Apush terms

George Whitefield
Anglican minister from England.Wanted the Calvinist doctrine of salvation by predestination to be talked about, public entertainments banned. Very good orator, inspired people to think themselves similar/superior to ministers, and common people to claim equality.
Era of peace, brought about the Enlightenment (dissemination among educated public of faith in reason rooted in an appreciation of natural science : Benjamin Franklin).
Great Awakening (1730s-1740’s)
Religious revival across Protestant Europe. Loosened spiritual/social tremors, shocked colonial self-confidence.
Charles II
Wanted to expand England’s overseas trade and subordinate colonies to English commercial interests/political authority.
Sir Edmund Andros
governor, no more legislatures. Forced Puritans to share meetinghouse with Anglicans, strictly enforced Navigation Acts, one meeting a year, jailed prominent citizens.
Glorious Revolution in England and America
Bloodless revolution of 1688 : created “limited monarchy” : Parliament summoned annually, signed all bills, respected traditional civic liberties. Americans also tried for liberty, MD, NY, and MA rose up against Stuart regime. Boston’s militia arrested Andros and councilors, colonies resumed self-government. William and Mary let the Dominion dismantle, MA couldn’t elect own governor. Property owners could vote (not based on church membership). Puritans had to tolerate Anglicans.
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Leisler’s Rebellion
Took command of colony, repaired defenses, called elections for assembly. English troops came in 1691, Leisler didn’t let them in, was arrested and killed, along with his son. Leisler’s enemies plundered opponent’s estates using the courts; Parliament revoked convictions in 1695.
John Coode
Leader of 1681 revolt, organized Protestant Association with three others to secure MD for William and Mary. Seized capital in 1689, removed Catholics from office, requested status as royal colony, made Church of England established religion. Catholics lost right to vote, could only worship in private.
reestablished legislative gov., religions freedom for Protestants. Colonial elites regained control of colonies, wanted political leaders to identify interests with England. Voluntary allegiance rather than submissive to power.
Grand Settlement
Iroquois made peace with France in exchange for access to western furs, redefined British alliance to exclude military cooperation.
Queen Anne’s War (1702)
Colonial vessels captured, raiding parties landed, sieges of Quebec and St. Augustine failed. English seized Hudson Bay region, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia. French/Indian hold on interior of North America unbroken. Gave colonists sense of dependence on Great Britain, reminded them of loyalty owed to William and Mary. Recognized military weaknesses and that their shipping needed navy’s protection. Reinforced sense of British identity.
Navigation Acts (1651-1773)
Limited imperial trade to British ships, barred export of certain “enumerated goods” to foreign nations unless items first passed through England/Scotland. Forbade Americans from competing with British manufacturers : but only on a large-scale basis. Burdened rice/tobacco exporters, commerce declined when they lost their trading rights in 1783. North America’s economy grew.
Aim of guaranteeing prosperity by making their own country as self-sufficient as possible–eliminating dependence on foreign suppliers, damaging foreign competitors’ commercial interests, increasing nation’s net stock of gold/silver by selling more abroad than they bought. Opposite of free-market system.
Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations
theoretical defense of competitive free-market system by Scottish economist.
The Urban Paradox
Poverty increased, ocean voyages left immigrants too weak to work. High population density, poor sanitation led to contagious diseases, urban adults lived 10 years less than country people. More recessions after 1720, longer unemployment. Wages shrunk, cost of rents, food, and firewood increased. Almshouses weren’t big enough, many people couldn’t pay taxes, wealth was highly concentrated. Economic frustration caused violence. Competed with urban slaves, racial tensions. People didn’t want to give money to the needy.
Stono Rebellion (1739)
Slave uprising. Group of slaves burned 7 plantations, killed 20 whites. Disturbances in other places needed over a month to suppress. Caused new slave code : kept slaves under constant surveillance. Threatened masters with fines for not disciplining slaves, required legislative approval for freeing of slaves.
Board of Trade
Parliament established in 1696 : supposed to monitor American developments and advise crown on colonial affairs. Could have stopped assemblies’ rise to power by persuading crown to reject objectionable colonial laws signed by the governments, but didn’t. Left a vacuum in royal policy that let the colonies become self-governing in most respects except for trade regulation, restrictions on printing money, and declaring war.
intended as a refuge where bankrupt debtors could settle, protecting South Carolina from Spanish attacks. Wanted them to export wine and silk, Parliament paid to ensure success. 1740 : 2,800 settlers, half from Germany, Switzerland, and Scotland. Least English of all colonies at beginning. Expansion halted afterwards.
James Oglethorpe
dominated provincial board of trustees. Founded port of entry, Savannah. Led massive assault on Florida in 1740, repelled 3000 Spanish troops and refugee South Carolina slaves. Tried to ban slavery from Georgia, thought slavery undermined economic position of poor whites. Required that landholdings be no larger than 500 acres, wanted to keep rural Georgia populated by white, independent farmer-soldiers. Struggled against economic reality for a decade, gave up. Legalized slavery, lifted restrictions on land, population immediately increased to 23000 from 4000.
Enlightenment Ideals
combined confidence in human reason with skepticism toward beliefs not founded on science or strict logic.
Benjamin Franklin
embodied Enlightenment spirit, gathered young men into a club called the Junto. 1732 : Franklin published Poor Richard’s Almanack : made him famous. Devoted self to science and community benefit after retirement at 42. Found that lightning was electricity, led to lightning rod. Established first Philadelphian volunteer fire company, inspired creation of circulating library, founded the University of Pennsylvania.
mostly seaboard cities. Ideal was Royal Society in London : foremost learned society in English-speaking world. Strengthened ties between colonial and British elites. John Locke’s Essay Concerning Human Understanding made people embrace “Reasonable”/”rational” religion. Best argument for existence of God was derived through study of harmony/order of nature.
concluded that God, having created a perfect universe, did not intervene in its workings but left it alone to operate according to natural laws.
The Great Awakening
1740s : outpouring of passionate Christian revivalism, many thought reason was inadequate to move their hearts. Unleashing of anxiety/longing among ordinary people. Religion was an emotional commitment.
Jonathan Edwards
Congregationalist, led revival at Northampton, Massachusetts in 1735.Said that God holds you over the pit of Hell, wrath burns like fire. Famous sermon : Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.
George Whitefield
1739 : English clergyman with an overpowering presence. Inspired thousands to seek salvation. Divisions over the revivals developed, widened by tactics of extreme followers.
New Lights
the revivalists
Old Lights
dominated the Anglican, Presbyterian, Congregational churches.
New vs. Old Lights
challenged spirituality of Presbyterian ministers, undermined one of foundations of social order. Old condemned revival as “enthusiasm” that Enlightened intellectuals loathed.
Long Term Effects of the Great Awakening
opened splits in American Protestantism. Revivalists victorious : Anglicans lost members to New Light preachers. Congregationalists splintered. In Massachusetts/Connecticut, Old Lights denied new parishes of New Lights legal status. Passed laws forbidding revivalists to preach/perform marriages, expelled New Lights from legislature. Started decline in influence of Quakers, Anglicans, and Congregationalists. Presbyterians and Baptists increased in number, Methodists as well. Stimulated founding of new colleges 0Princeton, Columbia, Brown, Rutgers, Dartmouth). Drew blacks and Indians to Protestantism. Added prominence to women in colonial religion : granted women right to speak/vote in church meetings. Fostered religious toleration by blurring theological differences among New Lights. Prepared Americans to accept denominational pluralism.
Parliament tried to reorganize empire, tightened control over colonies’ economic/political affairs. Colonial leaders believed their actions were to crush colonial prosperity/independence.
generation of peace, brief war with Spain in Georgia.
War of the Austrian Succession
international war between Britain/Prussia and France/Spain/Austria.
King George’s War
Raids/counterattacks in northeast. 1745 : 4000 New Englanders under William Pepperell of Maine attacked Louisbourg in Nova Scotia (guarded entrance to St. Lawrence River), took the fort. Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the war, lack of recognition for colonial achievements during the war annoyed them.
Ohio Valley
area of conflict between Britain/France. Refugee Indians had moved in, French were annoyed due to their willingness to trade with Pennsylvania traders and fight against the French in the Seven Years’ War. “Republicans” tried to neutralize the conflict, eventually Indians thought English were a greater threat to their independence. Claimed by VA, PA, France, and Iroquois. French built forts to regain control of trade, George Washington demanded that they leave.
Albany Plan of Union
7 colonies north of VA sent representatives to plan for their mutual defense. Albany Plan of Union : proposal for a colonial confederation. Grand Council representing each state, crown-appointed President General as executive officer, would devise policies about defense/Indians, could demand funds according to an agreed-upon formula. Rejected because colonies didn’t want to be taxed.
