparatistsF. Gorges| 162816201623| Maryland| Lord Baltimore| 1634| ConnecticutNew Haven| Mass. EmigrantsMass. Emigrants| 16351638| Rhode Island| R. Williams| 1636| Delaware| Swedes| 1638| N. Carolina| Virginians| 1653| New York| Duke of York| 1664| New Jersey| Berkeley and Carteret| 1664|

Carolina| Eight Nobles| 1670| Pennsylvania| William Penn| 1681| Georgia| Oglethorpe and others| 1733| * France Finds a Foothold in Canada In 1598, the Edict of Nantes was issued by the crown of France. It granted limited religious freedom to French Protestants, and stopped religious wars between the Protestants and Catholics. In 1608, France established Quebec. (Catholic)  The leading figure was Samuel de Champlain, an intrepid soldier and explorer whose energy and leadership earned him the title “Father of New France”. The government of New France (Canada) was under direct control of the king.

The people did not elect any representative assemblies. New France Sets Out New France contained one valuable resource – beaver. French Catholic missionaries, notably the Jesuits, labored with much enthusiasm to convert the Indians to Christianity and to save them from the fur trappers. Antoine Cadillac- founded Detroit in 1701 to thwart English settlers pushing into the Ohio Valley. Robert de La Salle- explored the Mississippi and Gulf basin, naming it Louisiana. In order to block the Spanish on the Gulf of Mexico, the French planted several fortified posts in Mississippi and Louisiana.

The French founded New Orleans in 1718. Illinois became France’s garden empire of North America because much grain was produced there. The Clash of Empires The earliest battles among European power for control of North America, known to British colonists as King William’s War (1689-1697) and Queen Anne’s War (1702-1713). Most of the battles were between the British colonists, the French, and the French ally Spain. The wars ended in 1713 with peace terms signed at Utrecht. France and Spain were terribly beaten and Britain received French-populated Acadia and Newfoundland and the Hudson Bay.

The British also won limited trading rights in Spanish America. The War of Jenkins’s Ear started in 1739 between the British and Spaniards. This small battle became a war and became known as King Georges’s War in America. It ended in 1748 with a treaty that handed Louisbourg back to France, enraging the victorious New Englanders. George Washington Inaugurates War with France In 1754, George Washington was sent to Ohio Country to secure the land of the Virginians who had secured legal rights to 500,000 acres. His 150 Virginia militia killed the French leader, causing French reinforcements to come.

The Virginians were forced to surrender on July 4, 1754. In 1755, the British uprooted the French Acadians fearing a stab in the back, and scattered them as far as Louisiana. Global War and Colonial Disunity The French and Indian War (Seven Years’ War) started in 1754. It was fought in America, Europe, the West Indies, the Philippines, Africa, and on the ocean. In Europe, the principal adversaries were Britain and Prussia on one side and France, Spain, Austria, and Russia on the other. The French wasted so many troops in Europe that they were unable to put enough forces into America.

The Albany Congress met in 1754. Only 7 of 13 colony delegates showed up. It attempted to unite all of the colonies but the plan was hated by individual colonists and the London regime. Braddock’s Blundering and Its Aftermath General Braddock set out in 1755 with 2,000 men to capture Fort Duquesne. His force was slaughtered by the much smaller French and Indian army. (Braddock’s Blunder)  Due to this loss of troops, the whole frontier from Pennsylvania to North Carolina was left open to attack. George Washington, with only 300 men, tried to defend the area.

In 1756, the British launched a full-scale invasion of Canada. Pitt’s Palms of Victory In 1757, William Pitt became the foremost leader in the London government. He was known as the “Great Commoner. ”  He attacked and captured Louisbourg in 1758. To lead the attack in the Battle of Quebec in 1759, Pitt chose James Wolfe. The two opposing armies faced each other on the Plains of Abraham, the British under Wolfe and the French under Marquis de Montcalm. Montreal fell in 1760. The Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the battle and threw the French power off the continent of North America.