Seven Years’ War (French and Indian War)
originated from rivalries in England. British and colonists fought together. Braddock arrived from England to take Fort Duquesne, underestimated opponents, they ended up ambushed and many people (including Braddock) died. 2000 New Englanders seized 2 French forts near Nova Scotia, drove out civilians that didn’t promise not to bear arms for France (moved to Louisiana, became Cajuns). French maintained advantage in colonies and in Europe. Iroquois/Ohio Indians called for a treaty (thought French had too large of an advantage) that allowed them to retreat. Some joined British cause. William Pitt took control of military affairs in royal cabinet : thought the key to winning was the colonial soldiers, offered to pay if they mobilized troops. Colonists were victorious, French resistance ended in 1760 when Montreal surrendered. France ceded all territories on the North American mainland by the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Britain got land east of Mississippi, Spain got land west of it (and New Orleans). Spain ceded Florida to Britain in exchange for Cuba.
Pontiac’s Rebellion
sacked 8 British forts, besieged two others; epidemics and lack of supplies led the Indians to make peace with Britain.
Proclamation of 1763
British gov. asserted control over land transactions, settlement, trade, and other non-Indian activities west of the Appalachians. Stopped colonial expansion by recognizing Indian land titles everywhere west of the “proclamation line”.
King George III
distrusted British political establishment, wanted to have a strong influence on gov. policy but be a constitutional monarch who cooperated with Parliament and worked with prime ministers.
English/Colonial Opinions Post-War
English thought the victory was because of their trained soldiers, colonists were indignant (they had been put in vital support roles). British soldiers treated colonial ones with contempt and disrespect, complained about colonists’ unwillingness to provide them with food/shelter. English thought it was stifling their defense efforts, also angry that colonists didn’t have to pay for the war. British debt doubled to 132 million pounds after the war. Colonists spent extra money on British goods with doubled prices, went into debt to maintain middle-class lifestyle; thought British wanted to enslave the colonies.
Soldiers in the Colonies
10,000 British soldiers stayed in the colonies, Britons thought it was reasonable that the colonists help pay for them. Colonists thought they shouldn’t have to, thought they were threatening their liberty.
Writs of Assistance
general search warrants that permitted customs officials to enter any ships/buildings where smuggled goods might be hidden, used to crack down on smuggling. Didn’t need any evidence of probable cause for suspicion, most English thought it was unconstitutional. Threatened colonists’ privacy. James Otis was a lawyer that fought for Boston merchants that took the case to court; lost, but declared that Parliament couldn’t violate rights of Englishmen.
The Sugar Act
Ended Britain’s policy of exempting colonial trade from revenue-raising measures : amended Molasses Act of 1733 (taxing all foreign molasses entering British America at 6 pence a gallon). Changed it to a 3 pence duty per gallon. Colonists could only export lumber, iron, skins, hides, whalebone, logwood, etc. to foreign countries if the shipments landed in Britain first. Wanted colonists to buy less from foreign competitors and increase English merchants’ sales of European wine. Complicated requirements for shipping colonial goods, defied oceanic commerce so broadly that trade between colonies became subject to complex rules. Disregarded traditional English protections for a fair trial. Grenville ordered the navy to enforce the Sugar Act, and customs officers extorted fees from lumber-carrying boats. Americans continued smuggling, Britain lowered the duty to 1 penny, which was less than the bribe : brought in revenue. 9 legislatures thought Parliament abused its authority to regulate trade, hesitated to denounce it as unconstitutional (only amended Molasses Act).
Vice-Admiralty Courts
heard smuggling cases : a judge alone gave the verdict (and had a financial incentive to find defendants guilty since they got 5% of the seized cargo). Didn’t allow defendants to be tried where their offense had taken place. Reversed normal courtroom procedures (instead, defendant had to disprove the prosecution’s charge).
The Stamp Act
made Americans pay and use special stamped paper for newspapers, documents, etc. Internal tax : duty levied directly on property, goods, gov. services in the colonies, and designed to raise revenue for the crown. Grenville and supporters thought the tax was a small price to pay for the benefits of the empire, but some (William Pitt) said that colonists had never been subject to British revenue bills and that they already taxed themselves. Grenville agreed that they shouldn’t be taxed without representation in Parliament, but argued that they were represented, they just never elected anyone. Colonists had no seats in Parliament, but were “virtually represented”. Denied that colonists could be exempt from taxes because they elected their own assemblies : local powers didn’t nullify Parliament’s authority over them.
Colonial Opinions About the Stamp Act
forced them to confront the issue of parliamentary taxation or surrender any claim to meaningful rights of self-government. Thought Stamp Act demonstrated Parliament’s indifference to the colonists’ interests and the shallow nature of virtual representation. They wanted self-government like Ireland.
Resisting the Stamp Act
Patrick Henry persuaded VA House of Burgesses to adopt strongly-worded resolutions denying Parliament’s power to tax the colonies. Bitterness against the act released spontaneous, contagious violence.
Loyal Nine
group of artisans, shopkeepers, businessmen that fought the Stamp Act. Oversaw a truce between two mobs.
Boston – the center of resistance. Bostonians blamed British policies for their economic distress.
Sons of Liberty
directed violence against properties and left escape opportunities for victims. No one was killed/tarred and feathered.
Stamp Act Congress
agreed that Parliament lacked authority to levy taxes outside Britain and to deny anyone a jury trial.
Results of the Stamp Act
most stamp distributors resigned/fled, royal customs officials/court officers refused to do their jobs. Colonial upper class assumed control of outcry against the Stamp Act. Colonists boycotted British goods, England’s business community warned Parliament that it would stimulate bankruptcies, unemployment, and political unrest. March 1766 : Parliament revoked the Stamp Act. Colonists declared their loyalty to Britain because of the repeal.
Declaratory Act
affirmed Parliament’s power to legislate for the colonies in all cases whatsoever. Americans ignored it (thought Britain wanted to save face), England meant that colonies could not be exempted from any parliamentary statue.
John Locke : natural rights of life, liberty, and property. Social contracts to form governments that would protect those rights. A gov. that encroached on natural rights broke that contract and could be overthrown. English radicals fashioned wide-ranging critique of English gov. and a new way of thinking about politics. Colonists thought there was a conspiracy behind British policy during the Stamp Act. People found reasons to oppose British actions/policies (infringing on natural rights, etc) Samuel Adams combined religion/history to rally public protest. Preachers (not Anglicans or Quakers) took up the cause.
The Quartering Act
Townshend took office when the New York legislature clashed over the Quartering Act (made colonial legislatures pay for certain goods needed by soldiers within their respective borders). Indirect tax : obligated assemblies to raise an amount of revenue. New York’s resistance to indirect taxation led to the New York Suspending Act, which threatened to nullify all laws passed by the colony after October 1st if the legislature refused to vote the supplies.
The Townshend Duties
British slashed their own taxes by 25%, led Townshend to propose increasing colonial customs revenue by taxing imports entering America. Passed the Townshend Acts in 1767, taxing glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea imported into the colonies. External tax, but was passed for revenue, not to control trade. Also wanted to establish a fund to pay royal governors so the colonists couldn’t withhold salaries to get them to pass laws that England disapproved of. The Revenue Acts increased Britain’s debt. Conflict with America became a test of national will over the principle of taxation.
Reactions to the Townshend Duties
unsure of how to act until Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania was published : emphasized that Parliament could not tax commerce just to raise revenue. Taxes to produce revenue could not be imposed unless the constituents voted for it. Sam Adams condemned taxation without representation and the threat to self-governance posed by Parliament’s actions. British gov. overreacted to letters opposing the acts, took it as an incentive to rebel. Lord Hillsborough told MA assembly to disown the letter, forbade overseas assemblies to endorse it, and commanded that royal governors dissolve any legislatures that violated his instructions. Decided to go with nonimportation to pressure a repeal – depended on willingness to merchants to do so, whose livelihood depended on it. Only 40% of imports from Britain were blocked. Hit the British people, many English wanted the bill repealed.
John Wilkes
led a movement in opposition to domestic/foreign policies of George III and the current Parliament. : was arrested for seditious speech but won his court case. Ran for Parliament while people wanted to dismiss the landowning wealthy ministers, many protested low wages and high prices that came from gov. policies. Wilkes was elected to Parliament, then arrested, but was very popular. Sharpened political thinking of gov. opponents in Britain, English voters protested refusal to seat Wilkes and believed that virtual representation was false. Showed that Parliament’s authority could be questioned.
Women’s Role in the Resistance
Daughters of Liberty : attended political rallies, ignored men who didn’t resist against the Stamp Act. Denounced the consumption of tea due to the Townshend Acts; nonconsumption agreements became popular, included tea and English manufactures. Held spinning bees to weave/sew replacement apparel : undermined masculine prejudice that women had no place in public life, endowed spinning/weaving. Forced British to appreciate the depth of colonial commitment to maintaining the nonimportation agreements.
Customs Racketeering
Townshend created American Board of Customs Commissioners to enforce Navigation Acts. Raised the number of port officials, provided money for secret informers, and funded a colonial coast guard. Drew protests due to the way of enforcement and the fact that those accused were guilty unless proven innocent. 1/3 of the seized cargo was awarded if a smuggler was convicted, fines could be tripled : incentive to seize illegal cargoes. Customs commissioners invaded traditional rights of sailors (sailor’s chest was private property that wasn’t listed as cargo, but revenue agents started treating it as such).”Customs racketeering” : little more than a system of legalized piracy, fed upsurge in violence. Caused more riots and assaults. British seized John Hancock’s ship, the Liberty, were driven out of Boston. Expanded protests against taxation without representation to making legislation without representation : could only regulate imperial commerce.
Repeal of the Townshend Duties
Lord North was prime minister, favored repealing most of the Townshend duties except for the tax on tea. Colonial leaders didn’t know if they should keep with the nonimportation to get the duties completely repealed, or stop. Ended up collapsing, still didn’t drink British tea.
The Boston Massacre
British troops landed in Boston in 1768, colonists perceived them as a standing army that threatened their liberty and were a financial burden. Protestants were annoyed that many soldiers were Catholics and some were blacks, and that they took their jobs. Customs official killed a young boy : a week later, officer tried to disperse a crowd led by Crispus Attucks (black seaman), someone fired after being hit by a snowball, 5 killed. Royal authorities isolated soldiers on a fortified island in the Boston harbor, those who fired were tried (most acquitted, 2 found guilty were branded)
The Committees of Correspondence
Gaspee ran aground, colonists despised the ship and burnt it to the waterline. British said all suspects should be sent back to England for a trial : taking away colonists’ right to a trial with a local jury. Revenue money used to pay for governor’s salaries. MA communities appointed people responsible for exchanging information/coordinating defense of colonial rights. First attempt to maintain close/continuing political cooperation over a wide area. Sam Adams publicized letters written by Thomas Hutchinson, which said that colonists’ rights should be oppressed. 1774 : every province but PA had a committee of correspondence.
Frontier Tensions
Growth of colonial population/economy led to expansion to the Appalachians, wanted Indian land. British too poor to enforce Proclamation of 1763, colonists unpunished for acts of violence against Indians. British/Iroquois agreed in the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1768) to grant land along the Ohio River to the gov. of PA and VA. Provoked conflict among the colonists over land, and between frontier settlers/their governments (frontier settlers underrepresented in legislature and exploited by corrupt officials). Regulators : aimed to redress the grievances of settlers living in NC’s western regions. Showed colonists’ willingness to resort to violence and defy established authorities.
The Tea Act of 1773
Eliminated import duties on tea entering England, lowering the selling price to consumers; permitted East India Company to sell its tea directly to consumers. Alarmed Americans : thought it was menacing to colonial representative gov., would produce revenue to pay royal governors. Colonists resisted importation of tea without violence/destruction of property, intercepted tea-carrying ships and sent them back. November 28, 1773 : ship landed in Boston, duties had to be paid or the cargo would be seized from the captain and the tea placed on sale. Boston Tea Party : dressed as Indians, attacked no one, dumped 45 tons of tea overboard, then left. Enraged British
The Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts
closed Boston harbor unless they paid for the ruined tea, revoked MA charter and made the gov. less democratic (upper house no longer elected, but chosen by the crown, jurymen appointed by sheriffs instead of elected), forbade communities to hold more than one town meeting a year without the governor’s permission. Administration of Justice Act¬ : permitted someone charged with murder while enforcing royal authority in MA to be tried in England/other colonies. New Quartering Act : allowed the governor to set aside empty private buildings for housing troops. Quebec Act : established Roman Catholicism as Quebec’s official religion, gave governor powers, did not establish a legislature. Extended Quebec’s land claims to south of the Ohio River and west of the Mississippi, where colonies had claimed land. Made colonists think that the crown wanted to corrode traditional English liberties. Pushed most colonies to the brink of revolution : Virginia wanted active resistance, could provide the most military manpower.
The First Continental Congress
Committees of Correspondence of every colony but Georgia sent representatives to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Wanted to find a way to defend American rights short of war. Endorsed extreme statements of principle (Suffolk Resolves) that declared that the colonies owed no obedience to the Coercive Acts. Voted to boycott British goods after December 1, stop exports to Britain/West Indian possessions in September 1775. Sent a petition to the king with a summary of their principles and demands (parliamentary efforts to impose taxes, enforce laws through admiralty courts, suspend assemblies, revoke charters were unconstitutional, but could regulate colonial commerce).
The Fighting Begins
resistance leaders coerced waverers/loyalists, forced merchants who traded with Britain to apologize and burn imports. Committees took on gov. functions by organizing volunteer military companies and extralegal legislatures. 1775 : established “congresses” that rivaled colonial assemblies headed by royal governors.
Concord – British gov. ordered Thomas Gage to put down the rebellion by arresting patriot leaders; Gage sent men to seize the weapons supply at Concord. William Dawes/Paul Revere alerted towns of British movement, minutemen tried to oppose the soldiers at Lexington, started the fighting. New Englanders besieged British garrison in Boston, overran Fort Ticonderoga, and the second Continental Congress met. Olive Branch Petition
demanded a cease-fire at Boston, repeal of the Coercive Acts, and negotiations to establish guarantees of American rights. Arrived in Britain the same time as news about the battle on Breed’s Hill and Bunker Hill, the king declared New England in a state of rebellion. December : declared colonists were rebellions, made their ships subject to seizure.
Failure of Reconciliation
Continental Congress agreed to establish an American continental army, named George Washington its commander. Americans resisted independence because they thought the ministers were forcing unconstitutional measures on them, not the king, and they thought saner people would take office.
Common Sense
by Thomas Paine : kingship was rooted in superstition, dangerous to liberty, and inappropriate to Americans. Argued that the conspiracy against American liberty was rooted in the monarchy. America had no economic need for Britain. Thought America would be a new kind of nation (no oppressive beliefs).
Declaring Independence
Richard Henry Lee proposed it on June 7, adopted on July 2nd and created the United States of America. Thomas Jefferson composed a statement to justify their separation from England, Congress approved the document on July 4th. Said that the king wanted to establish a tyranny over the colonies. Argued that the English gov. violated its contract with the colonists, gave them the right to replace it with their own gov. Emphasized equality of all individuals and natural rights to justice, liberty, and self-fulfillment.
Western Territory (Appalachians to Mississippi River)
belonged to Indians, 150,000 people, struggling to preserve way of life. Ohio Valley tribes formed a defensive confederacy, southeastern nations didn’t recognize American rule. British backed resistance in northwest, Spain armed southwest Indians. War parties caused anxiety from PA to GA. Fought Indians with overwhelming military force/threatened tribes with starvation : couldn’t be carried out by frontier militia. US Army : 672 soldiers, caused Indians to evacuate southern Indiana/Ohio, colonists settled in Ohio. British had forts, wanted to prevent expansion westward until there was an Indian buffer state south of the Great Lakes. Canadian fur traders were successful. Spain offered southeast settlers citizenship, talked about secession. Citizens manipulated by foreign countries.
Regional Economies (Debts/Infant Industries) – South
crops didn’t return to prewar export levels, Chesapeake tobacco growers switched to wheat/hemp. Mid-Atlantic : agricultural production benefited from demand of food, export prices went up. New England : taxes to pay money borrowed for Revolution, lawsuits against debtors, crop yields low. Economic depression, overpopulation, British restrictions against trading.
Entrepreneurs, Artisans, and Wage Earners
Entrepreneurs thought agriculture should be balanced with banking, manufacturing, and commerce, should reduce dependence on British goods, and a merchant marine. Private banks founded, Pennsylvania Society for the Encouragement of Manufacturers and the Useful Arts : promoted immigration of English artisans. Slowly became industrial society. “Mechanics” (master artisans and journeymen) manufactured goods by hand, hired low-paid day workers, rich employed servants. Competed with British manufacturers : supported candidates willing to raise tariffs on British imports. Artisans would contract as mechanics became wage earners working for industrialist entrepreneurs. Most politically conscious Americans hoped for republican ideals.
Washington’s Presidency
President had to get Senate’s approval for nominees to head bureaus, executive personnel could be impeached. Cabinet : secretaries of state, treasury, war, and the attorney general; Washington balanced with north/south. Suggested few laws to Congress, didn’t speak out against opponents of gov. policy, limited public statements to foreign/military affairs. Deferred to congressional decisions whenever possible, only vetoed twice. Thought gov. should be run by educated men who would act in the people’s best interests.
Ex Post Facto Laws
criminalizing previously legal actions and punishing those who have been engaging in such actions
Bill of Attainder
proclaimed someone’s guilt and punished them without a trial
Judiciary Act of 1789
established federal district court in each state, operated according to local procedures.
Bill of Rights
prevented tyranny, Madison drafted first 10 amendments. First 8 guaranteed personal liberties (1 : freedom of expression, 2/3 – right for states to have militia, protected against standing armies, 4-8 limited police powers of the state, 9-10 reserved powers not given to the fed. gov. to the states)
Chisholm v. Georgia
state could be sued in federal courts by nonresidents : decision overturned, passed 11th amendment (private citizens couldn’t undermine states’ financial autonomy. Fed. power could threaten local interests.