Restless Colonists Intercolonial disunity had been caused by enormous distances; geographical barriers; conflicting religions, from Catholics to Quakers; varied nationalities, from German to Irish; differing types of colonial governments; many boundary disputes; and the resentment of the crude back-country settlers against the aristocrats. Americans: A People of Destiny In 1763, Ottawa chief, Pontiac, led several tribes, aided by a handful of French traders who remained in the region, in a violent campaign to drive the British out of the Ohio country.

His warriors captured Detroit in the spring of that year and overran all but 3 British outposts west of the Appalachians. The British countered these attacks and eventually defeated the Indians. London government issued the Proclamation of 1763. It prohibited settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians. (The Appalachian land was acquired after the British beat the Indians). It was made to prevent another bloody eruption between the settlers and Indians. Many colonists disregarded it. * The Deep Roots of Revolution Two ideas in particular had taken root in the minds of the American colonists by the mid 18th century:  1.

Republicanism- a just society in which all citizens willingly subordinated their private, selfish interests to the common good. Both the stability of society and the authority of government thus depended on the virtue of the citizenry-its capacity for selflessness, self-sufficiency, and courage. 2. “Radical Whigs”, a group of British political commentators, made attacks on the use of patronage and bribes by the king’s ministers. They warned citizens to be on guard for possible corruption. Mercantilism and Colonial Grievances Georgia was the only colony to be formed by Britain.

The Navigation Law of 1650 stated that all goods flowing to and from the colonies could only be transported in British vessels. It was aimed to hurt rival Dutch shippers. The Stamp Tax Uproar Due to the French and Indian War, Britain had a very large debt. In 1763, Prime Minister George Grenville ordered the British navy to begin strictly enforcing the Navigation Laws. He also secured from Parliament the Sugar Act of 1764, the first law ever passed by Parliament to raise tax revenue in the colonies for England. The Sugar Act increased the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies.

The Quartering Act of 1765 required certain colonies to provide food and quarters for British troops. In 1765, George Grenville imposed a stamp tax on the colonies to raise revenues to support the new military force. This stamp tax, known as the Stamp Act, mandated the use of stamped paper or the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of tax. Parliament Forced to Repeal the Stamp Act The Stamp Act Congress of 1765 brought together in New York City 27 distinguished delegates from 9 colonies. The members drew up a statement of their rights and grievances and requested the king and Parliament to repeal the hated legislation.

The meeting’s ripples began to erode sectional suspicions (suspicions between the colonies), for it had brought together around the same table leaders from the different and rival colonies. It was one step towardsintercolonial unity. Nonimportation agreements (agreements made to not import British goods) were a stride toward unionism. The Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty took the law into their own hands by enforcing the nonimportation agreements. The Stamp Act was repealed by Parliament in 1766. Parliament passed the Declaratory Act, reaffirming its right to bind the colonies in all cases whatsoever.

The Townshend Tea Tax and the Boston Massacre In 1767, Parliament passed the Townshend Acts. They put a light import tax on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea. British officials, faced with a breakdown of law and order, landed 2 regiments of troops in the colonies in 1768. On March 5, 1770, a crowd of 60 townspeople attacked 10 redcoats and the redcoats opened fired on the civilians, killing/wounding 11 of them. The massacre was known as the Boston Massacre. The Seditious Committees of Correspondence Lord North was forced to persuade Parliament to repeal the Townshend revenue duties.

Samuel Adams- master propagandist and engineer of rebellion; formed the first local committee of correspondence in Massachusetts in 1772 (Sons of Liberty). Committees of Correspondance were created by the American colonies in order to maintain communication with one another. They were organized in the decade before the Revolution when communication between the colonies became essential. In March of 1773, the Virginia House of Burgesses, the lower house of the Colony of Virginia, proposed that each colonial legislature appoint a standing committee for intercolonial correspondance.

Within just a year, nearly all of the colonies had joined. Tea Parties at Boston and Elsewhere In 1773, the British East India Company was overstocked with 17 million pounds of unsold tea. If the company collapsed, the London government would lose much money. Therefore, the London government gave the company a full monopoly of the tea sell in America. Fearing that it was trick to pay more taxes on tea, the Americans rejected the tea. When the ships arrived in the Boston harbor, the governor of Massachusetts, Thomas Hutchinson, forced the citizens to allow the ships to unload their tea.