Alexander Hamilton
attended Columbia University, entered Continental Army, extremely close to Washington (pres. supported his policies), wanted to strengthen nation against foreign enemies/disunion. Weak national credit, economy couldn’t fight European power, worried about states overpowering national gov. Thought gov. would survive by building support among politically influential citizens through financial interests.
Report on the Public Credit
evaluated status of Revolutionary debt – $54 million in US debt, $42 million owed to Americans, rest to foreign nations. States had debts of $25 million. Proposed that fed. gov. fund the debt (raising money through new securities, interest), fed. gov. fund state debts (states didn’t pay back money, US loses credit). Raising money : tariffs, selling federal lands, import taxes, whiskey tax. Debt to American citizens should be permanent. People objected that those who didn’t deserve money would get it, no compensation for those who had sold their certificates. All states but MA, NC, and CA had paid their creditors, South had paid most of debt : rewarded irresponsibility. Relocated capital to South, assumption passed, reversed nation’s fiscal standing.
National Bank
would diversify national economy. Private investors could buy shares of the bank, would make portions of the recently funded debt available for loans and receive interest payments from Treasury. Little chance of losing money, would cost taxpayers almost nothing and benefit the nation. Safe place for tax revenues, inexpensive loans to the gov., regulating state banks, credit to expand the economy, and issuing paper notes that circulated as money. Hamilton admired British self-sufficiency.
Challenge to Limited Government
permanent national debt violated equality among citizens (favored interests of public creditors), thought bank would give a small, elite group power to influence the gov. Revolutionary-generation Americans thought Bank of England undermined integrity of British gov. Jefferson thought it might corrupt the Congress, John Taylor thought wealth would allow the bank to take over the country. Opponents thought it was unconstitutional : Constitution didn’t specifically state it could be made, wanted strict interpretation. Hamilton justified it with the elastic clause (“necessary and proper”). Madison/Jefferson opposed tariffs on foreign manufactures (promoted uncompetitive industry, raised prices of goods due to taxes, reduced incentive for American manufacturers to make cheap products), didn’t believe in industrialism. Congress didn’t approve high protective tariff, set higher duties on imports.
Hamilton’s Legacy
Federalists : favored centralized national gov., dominated in New England, NJ, PA, NY, and SC. People believed that Hamilton was rewarding special interests : Southerners reacted badly. Plans for commercial expansion/industrial developments seemed unrelated to the West (agriculturally-based). Uneven impact annoyed PA and NY.
Whiskey Rebellion
excise tax on domestically produced whiskey (distributed debt across nation). Western PA found tax burdensome, removed profit from selling whiskey. Trials about tax evasion had to be conducted in federal courts. Initially protested with mass meetings/petitions, became more militant. Hamilton deemed rebellion lawless, Washington gathered militia to put down rebellion. Determined limit on public opposition to fed. policies (could only change laws through constitutional procedures).
countered Russian/Britain/US for North American territory, established “New California”, strengthened southwest by allying with Indians.
Washington’s Policy
Spanish bribed political figures in Tennessee and Kentucky, states admitted to the Union with Vermont. Wanted tight control through patient diplomacy : Spain opened New Orleans to American trading. Neutralized Creek Indians (Spain’s strongest allies) : Treaty of New York let colonists settle Georgia Piedmont, preserved Creek territory against US expansion. Military efforts to enforce peace failed, passed laws against trespassing on Indian land, regulating trade, outlawing alcohol, and punishing crimes committed there by non-Indians. Wanted Indians to be “civilized”. Creeks revoked treaty.
French Revolution
Americans sympathetic to revolutionaries, South/frontier wanted pro-French foreign policy : France went to war with Spain/Britain. Slave uprising in Saint Domingue caused hatred of British. North hated France : conservatism, good relations with Britain needed for occupational prosperity. South : viewed Britain as an obstacle to self-determination, wanted to have duties on cargos from England/Scotland. Federalists opposed this idea : predicted war.
Citizen Genet
tried to mobilize republican sentiment in favor of France, strengthen treaty of alliance, gather militia to conquer Spanish territories/attack British shipping. Washington declared neutrality. Gathered southern volunteers for American Foreign Legion, had no money to pay them, but outfitted privateers (seized British vessels).
British Retaliation
seized foreign ships trading with French islands in the Caribbean, US merchant marine being drafted into Royal Navy.
forcibly enlisting British subjects as the king’s sailors, sometimes took US citizens, disregarded former subjects’ right to American citizenship.
Control of the West
British denied US claims north of the Ohio River, built Fort Miami on US soil. Anthony Wayne challenged British authority in the Northwest with Fort Defiance, routed thousand Indians, morale dropped.
Treaty of Greenville
opened Ohio to white settlement and ended Indian hostilities for 16 years.
John Jay’s Treaty – got British to remove troops from US soil, gained access to West Indian markets. British could violate American neutrality and ruin profitable commerce by restricting US trade with French ports during wartime. Didn’t compensate for slaves taken during the Revolution. Defused war, ended British occupation of US territory, allowed settlement of claims of British merchants who were owed American debts, arranged for Americans’ compensation for property seized by the Royal Navy. Americans developed commerce with India, West Indies declared their harbors open to US ships.
Treaty of San Lorenzo
unrestricted, duty-free access to world markets through the Mississippi River, recognized 31st parallel as US’s southern boundary, dismantled all forts on American soil, discouraged Indian attacks against western settlers.
Northern Federalists
hated France’s disregard for civil rights/attempt to substitute reason for God. Thought French leadership incited poor against rich. Didn’t like mob rule, Genet encouraged opposition of Washington’s rule and found hundreds willing to fight for France. Unwise to involve public in politics : undependable, could be influenced by rabble-rousers. Properly-led people could stand against anarchy, voters should choose candidates by their personal merits. Representative gov., elite class and gov. should be close. Limited public office to wise/virtuous men who would protect liberty.
Southern Interpretation of Republicanism
gov. dominated by elite was corrupted, liberty would be safe if distributed among the public. Enlightenment : free flow of ideas would ensure progress, thought people shouldn’t inhibit political participation.
National Gazette – Tried to turn public opinion against the Federalists, nation’s first opposition newspaper. Democratic societies formed, dissatisfied with Washington’s policies (identified as Federalist). Federalists thought they were acting as foreign agents.
Republican Party
Jefferson and Madison : hadn’t wanted political factions/parties (corrupt), Constitution should’ve prevented them. Republicans attacked pro-British leanings in local elections, won slight majority in House of Representatives. Used press to mold public opinion (newspapers), were libelous and irresponsible (fear mongering, character assassination). Republicans accused Federalists of wanting to enrich wealthy citizens at the taxpayers’ expense and wanting to recreate the European court (citizens’ worth measured by money), falsely accused them of wanting to introduce legal privilege, aristocracy, and fundamental assumption
Washington’s Farewell Address
condemned political parties, thought they would endanger republic’s survival. Shouldn’t favor any one country, or else they would be overwhelmed by a battle for other countries. Should avoid connection with Europe’s wars : isolated from foreign battles.
Election of 1796
Republicans had Democratic societies, workingmen’s clubs, and immigrant-aid associations. Immigrants prime target for Republican recruiters : could tip the balance in states like PA and NY (closely divided opinion). Candidates : John Adams (Federalist), Thomas Jefferson (Republican). Republicans expected to win southern electoral votes/congressional seats like Federalists expected to win New England, NJ, and SC. Swing states were PA and NY, Republicans didn’t get NY, so Jefferson lost by 3 electoral votes.
John Adams
intellectual, uncomfortable with people, didn’t command personal loyalty but garnered trust, emotional political debate. Rational, reserved personality. Unable to unify the country.
XYZ Affair
French ordered seizure of American ships carrying goods to British ports. Adams sent peace delegation to Paris, Charles de Talleyrand (French foreign minister) didn’t meet delegation, said through three agents “X” “Y” and “Z” that negotiations would begin after he received money. “Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute”. Discredited Republicans’ foreign policy views, tried to excuse their behavior. Jefferson’s supporters were routed. Armed 54 ships to protect commerce, army enlarged in case of civil war.
The Alien and Sedition Acts
Alien Enemies Act : prevented wartime spying or sabotage (fundamental principles for protecting national security/respecting rights of enemy citizens, operated only during war). Alien Friends Act : authorized president to expel foreign residents whose activities he considered dangerous. Naturalization Act : increased residency requirement for US citizenship from 5 to 14 years. Sedition Act : distinguished between free speech/attempts to violate laws/overthrow gov. Couldn’t criticize the gov. Sedition cases heard by juries : interfered with free speech. Targeted US opposition press, wanted to intimidate journalists into keeping quiet in the election. Militia in Kentucky/VA signed petitions denouncing the Acts. Federalists controlled all three branches of gov., individual liberties not protected, doctrine of states’ rights advanced as a means of preventing national gov. from violating basic freedoms.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions- Madison/Jefferson declared that state legislatures could judge constitutionality of federal actions, had interposition (could protect liberties of their citizens). Objectionable federal laws could be nullified by the states. Southern states might secede from the Union.
Election of 1800
Republicans : Thomas Jefferson for pres., Aaron Burr for VP. Federalists argued between Hamilton and Adams. Jefferson discouraged radicalism, Adams rejected demands that Congress declare war on France/sparking insurrections. Federalists didn’t exploit Republican sympathy for the enemy, voters annoyed at ballooning national debt, blamed Federalists. Republicans convinced NY and Philadelphia to vote for Jefferson, popular interest in politics rose. Jefferson won.
America’s Impact on Eastern Indians
Reduced population/territory, crowded illegally onto territories, lands trespassed on, pressured to give up lands and cultures. Turned to alcohol and killed each other. Handsome Lake appealed to Seneca Iroquois’ religious traditions, welcomed Quaker missionaries/federal aid for teaching American agricultural methods. Women who didn’t accept the change were accused of witchcraft and some were killed.
Status of Free Blacks in North vs. South
8% were free by 1790, 1800 : 11%. State reforms improved slaves’ conditions, 1794 : outlawed Atlantic slave trade. Ensured free blacks’ legal equality, dropped restrictions on freedom of movement, protected property. All but 3 permitted free blacks to vote/didn’t restrict them. Before end of 1790s, slavery was more entrenched, whites were reluctant to accept blacks as fellow citizens. Federal Militia Law of 1792 : state militias could exclude blacks. Places that treated them as political equals of whites dropped sharply in early 1800s.
Fugitive Slave Law
required judges to award possession of a runaway slave upon any formal request by a master/representative. Runaways denied jury trial/permission to present evidence of freedom. Denied free blacks legal protections that the Bill of Rights guaranteed them.
Gabriel’s Rebellion
slave insurrection, a thousand slaves planned to march on Richmond. State militia put down the rebellion, confirmed possibility of slave revolts in America. Antislavery sentiment diminished, abolitionists lost political influence.
Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin
demand in textile industry stimulated cotton cultivation, invented gin that separated fibers of short-staple cotton from the seed. Needed slaves. Slaves no closer to freedom, political gains eroded.
Character of Jefferson
didn’t pay much attention to dress, thought pomp/fanfare was too out of hand, wanted to restore “republican simplicity” to Congress. Dispassionate, aroused emotion in others, viewed as defender of liberty and aristocrat that trusted the people/infidel and frenzied rebel. Was governor of VA, secretary of state under Washington, VP of John Adams. Thought republics collapsed from within (taxes, standing army, corrupt officials), promoted states’ rights, thought popular liberty needed popular virtue (putting the good of the nation ahead of private interests). Liked educated farmers, disliked city dwellers. Not impractical.
Jefferson’s Revolution
Repealed most internal taxes, slashed expenditures (closed overseas embassies, downsized army). Placed economy over military preparedness. Peace of Amiens stopped conflict between France/Britain that had affected colonial shipping.
Tripolitan (Barbary) Pirates
Jefferson ordered navy to attack them instead of bribing them (would be less expensive in the end). 1805 : negotiated peace treaty for half the price it had been paying for safe passage in the Mediterranean.
Judiciary Act of 1801
Wanted to draw moderate Federalists onto his side. Thought talent and virtue (not political affiliation) should determine judgeships. Federalists passed law : 16 new federal judgeships, reduced Supreme Court justices to 5 from 6 : Jefferson might not be able to appoint a Supreme Court judge, Federalist-dominated Supreme Court. Adams appointed last-minute prominent Federalist judges before Jefferson took office. Jefferson thought independent judiciary was necessary to successful republican gov. Jefferson repealed it in 1802.
Writ of Mandamus
order from higher court commanding that a certain action be taken
Marbury v. Madison
Adams appointed Marbury as justice of the peace, didn’t get commission there in time before midnight. Madison refused to release the commission, Marbury petitioned for a write of mandamus.
John Marshall
Virginian, loyal to Union, Federalist. Declared an act of Congress unconstitutional in Marbury v. Madison, denied Marbury’s petition for a write of mandamus. Jefferson believed in judicial review, thought all branches of gov. should be able to evaluate constitutionality, was annoyed at Marshall’s lecture to Madison.
Judicial Partisanship
Federalist John Pickering (New Hampshire District Court) convicted of crimes, was obviously insane. Samuel Chase (Supreme Court) indicted : strongly supported Sedition Acts, convicted Jefferson’s friend : but John Randolph messed up and Chase was acquitted. Doubted whether impeachment was an appropriate method of removing judicial partisanship. Acquittal ended Jefferson’s problems with judiciary.
The Louisiana Purchase
Treaty of San Ildefonso : Spain ceded Louisiana Territory to France (Napoleon). Jefferson wanted an expansion of an empire of free/virtuous Americans. Spain was weak, posted no threat to US, but France could make treaties with Britain to trap/crush US. Napoleon wanted a French empire bordering the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico, and to subdue Santo Domingo’s slave rebellion. Spanish prohibited Americans from depositing produce in New Orleans for shipment to foreign countries. Jefferson nominated James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston to negotiate with France for purchase of Louisiana/the Floridas. Napoleon wanted to restart war in Europe, needed money, sold all of Louisiana for $15 million. Didn’t know about constitutionality of land sales, proposed an amendment to make it legal, but rationalized that Napoleon might retract his offer. Dropped amendment, treaty ratified in the Senate. Put aside favor of strict interpretation in order to guarantee more land for farmers. Also attracted more supporters for Republicans (farmers in the West).
The Lewis and Clark Expedition
Meriwether Lewis instructed to find source of Mississippi River, cross western highlands, and follow the best water route to the Pacific. Wanted to increase scientific knowledge and expand commercial possibilities. Second-in-command William Clark, left St. Louis in 1804. Followed Missouri, Snake, Columbia rivers, hired French-Canadian fur trader Toussaint Charbonneau and wife Sacajawea as a guide and interpreter. Reached Pacific Ocean in 1805, returned to St. Louis.
Aaron Burr Conspiracy
Burr denied renomination as VP, talked with High Federalists who wanted to split from the Union by forming a pro-British Northern Confederacy of Nova Scotia, New England, New York, and PA. Burr was the Federalist nomination for NY governor, defeated by Hamilton. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel and mortally wounded him. Indicted in two states for murder of Hamilton, allied with James Wilkinson (military governor of Louisiana Territory, Spanish spy) to split western states and West Florida into a confederacy south of the Ohio River. 1806 : Burr went to join Wilkinson at Natchez, but Wilkinson recognized that Jefferson was moving against the plot and the British were uninterested, reported the conspiracy. Jefferson officially denounced conspiracy, Burr put on trial for treason but was found not guilty. Fled to Europe to avoid indictments for Hamilton’s murder, tried to convince Napoleon to make peace with Britain and invade US/Mexico.
The Quids
led by John Randolph, believed in honest wisdom of the farmer against the corruption of rulers and “court” hangers-on : threatened liberty, but was more for opposition than governing. Accused Jefferson of backing a compromise in the Yazoo land scandal, awarded 5 million acres to Yazoo investors (land was bought in good faith from land companies that bribed the whole legislature). Thought Jefferson requested money without asking Congress, but was untrue.
Suppression of American Trade
Peace of Amiens collapsed, Britain/France resumed war. Re-export trade : trade closed in time of peace couldn’t be opened in time of war. Broken voyage : Americans carried foreign produce to American port and reexported as American goods. Orders in Council (British) : blockade of French ports in Europe. Continental System : ships obeying British regulations could be seized by France. Outlawed American trade.
pressing into service of purported British sailors who deserted from the Royal Navy due to bad conditions, and also American soldiers (6000). Less impact on economy, more humiliating.
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
British warship Leopard attacked American frigate Chesapeake, forced to surrender. Seized four deserters.
The Embargo Act
prohibited vessels from leaving American ports for foreign ports, “peaceable coercion”. Wanted to pressure nations into respecting American neutrality, British found new markets in Spain. Hit New England and Massachusetts hard : dependent on foreign trade, diverted merchant’s capital into manufacturing.
The Election of 1808
Madison/Clinton (Republican) vs. Pinckney/King (Federalist). Republicans had majorities in Congress, Madison won. Federalists made a comeback (embargo, younger Federalists were influential)
Failure of Peaceable Coercion
Madison thought American liberty had to rest on virtue of the people, virtue was tied to agriculture, agriculture needed trade to be successful (British West Indies). Embargo didn’t coerce anyone.
Non-Intercourse Act
repealed Embargo Act, opened American trade to all nations except Britain and France, pres. could authorize trade to either if they didn’t violate neutral rights. British/French didn’t respect shipping.
Macon’s Bill No. 2
replaced Non-Intercourse Act : reopened trade with Britain and France and bribed (repealed restrictions on neutral shipping, then US would halt commerce with the other)
War Hawks
South and West hotbloods who wanted war (angry at insults to America). Led by Henry Clay, supported by John Calhoun (South Carolina), Richard Johnson, and William King. Wanted to expel British from Canada and Spanish from FLoridas.