On December 16, 1773, a band of Bostonians, disguised as Indians, boarded the ships and dumped the tea into the sea. (Boston Tea Party) Parliament Passes the “Intolerable Acts” In 1774, Parliament punished the people of Massachusetts for their actions in the Boston Tea Party. Parliament passed laws, known as the Intolerable Acts, which restricted colonists’ rights. The laws made restrictions on town meetings, and stated that enforcing officials who killed colonists in the line of duty would be sent to Britain for trial (where it was assumed they would be acquitted of their charges). One such law was the Boston Port Act.

It closed the Boston harbor until damages were paid and order could be ensured. The Quebec Act was also passed in 1774, but was not apart of the Intolerable Acts. It gave Catholic French Canadians religious freedom and restored the French form of civil law; this law nullified many of the Western claims of the coast colonies by extending the boundaries of the province of Quebec to the Ohio River on the south and to the Mississippi River on the west. The Continental Congress and Bloodshed In 1774, the 1st Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in order to redress colonial grievances over the Intolerable Acts.

The 13 colonies, excluding Georgia, sent 55 men to the convention. (The 1st Continental Congress was not a legislative body, rather a consultative body, and convention rather than a congress. ) After 7 weeks of deliberation, the 1st Continental Congress drew up several papers. The papers included a Declaration of Rights and solemn appeals to other British-American colonies, to the king, and to the British people. The creation of The Association was the most important outcome of the Congress. It called for a complete boycott of British goods; nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption.

In April 1775, the British commander in Boston sent a detachment of troops to Lexington. They were to seize provisions of colonial gunpowder and to capture the “rebel” ringleaders, Samuel Adams and John Hancock. At Lexington, 8 Americans were shot and killed. This incident was labeled as the “Lexington Massacre. ”  When the British went on to Concord, they were met with American resistance and there were over 300 casualties and 70 deaths. Because of this, the British had a war, rather than a rebellion on their hands. Imperial Strength and Weaknesses

The population of Britain was over 3 times as large as the population of America. Britain also had a much greater economic wealth and naval power. Unfortunately for the British, though, there was rebellion brewing in Ireland, and France, bitter from its recent defeat, was waiting for an opportunity to attack Britain. Britain was therefore forced to divert much of its military power and concentration away from the Americas. Britain’s army in America had to operate under numerous difficulties; provisions were short and soldiers were treated brutally.

American Pluses and Minuses Marquis de Lafayette- French who was made a major general in the colonial army at the age of 19; the “French Gamecock”; his services were invaluable in securing further aid from France. The Articles of Confederation was adopted in 1781. It was the first written constitution adopted by colonists. Due to the lack of metallic money in America, Continental Congress was forced to print “Continental” paper money. Within a short time, this money depreciated significantly and individual states were forced to print their own paper money.

A Thin Line of Heroes At Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, American men went without food for 3 days in the winter of 1777-1778. Baron von Steuben- German who helped to whip the America fighters into shape for fighting the British. Lord Dunmore- royal (British) governor of Virginia. In 1775, he issued a proclamation promising freedom for any enslaved black in Virginia who joined the British army. “Lord Dunmore’s Ethiopian Regiment” Congress Drafts George Washington The Second Continental Congress selected George Washington to head the army besieging Boston.

Bunker Hill and Hessian Hirelings From April 1775 to July 1776, the colonists were both affirming their loyalty to the king by sincerely voicing their desire to patch up difficulties while at the same time raising armies and killing redcoats. In May 1775, a tiny American force under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured the British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point. There, a store of gunpowder and artillery was secured. In June 1775, the colonists captured Bunker Hill. The British took it back with a large number of soldiers.

In July 1775, the Second Continental Congress adopted the “Olive Branch Petition”, which professed American loyalty to the king and begged to the king to stop further hostilities. The petition was rejected by the king. With the rejection, the Americans were forced to choose to fight to become independent or to submit to British rule and power. In August 1775, King George III proclaimed that the colonies were in rebellion. He then hired German Hessians to bring order to the colonies. The Abortive Conquest of Canada In October 1775, the British burned Falmouth (Portland), Maine.