Tecumseh and the Prophet
Tecumseh and half-brother Prophet wanted to unite several tribes in Ohio/Indiana territory against US. Tried to unify people and revive Native American virtues. Battle of Tippecanoe : William Harrison won, Tecumseh joined British.
Causes of the War of 1812
Sent request for war with Britain to Congress, Britain went through economic slump. Britain repealed Orders of Council. Republicans in populous states carried war declaration through Congress (Federalists opposed). Sectional/party split. Impressment, presence of British ships in American waters, British violations of neutral rights. Incitement of Indians, economic recession that affected South and West. British policy damaging America’s economy. Madison thought British wanted to strangle American trade.
The War of 1812
Americans intimidated by Indians, lost battles
General William Henry Harrison
renewed offensive, defeated British/Indians in Battle of the Thames. Tecumseh died in the battle.
Oliver Perry
constructed fleet of vessels, cannon captured in a raid on York, destroyed British squadron at the western end of Lake Erie. British lost Erie.
The Naval War
US victories more psychological than of strategic value.
The British Offensive
British stopped by US at battles of Chippewa and Lundy’s Lane. Wanted to split New England from the Union, but American naval squadron defeated the British. Burnt Washington DC to the ground.
The Treaty of Ghent
ended war between Britain and US, British position grew worse with time. Demanded territorial concessions from the US, but gave up.
Battle of New Orleans
after Treaty of Ghent, Jackson shredded British redcoats and inflicted 2000 casualties.
The Hartford Convention
Federalist convention, passed resolutions summarizing New England’s grievances, wanted to abolish 3/5th law, require 2/3rd vote of Congress to declare war and admit new states to the Union, limit president to a single term, prohibit election of two presidents from the same state, bar embargoes lasting more than 60 days.
Era of Good Feelings
eliminated Federalists as national political force, convinced Republicans that nation was resilient, embraced some doctrines related to Federalists. National bank, tariff protection, fed. support for internal improvements. War eliminated divisive issues, effort to prevent political controversies.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
states couldn’t interfere with contracts : when a state chartered a college, it surrendered its power to alter and its authority to regulate the beneficiary.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Banks were constitutional, but national gov. was supreme, so states couldn’t interfere with federal powers. Attacked states’ rights.
Missouri Compromise
House of Reps wanted to admit as a slave state. Tallmadge said slaves couldn’t be introduced and called for emancipation. Drew attention to slavery (11 free, 11 slave states : Missouri would tip the balance). South said North was trying to destroy the Union and end slavery, North said South was extending the institution. Maine was a free state, Missouri was a slave state. Prohibited slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of 36 degrees, 30′. Second : prohibited Missouri from discriminating against citizens of other states. Southern victory.
John Quincy Adams
secretary of state under Monroe, diplomat, nationalist, tough negotiator. Strengthened peace with Great Britain.
Rush-Bagot Treaty
demilitarized Great Lakes, restricted number of ships that could be maintained there.
Adams-Onis/Transcontinental Treaty
ceded East Florida to US, renounced claims to West Florida, agreed to southern border of US west of the Mississippi that ran north along the Sabine River. Legitimate claim to Pacific Coast.
Monroe Doctrine
unless American interests were involved, US would abstain from European affairs. American continents weren’t going to be colonies in the future, and if anyone tried it would be considered an unfriendly act.
Westward Expansion
1790s : admission of Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. 10 years passed : Louisiana was admitted. 1816-1821 : Indiana, Mississippi, Illinois, Alabama, Maine, Missouri. Michigan’s population grew. Zebulon Pike found Colorado peak, Lewis and Clark expedition, John Jacob Astor founded fur-trade post at the mouth of the Columbia River. White trappers began to gather fur : Jedediah Smith was their representative, known as “mountain men”.
Western Society and Customs
migrated as families, lived near rivers, clustered with people from the same region as them in the East : sought sociability. Division of Labor : men performed heaviest labor, women had chores (milking cows, sewing, making clothes). Entertainment taken from the East, weren’t many rich in the West : lack of refinement led to teasing by Easterners. Exchange of insults fostered regional identity among Westerners.
The Federal Government and the West
growth of strength of fed. gov. prompted westward expansion : stimulated expansion by offering land to those who fought in the War of 1812. 1816 : agreed to fund the National Road (highway that reached VA on the Ohio River and Illinois).
Five Civilized Tribes
Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles occupied Tennessee, GA, Alabama, Mississippi, FA. Foreign policy didn’t favor Indians. They took some aspects of American life, but many refused to move west and cede land because they had to have commercial dealings with whites to succeed. Some also wanted to keep ancestral lands.
Andrew Jackson
realized Indians were much weaker than whites thought. Became president in 1829, passed the Indian Removal Act of 1830 : granted president funds and authority to remove Indians by force if necessary. Many tribes were moved across the Mississippi River.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Cherokees proclaimed themselves an independent republic in GA, state tried to extend jurisdiction over them, petitioned Supreme Court. John Marshall : Cherokees weren’t a state/foreign nation, had no standing to bring suit. Acknowledged prolonged occupancy, clarified their standing in…
Worchester v. Georgia
Cherokees were a “domestic dependent nation” entitled to federal protection from molestation by Georgia
Trail of Tears
Federal agents persuaded chief to cede all Cherokee land to the US, Cherokees went west to the Mississippi and policed their own removal.
Black Hawk War – Northwest Territory
Indians’ land was taken, Sac and Fox chief Black Hawk resisted removal until 1831 then moved west of the Mississippi, returning the next year. Fed. troops and Illinois militia crushed them as they tried to return to Iowa, made other Northwest Indians cede their land.
Subsistence Agriculture
growing enough food to feed families
Market Economy
producing a cash crop to sell in local/distant markets
Federal Land Policy
Ordinance of 1785 : divided public lands into townships, subdivided township into on-mile-square lots. Federalists didn’t want westward expansion, but wanted revenue from land sales : encouraged purchase by wealthy speculators. 1796 : law passed, maintained minimum purchase at 640 acres at a minimum price of $2 per acre. Land Law of 1800 : dropped minimum purchase to 320 acres, allowed up to 4 years for full payment.
independent, proud, disdained land speculators. Squatters formed claims associations to police land auctions, prevented speculators from bidding up the price of land. Wanted preemption rights : right to purchase at minimum price land that they had already settled on and improved.
The Panic of 1819
state banks’ loose practices was a cause : issued more than they could redeem. Farmers borrowed money to buy more land/raise crops. Bumper crops in Europe, business recession in Britain cut need for US wheat, flour, and cotton. National bank demanded that the state repay their notes in specie : curtailment of credit, especially in the West. Land speculators hit hard : land dropped to $2 an acre, drove down prices of staples. Farmers couldn’t get money from crops, couldn’t pay for land, speculators couldn’t collect money owed to them by farmers. People became bitter about the national bank, dramatized vulnerability of American factories to cheap foreign competition : demanded protection of domestic industries. Farmers depended on foreign markets.
The Transportation Revolution – Gibbons v. Ogden
commerce included exchange of products and navigation : Constitution let fed. gov. regulate commerce. Upheld the competitors against the monopoly, since they had a gov. permit. Steamboat was invented : long, shallow hulls made steamboats suitable for use in shallow water, steamboats were made more elaborate. Fires were common
Erie Canal
363 miles between Albany and Buffalo, longest in the western world. New York City was linked by inland waterways (Hudson River, canal, Lake Erie) to Ohio. Blackstone Canal connected MA and Rhode Island, Main Line Canal connected eastern PA with Pittsburgh. Canal boom cut shipping costs. Economic depression in 1830s, many states scrapped canal projects, railroads expanded.
world’s first railroad began operating in England. Baltimore and Ohio Railroad took business from the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal further south. Faster, cheaper to build, and able to reach more places than canals. Most railroads constructed by private organizations, needed constant repairs and were vulnerable to economic fluctuations.
The Growth of the Cities
rapid urbanization, villages turned into towns, dramatically increased in the West. Cincinnati, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis turned into bustling cities : used to be outposts. Prominent western cities were river ports, all but Pittsburgh were commercial hubs. Canals shifted center of western economic activity towards the Great Lakes : Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago, and Milwaukee rose in power.
Manufacturing System
tasks involved in making a product were subdivided so each worker made one part, then they were put in factories to operate machinery or do things by hand. Power-driven machinery replaced fabrication by hand.
Causes of Industrialization
Embargo Act of 1807 : encouraged merchants to redirect capital into factories. War of 1812 caused people to support tariffs, transportation improvements made it easier to sell finished products. Immigrants from Europe came for economic opportunities : German, Irish, and some British (launched industrialization) : some British understood workings of machines
Samuel Slater
immigrated to US in 1789, learned about textile production : brought knowledge of machines to Americans. Established first permanent American mill for spinning cotton into yarn : carded and spun strands.
New England Industrializes
rivers were suited for water power, textile mills formed.