In the same month, colonists made an attack on Canada in hopes that it would close it off as a possible source for a British striking point. The attack failed whenGeneral Richard Montgomery was killed. In January 1776, the British set fire to Norfolk. Thomas Paine Preaches Common Sense The Americans continued to deny any intention of independence because loyalty to the empire was deeply ingrained; many Americans continued to consider themselves apart of a transatlantic community in which the mother country of Britain played a leading role; colonial unity was poor; and open rebellion was dangerous.

Thomas Paine released a pamphlet called Common Sense in 1776. It argued that the colonies had outgrown any need for English domination and that they should be given independence. Paine and the Idea of “Republicanism” Thomas Paine called for the creation of a new kind of political society, specifically a republic, where power flowed from the people themselves. Jefferson’s Explanation of Independence On July 2, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia’s resolution of declaring independence was passed. It was the formal declaration of independence by the American colonies.

Thomas Jefferson was appointed to draft up the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of Independence was formally approved by Congress on July 4, 1776. It was an explanation of everything the king had done to the Americans. Patriots and Loyalists During the War of Independence, the Loyalists were called “Tories” and the Patriots were called “Whigs. ”  Tory: “a thing whose head is in England, and its body in America, and its neck ought to be stretched. ” The Loyalists made up 16% of the American population. Many people of education and wealth remained loyal  to England.

Loyalists were most numerous where the Anglican church was strongest. The Loyalists were well entrenched in New York City, Charleston, Quaker Pennsylvania, and New Jersey. They were least numerous in New England. The Patriots were numerous where Presbyterianism and Congregationalism flourished-mostly in New England. The Loyalist Exodus Before the Declaration of Independence, the Loyalists were treated relatively mild. After, though, they were hanged, imprisoned, and roughly handled. They Loyalists were forced to leave because the Patriots had to eliminate their weaknesses.

General Washington at Bay The British concentrated New York City as a base of operation due to the fact that Boston was evacuated in March 1776. In 1776, General Washington and his men were overpowered by the British at the Battle of Long Island. Washington and his men escaped to Manhattan Island. General William Howe was General Washington’s adversary. On December 26, 1776, Washington surprised and captured 1,000 Hessians who were sleeping. Burgoyne’s Blundering Invasion London officials had an intricate scheme for capturing the vital Hudson River valley in 1777.

It would sever New England from the rest of the states and paralyze the American cause. The main invading force, lead by General Burgoyne, would push down the Lake Champlain route from Canada. General Howe’s troops in New York, if needed, could advance up the Hudson River to meet Burgoyne near Albany. The 3rd force was commanded by colonelBarry St. Leger, who would come in from the west by way of Lake Ontario and the Mohawk Valley. General Burgoyne was forced to surrender his entire command at Saratoga on October 17, 1777 to American general Horatio Gates (Burgoyne’s Blunder).

This win made it possible for the urgently needed foreign aid from France. (Turning point in war. ) Strange French Bedfellows After the shooting at Lexington in April 1775, French secretly provided arms to the Americans. The British offered the Americans home rule after the Battle of Saratoga. The French didn’t want Britain to regain its colonies for fear that Britain would seize the sugar rich French West Indies. In order to stop this, the French made an open alliance with the Americans in 1778, offering all the British did with the exception of independence.

The Colonial War Becomes a World War Spain and Holland became allies against Britain in 1779. The British decided to evacuate Philadelphia and concentrate their strength in New York City. Blow and Counterblow General Benedict Arnold turned traitor against the Americans in 1780. General Nathaniel Greene succeeded in clearing most British troops out of Georgia and South Carolina. The Land Frontier and the Sea Frontier The Treaty of Fort Stanwix- (1784) the first treaty between the United States and an Indian nation; signed with the Iroquois.

George Rogers Clark- conceived the idea of capturing the British of the wild Illinois country in 1778-1779. John Paul Jones is known as the father of the navy. He employed the tactic of privateering. Privateering- when privately owned and crewed vessels were authorized by a government during a wartime to attack and capture enemy vessels, men, cargo, etc; it diverted manpower from the main war effort; it brought in needed gold, harassed the enemy, and raised American morale by providing victories in a time when victories were few. Yorktown and the Final Curtain

From 1780-1781, the U. S. government fell nearly bankrupt. British General Cornwallis fell back to Chesapeake Bay at Yorktown to await seaborne supplies and reinforcements. This time in war was one of the few times when British naval superiority had been lacking. Admiral de Grasseoffered to join the Americans in an assault of Cornwallis via the sea. George Washington, along with Rochambeau’s army, and Admiral de Grasse cornered Cornwallis. He was forced to surrender on October 19, 1781. Peace at Paris In 1782, a Whig ministry replaced the Tory regime of Lord North.

Conditions of the Treaty of Paris of 1783: British formally recognized the independence of the United States. Florida is given to Spain. Britain granted generous boundaries, stretching to the Mississippi on the west, to the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the south. Yankees were to retain a share in the priceless fisheries of Newfoundland. The Loyalists were to no longer be prosecuted. Congress was to recommend to the state legislatures that confiscated Loyalist property be restored. The states vowed to put no lawful obstacles in the way of Loyalist property collection.

Ben Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay negotiated the peace terms with Britain. The Pursuit of Equality The Continental Army officers formed an exclusive hereditary order called the Society of the Cincinnati. Virginia Statue for Religious Freedom- created in 1786 by Thomas Jefferson and his co-reformers; stated that religion should not be imposed on anybody and that each person decided his/her own faith. The Philadelphia Quakers in 1775 founded the first anti-slavery society. The 1st Continental Congress called for the complete abolition of the slave trade in 1774.

Several northern states went further and either abolished slavery altogether or provided the gradual emancipation of slaves. No states south of Pennsylvania abolished slavery. Constitution Making in the States The 2nd Continental Congress called upon the colonies in 1776 to draft new constitutions. Massachusetts called a special convention to draft its constitution and then submitted the final draft to the people. As written documents, the state constitutions were intended to represent a fundamental law, superior to the short-lived impulses of ordinary legislation.

In the Revolutionary era, the capitals of New Hampshire, New York, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia were all moved westward. Economic Crosscurrents Economic democracy preceded political democracy. Due to the independence from Britain, the United States had to make everything on its own which it no longer imported from Britain. Many Americans were poor because the economy was so bad. Creating a Confederation Shortly before declaring independence in 1776, the 2nd Continental Congress appointed a committee to draft a written constitution for the new nation.

The finished product was the Articles of Confederation. It was adopted by Congress in 1777 and it convinced France that America had a genuine government in the making. The Articles of Confederation wasn’t ratified by all 13 colonies until 1781. The Articles of Confederation: America’s First Constitution The 13 colonies were joined together for joint action in dealing with common problems such as foreign affairs. Congress had 2 major handicaps: It had no power to regulate commerce, and this loophole left the states free to establish conflictingly laws regarding tariffs and navigation.

Congress couldn’t enforce its tax collection program. The states were NOT required to pay the government taxes, they were merely asked. Landmarks in Land Laws Land Ordinance of 1785- stated that the acreage of the Old Northwest should be sold and the proceeds should be used to help pay off the national debt. Northwest Ordinance of 1787- a uniform national land policy; created the Northwest Territories and gave the land to the government, the land could then be purchased by individuals; when a territory had 60,000 people, it might be admitted by Congress as a state, with all the privileges of the 13 other states.

The World’s Ugly Duckling Britain declined to make any commercial treaty with the colonies or to repeal its Navigation Laws. Lord Sheffield argued in his pamphlet that Britain could win back America’s trade. The British remained in the Americas where they maintained their fur trade with the Indians. The American states did not honor the treaty of peace in regard to debts and Loyalists. The British stayed primarily to keep the Indians on the side of the British so to defend against future attacks on Canada by the Americans. Spain was openly unfriendly to the Americans.