Putting-Out System
reinforced traditional position of household : Slater contracted women working in their homes to weave the yarn.
Lowell Mills
built by the Boston Manufacturing Company, produced finished products and competed with Slater’s system. Slater wanted to preserve tradition and hire entire families to work; Lowell hired unmarried women. Boston capitalists didn’t oversee their own work, but imposed own forms of discipline on the work force : required to attend church, 10:00 curfew. Wanted to give the mills a good reputation, unattractive mill conditions.
Democratic Ferment
property requirement to vote decreased, spoken votes replaced with hidden ballots. Electors selected through popular vote. 1820 : parties organized from the top down (nominated candidates at caucuses instead of conventions), didn’t accept universal white manhood suffrage.
Election of 1824
John Quincy Adams, John C. Calhoun, William Crawford, Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson. Calhoun withdrew and ran for VP, Crawford had a stroke, Jackson won popular/electoral votes but couldn’t get a majority. Clay wanted to forge alliance between West and Northeast : gave support to Adams, Adams appointed Clay secretary of state (“corrupt bargain”).
John Quincy Adams’ Administration
proposed internal improvements (opponents multiplied, thought it was unconstitutional; Erie Canal created on private funds, New York opposed fed. funding), wanted to send delegates to a conference of newly independent Latin American nations (people didn’t want to recognize Haiti), appointed political rivals to high office
Rise of Andrew Jackson
national reputation from Battle of New Orleans, Tennessee slaveholder, Indian fighter, militant advocate of Indian removal.
Martin Van Buren
VP of Jackson, president when Jackson retired, recognized need for two-party system. Republicans splintered, thought Jackson could lead a party (Democrats). Opponents called themselves National Republicans (pro-Adams).
Election of 1828
Jackson called a murderer, drunken gambler, adulterer. Adams accused of wearing silk underwear, being rich, being in debt, and in favor with the Russian tsar by offering him a prostitute. People liked Jackson because he was a “common man” (common man vs. aristocracy)
Spoils System
Jackson defended rotation in office : wanted to let as many people work for the gov. as possible, prevent emergence of an elite bureaucracy. Didn’t agree with fed. spending for internal improvements : South didn’t benefit. Indian Removal Act/Maysville Road veto boosted popularity in South.
Tariff of Abominations, 1828 – Tariffs were passed that protected the North, raised cost of manufactured goods for Southerners without benefit
rift between Calhoun (nationalist -> sectionalist) and Jackson. Economy in SC declined, Calhoun believed it was due to tariffs and followed Kentucky/Virginia Resolutions (only tariffs used for revenue for a common purpose were constitutional). Southerners thought tariffs would lead to altering of slavery laws
Jackson vs. Calhoun
Jackson distributed surplus federal revenue to the states, wanted to remove taint of sectional injustice. Also wanted to gradually ease tariff prices down. Calhoun disapproved, thought it would keep tariffs around longer. 1832 : SC nullified tariffs, forbade collection of customs duties in the state. Jackson declared nullification unconstitutional.
Compromise of 1833
proposed by Henry Clay. Tariff of 1833 : Compromise Tariff : gradual but significant lowering of duties. Force Bill : authorized president to use arms to collect customs duties in SC. Clay = “Great Compromiser”
The Bank Veto
Jackson was suspicious of banks. Bank of the US could contract lending capacity of state banks whenever it chose by demanding that they redeem in specie : healthy restraint on excessive lending. Decision to contract credit caused Panic of 1819. Bank’s president (Nicholas Biddle) and Clay got congressional approval to recharter the bank, but Jackson vetoed it (called it a private/privileged monopoly that drained the West of specie, was immune to taxation, made the rich richer).
Election of 1832
Jackson was a defender of states’ rights, but also a Unionist. Jackson/Van Buren vs. Clay. Calhoun resigned.
Nicholas Biddle
the president of the Bank of the United States. Began calling in bank’s loans and contract credit when Jackson declared his intent to kill the bank.
Andrew Jackson and the Bank
removed fed. deposits and put them in state banks : state banks could use them to extend more loans and issue more paper money. Jackson hated paper money and speculative economy of loans
“Pet Banks”
the state banks that received federal deposits : selected for loyalty to Democrats, multiplied.
Deposit Act
increased number of deposit banks, loosened fed. control over them
articulate support for hard money : faction of the Democratic party in New York. Mixture of intellectuals, small artisans, and journeymen : worried about inflation, wanted to be paid in specie, and distrusted banks/paper money.
The Whigs
National Republican party, opposed Jackson : composed of Southerners who thought Jackson had betrayed them, social reformers (wanted to ban alcohol, opposed slavery, bettered public education, elevating public morality). Wanted gov. to play positive role to change society. Supporters : Protestants, immigrants, Anti-Masonry (protest movement against secrecy/exclusiveness of Masonic lodges). Attracted farmers, planters, merchants, bankers, reformers, clergymen (Presbyterians/Congregationalists), Anti-Masons, manufacturers, some nullificationists.
The Election of 1836
Ran William Henry Harrison, Hugh Lawson White, WP Mangum, Daniel Webster as candidates, wanted to stop Van Buren from getting the needed amount of electoral votes.
Panic of 1837
Speculative boom from Jackson’s removal of federal funds and placing of them in state banks. Prices then dropped, banks suspended specie payments, then the economy crashed in 1839 after tumbling since 1837. US Bank failed.
Specie Circular
proclamation : after August 15, only specie could be accepted in payment for public lands. Wanted it to reverse damaging effects of eposit Act, made banks hesitant to issue more paper money.
Election of 1840
Van Buren was renominated, Whigs nominated William Henry Harrison and John Tyler. Whigs’ slogan was “Tippecanoe and Tyler too”, called Van Buren an aristocrat. Van Buren campaigned slowly
The Second Party System Matures
Rousing campaign techniques, strong contrasts and simple choices stimulated popular interest in politics, boosted voter turnout by 60%.
The Second Great Awakening
Connecticut in the 1790s : Congregationalists and Presbyterians led revival, camp meetings rose (revivals where members gathered in camps for up to a week to hear revivalists claim that the Second Coming of Jesus was coming). Methodists became America’s largest Protestant denomination (religion was a matter of the heart instead of the head). Wanted to promote law, order, and a sense of morality on the frontier. Female converts outnumbered males 2:1.
Charles Finney and “Perfectionism”
western New York was full of Puritans wanting religious experience. Finney : Presbyterian minister, conducted revivals : famous one in Rochester. Citywide revival, introduced devices for speeding conversions. Rejected Calvinist belief that everyone had the natural and nearly irresistible inclination to sin. “Perfectionism” : assertions that people could live without sin.
doubted that revivals produced permanent changes in behavior, thought Jesus was less than fully divine, attracted wealthy and educated. Criticized revivals as emotional exhibits, thought moral goodness should be cultivated by character building.
Joseph Smith
founded the Mormons, claimed that he had had a revelation, gathered followers. Moved through New York to Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Had another revelation that caused him to allow polygamy, thought Mormonism was a higher form of Christianity.
Brigham Young
took over Mormons after Smith was executed for treason, led Mormons to Great Salt Lake Valley in Utah.
rejected Bible as sole revelation, supported polygamy, elevated economic cooperation.
religious communal society led by Mother Ann Lee, were artisans. Otherworldly, hostile to materialism. Insisted that followers refrain from sex. Lived apart from society.
abstinence from alcoholic beverages, or moderation in their use
American Temperance Society
Evangelical Protestants created it, demanded total abstinence. Urged churches to expel all those who condoned alcohol. Targeted moderate drinkers. Factory owners had precise production schedules needed orderly/steady workers : supported temperance. Prohibition scored victories, MA banned small purchases by individual drinkers, Maine banned all alcoholic beverages.
Education Reform
schools needed to equip children for competitive/industrial economy. Shifted financial support for school from family to the state, graded schools, having standardized textbooks, extending the school term from 2 to 3 months. Wanted to spread uniform cultural values by exposing children to similar experiences : punctuality, honesty, industry, sobriety, patriotism. South made few gains, North remodeled. Many women were teachers, Americans forged common American culture out of diverse society.
Horace Mann
first secretary of Massachusetts’s new board of education.
assumed that blacks were degraded, didn’t belong in American society, underestimated South’s reliance on slavery.
William Lloyd Garrison and The Liberator
hired by Quaker Benjamin Lundy as an assistant editor, published radical newspaper, thought blacks should have civil equality with whites
Frederick Douglass and Sojourner Truth
escaped/free slaves, respectively : eloquent lecturers against slavery, mobs attacked abolitionists.
James Birney and the Liberty Party
1840 : Garrison’s opponents ran Birney for president, opposed slavery. Garrison rejected all laws/governments.
Angelina and Sarah Grimke
went on an antislavery lecture tour of New England, drew mixed audiences when women shouldn’t speak before men. Grimkes took up women’s rights (wrote Letters on the Condition of Women and the Equality of the Sexes and Letters to Catharine E. Beecher) Garrison supported women’s rights, split American Anti-Slavery Society into two parts (American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society).