It closed off the Mississippi river to commerce in 1784. The Horrid Specter of Anarchy Shay’s Rebellion- in western Massachusetts in 1786; when impoverished back-country farmers, who were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies, attempted to enforce their demands of cheap paper money, lighter taxes, and a suspension of property takeovers; led by Captain Daniel Shays. The uprising was crushed but it left fear in the propertied class of mobs. A Convention of “Demigods” In 1786, Virginia called for a convention at Annapolis, Maryland.

There, Alexander Hamilton saved the convention from collapsing – delegates from only 5 states showed up. He called upon Congress to summon a convention to meet in Philadelphia the next year, not to deal with just commerce, but to fix then entire fabric of the Articles of Confederation. Alexander Hamilton was an advocate of a super-powerful central government. On May 25, 1787, 55 representatives from all of the states except for Rhode Island were sent to Philadelphia to talk of the government in the future of the country. (Constitutional Convention)  George Washington was elected as the leader. Patriots in Philadelphia

The delegates hoped to save the revolutionary idealism and make it into a strong political structure. Hammering Out a Bundle of Compromises Some of the delegates decided they would scrap the old Articles of Confederation, contradicting instructions from Congress to revise it. The “large-state plan” was proposed by Virginia and was first pushed forward as the framework of the Constitution. It said that the arrangement in Congress should be based upon a state’s population. New Jersey presented the “small-state plan. ”  It centered on equal representation in Congress without regards to a state’s size or population.

The “Great Compromise” of the convention was hammered out and finally agreed upon. It called for representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation in the Senate. Each state would have 2 senators. The new Constitution also called for a President. Because of arguments over if the slaves would count towards the general population of the state, the “three-fifths compromise” was created. The new Constitution also called for the end of the slave trade by the end of 1807. All new state constitutions except Georgia’s forbade overseas slave trade.

Rhode Island was not present at the Constitutional Convention. Safeguards for Conservatism The members of the Constitutional Convention agreed economically-demanded sound money and the protection of private property; and politically-favored a stronger government with 3 branches and with checks and balances among them. The Clash of Federalists and Anti-federalists The Anti-federalists were led by Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee. The followers consisted of states’ rights devotees, back country dwellers, and one-horse farmers – in general, the poorest class.

Federalists were led by George Washington and Benjamin Franklin. Most of the Federalists lived in the settled areas along the seaboard. Overall, they were wealthier than the Anti-federalists, more educated, and better organized. They also controlled the press. The Great Debate in the States Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maryland, South Carolina, and New Hampshire were the first 9 states to sign the Constitution. Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island were the only states to not sign it. (4 Laggard States)

The Four Laggard States Virginia, New York, and North Carolina all ratified the Constitution before it was put into effect. Rhode Island was the last state to ratify it and it did so only after the new government had been in operation for a few months. These 4 states did not ratify the Constitution because they wanted to but because they had to. They could not safely exist outside the fold. A Conservative Triumph The architects of the Constitution contented that every branch-executive, judiciary, and legislative-effectively represented the people.

By imbedding the principle of self-rule in a self-limiting system of checks and balances among these 3 branches, the Constitution settled the conflicting doctrines of liberty and order. * Washington for President George Washington was unanimously elected as President by the Electoral College in 1789. He took the oath of office on April 30, 1789. He established the cabinet. At first, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, and Secretary of War Henry Knox served under Washington. Bill of Rights James Madison wrote the Bill of Rights and got them passed by Congress in 1791.

The Judiciary Act of 1789 created the Supreme Court, with a chief justice and five associates, as well as federal district and circuit courts, and established the office of attorney general. John Jay became the first Chief Justice. Hamilton Revives the Corpse of Public Credit In order to create a thriving federal government, Alexander Hamilton set out to create a plan to shape the policies of the administration in such a way as to favor the wealthier groups. These wealthier groups would then gratefully lend their money and political support to the government. The wealth in the government would then trickle down through society.

In this plan, Hamilton persuaded Congress to fund the entire national debt at par, meaning that the federal government would pay off its debts at face value plus accumulated interest. This would strengthen the national credit by creating public confidence in the small Treasury department. He then convinced Congress to take on the states’ debts, which would create confidence in the government by the states. States with large debts, like Massachusetts, were delighted with Hamilton’s proposal, but states with small debts, like Virginia, did not want the government to assume state ebts. Virginia did, however, want the forthcoming federal district, the District of Columbia, which would bring commerce and prestige. So Virginia made a deal with the government:  the government would assume state debts if the District of Columbia was placed on the Potomac River. The deal was passed by Congress in 1790. Customs, Duties, and Excise Taxes One of Hamilton’s objectives was to keep a national debt, believing that the more creditors to whom the government owed money, the more people there would be with a personal stake in the success of the government.

In this objective, he expected tariff revenues to pay interest on the huge debt and run the government. The first tariff law, which imposed a low tax of 8% on the value of imports, was passed by Congress in 1789. Its purpose was to create revenue and to create a small protective wall around small industries. He passed additional internal revenue and, in 1791, convinced Congress to pass an excise tax on a few domestic items, notably whiskey. Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank Alexander Hamilton proposed a Bank of the United States that could print paper money and thus provide a stable national currency.

The national bank would also be place where the Treasury could deposit monies. Thomas Jefferson strongly opposed the Bank stating it was unconstitutional. He felt that the states had the right to manage their own money. Most of the opposition came from the south and most of the support came from the north. Hamilton prevailed and the 1st Bank of the United States was created in 1791. Its charter lasted for 20 years and was located in Philadelphia. Mutinous Moonshiners in Pennsylvania The Whiskey Rebellion in Pennsylvania in 1794 was lead by distillers who strongly opposed the 1791 excise tax on whiskey.

The rebellion was ended when President Washington sent in federal troops. Although the troops faced no opposition, a strong message was sent by the government stating that it would enforce the law. The Emergence of Political Parties Political parties had not existed in America when George Washington took office. What was once a personal feud between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton had developed into a full-blown and bitter political rivalry. In the 1790s, Jefferson and Madison organized their opposition to the Hamiltonian program but confined it to Congress.

In due time, this organized opposition grew and the two-party system emerged. The Impact of the French Rebellion When Washington’s first administration had ended in 1793, a formation of two political groups had ensued:  Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans and Hamilton Federalists. The French Revolution started in 1789. It began peacefully but entered a violent phase when France declared war on Austria in 1792. Things started to get worse when King Louis XVI was beheaded in 1793, the church was attacked, and the head-rolling Reign of Terror was begun.

At first, the Federalists supported the revolution but that view suddenly changed when the attitude of the revolution changed. Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation Jeffersonian Democratic-Republicans wanted to get into the French and British War to fight for France. The Federalists were opposed. Washington issued the Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 stating the country’s neutrality from the Britain-France war. He was backed by Hamilton. Embroilments with Britain For years, the British had retained the frontier posts on U. S. soil, all in defiance of the peace treaty of 1783.

The London government did not want to abandon the valuable fur trade in the Great Lakes region, and British agents openly sold firearms to the Miami Confederacy, an alliance of 8 Indian nations who terrorized Americans. The Jeffersonians felt that American should again fight Britain in defense of America’s liberties. The Federalists opposed this action because Hamilton’s hopes for economic development depended on trade with Britain. Jay’s Treaty and Washington’s Farewell In a last attempt to avoid war, President Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to London in 1794 to negotiate.

Opposed by Democratic-Republicans, Jay hammered out a treaty, Jay’s Treaty, in which the British promised to evacuate the chain of posts on U. S. soil and pay for damages for the seizures of American ships. Britain stopped short of pledging anything about future maritime seizures or about supplying arms to Indians. The treaty also called for the U. S. to continue to pay the debts owed to British merchants on pre-Revolutionary War accounts. Jay’s Treaty caused Spain, which feared an Anglo-American alliance, to strike a deal with the U. S.

In Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795 with Spain, Spain granted the Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River and the large disputed territory north of Florida. In his Farewell Address to the nation, Washington urged against permanent alliances. He left office in 1797. John Adams Becomes President John Adams beat Thomas Jefferson to become to the 2nd President in 1797. Hamilton became the leader of the Federalist Party, known as the “High Federalists. ” Unofficial Fighting with France France was upset with Jay’s Treaty and it started capturing American

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