John Quincy Adams and the “gag rule”
automatically tabled abolitionist petitions, prevented discussion of them in Congress. Adams led struggle against gag rule, secured repeal in 1845.
Seneca Falls Convention
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized women’s rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York : Declaration of Sentiments. 12 resolutions, only one (right of women to vote) didn’t pass unanimously.
Penitentiaries and Asylums
reform efforts established highly regimented institutions. Research concluded that deviant behavior resulted from drunken fathers and broken homes. Americans thought moral qualities could be changed : created substitutes for discipline. Penitentiaries : prisons with order and discipline. Built almshouses and workhouses for the poor instead of giving them relief in a household.
Dorothea Dix
schoolteacher taught Sunday school in a jail, noticed insane people didn’t have heating. Encouraged legislatures to build insane asylums. Supported idea that deviancy could be erased by putting deviants in the right environment.
Utopian Communities
belief that individuals could live perfectly : founded by intellectuals. Robert Owen founded New Harmony in Indiana, thought problem of early industrial age was social. Key to perfecting social arrangements : creation of small, planned communities.
religious philosophers that lived in/visited Brook Farm, near Boston.
Nat Turner’s Rebellion
August 1831, slave insurrection led by Nat Turner, killed all whites they saw. 55 whites were killed before Turner was hanged
Debate in VA over Slavery (1831-1832)
Opponents of slavery thought it ruined everything. Narrow defeat of emancipationists due to malapportioned state legislature in favor of slaveholders, led to formation of the Old South. Underscored divisions in VA and the South : yeomen were the majority (didn’t have slaves). Southern opposition to slavery weakened.
Pros for Cotton
Lower South suited to cultivation (warm climate, wet springs/summers, dry autumns), did not require irrigation canals/machinery, there were commercial gins. Did not require slaves, compatible with growing corn. In demand by Britain/New England.
Agriculture of Upper South
hemp, tobacco, wheat, vegetables
North vs. South – Economics
North urbanized, South remained rural (little industry compared to North). Some big businesses (textile mills, lumber mills, gristmills, factory shop) : Graniteville was a company town. South – Slaves widely employed in factories, grew independent. White laborers also employed in factories. Would have to sell slaves to compensate for industrialization, no incentive.
North vs. South
Education : South did not provide much for education, rejected compulsory education, didn’t want to tax property to support education. Didn’t want slaves educated, most education for whites was private. Illiteracy was high, enthusiasm depended on price of cotton, low population density made public schools difficult, promoted by Midwestern states.
Social Groups of the White South
slaveholders and non-slaveholders. Some slaveholders had estates, big homes, and slaves; most lived modestly.1/4 of families owned slaves. Large slaveholders were a minority within a minority. Non-slaveholders : landowners whose farms drew on the labor of family, or squatters that raised livestock, hunted, and planted. Planters, small slaveholders, yeomen, people of the pine barrens. Rural artists/merchants associated with yeomen, slave traders turned to planters.
Plantation Life
high degree of division of labor, slaves split into domestic staff, pasture staff, outdoor artisans, indoor artisans, field hands. Liked stately mansions : most planters relied on value of slaves instead of expensive materials. Worried about profitability : constantly searched for better land, organized slaves into work gangs, make plantations self-sufficient in food. Moving disrupted relationships with friends/family. Women fell from grace : spent time in cities, left management of plantation to overseers
Small Slaveholders
Farmers, lawyers, physicians, merchants, artisans. Upland : absorbed yeoman thoughts. Low country/delta : aspired to be planters, restless. Small slaveholders usually younger than planters, segregation of small slaveholders from planters : led push into cotton belt. Land bought by planters, they moved elsewhere.
The Yeomen
Non-slaveholding family farmers, hired slaves at harvest to help. Most were subsistence farmers, some grew crops for market. 50-200 acres of land, lived in piedmont of Georgia, SC, NC, and VA, or hilly upcountry of Southwest. Wanted to be self-sufficient : planted corn, sweet potatoes, oats. Upland areas : respected, low country/delta : white trash
Whig and Democratic Parties
planters/urban commercial allies tended to be Whigs (pro-banking/economic development). Yeomen were Democrats (self-sufficiency). Political unity. Political structure : no one group could be completely dominant.
The Proslavery Argument
Defenses of slavery in Bible, ancient/progressive institution, “wage slaves” vs. black slaves; suppressed discussion of slavery. Christian clergy thought slavery was compatible with Christianity, necessary for Christian religion.
Southern Code of Honor
honor : sensitivity to one’s reputation. Must remain cool, bide time, settle on a choice of weapons, agree to a meeting place. Negotiations between friends of the parties tried to clear up with misunderstanding. Gentlemen did not duel people below them.
Evangelical Churches
stressed humility and self-restraint : thought they were uncouth fanatics, but then colleges and pious women convinced the rest of the South that they were not illiterate backwoods people. Didn’t attack honor, but was against dueling, brawling, intemperance, gambling, revenge, ambition, and pride.
Characteristics of the 1830 typical North American Slave
likely to be female as male, born in America, spoke a form of English to communicate with other slaves, and worked with other slaves on a plantation. Easier to find mates.
Typical Day of a Slave
hour before sunrise : sparse breakfast, went to fields, then worked side by side in the fields or performed other tasks from dawn to dusk. Brought cotton bales to the ginhouse, gathered wood, fed mules. Slept in log cabins on wooden plants. Long hours : slave field hands had to do a lot of work, were often beaten. Minority of slaves could advance to indoor chores : disdained field hands and poor whites.
The Slave Family
thought slaves were naturally promiscuous, encouraged slave marriages to bring new slaves into the world. Slavery was a challenge to the family : some didn’t want to break slave marriages by sale, others had to watch their family be sold. Buying/selling disrupted family life, married slave women were not protected from sexual demands of a master or a white. Slave women who worked in the fields were separated from children. Intimate, long-lasting if possible. Invested non-kin with familial relationships.
Health of American Slaves
Reproduced faster and lived longer than slaves elsewhere. Gender ratio equalized more rapidly in North America. South produced lots of food, slaves were also more immune to malaria and yellow fever, but suffered from dysentery, cholera, and diarrhea. Infant mortality was high. Pregnant field hands often suffered miscarriages or weakened infants.
Slaves off Plantations
laborers, artisans : became rather skilled. Easier to work in skilled occupations in southern cities than in northern cities. Weren’t owned by employers, but were hired out by rural masters. White supervisors wanted to keep decent work conditions for slaves.
Free Blacks
more likely to live in cities, could be carpenters, barrelmakers, barbers, small traders. Formed fraternal orders and churches, literary journals, opera. Vulnerable in southern society : fewer southern whites set them free after 1810. After Nat Turner, liberties of free blacks were tightened (couldn’t learn to read/write, free blacks couldn’t be in southern states). Tolerated in New Orleans, most lived in rural areas.
Gabriel Prosser
VA slave, planned uprising in 1800, but was betrayed by other slaves (he and followers were executed).
Denmark Vesey
won 15 hundred dollars and bought freedom. Bought carpentry shop, became preacher, devised a plan to attack Charleston and seize city’s arms and ammunition, but he and his followers were betrayed and killed.
Frederick Douglass
borrowed sailor’s papers, escaped from Baltimore to NC in 1838. black abolitionist
Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad
organized network of safe houses owned by white abolitionists who helped blacks to freedom.
Religion of Slaves
Africa had rich and diverse religious customs/beliefs. When transported, they were worshipers of African religions. Some continued to cling to these beliefs, many found similarities in Christianity and decided to follow that. Quarter of Methodist/Baptist denomination : thought Christianized slave would rebel. Thought it was a religion of liberation from oppression, but didn’t turn them into revolutionaries or model slaves.
Black Music and Dance
hand clapping (patting juba), couldn’t own drums, horns, or loud instruments. Played banjo and beat tin buckets : tied to bodily movement. Shuffling steps, bodily contortions, mocked the minuet. Masters encouraged singing (thought it would make them work harder). Slaves also sang spirituals (religious songs), sang hymns when whites were around.
Immigrants Between 1815-1860
Amount : 5 million European immigrants, ¾ of foreign-born Americans were Irish/German by 1860 Origin : Ireland, Germany, England, Scotland, Wales, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, Holland Reasons for Immigration : wanted religious freedom (Quakers), better economic condition (were mistaken : hard to start farms, lacked community, most farmers were isolated)
Reasons Immigrants Concentrated in Cities
Irish – their ships landed in cities, few had capital for farms, could find jobs more easily. Germans : didn’t want to live in the South because of slavery, lived in upper Mississippi/Ohio valleys. Immigrants less likely to take up farming in America, cities had community life.
The Germans
Diverse, thought of themselves as Bavarians, Westphalians, or Saxons. Had Catholics, Protestants (Lutherans), Jewish, and atheists. Most had been farmers, minority were professionals, artisans, tradespeople. Spoke same language : tended to congregate in German neighborhoods. Economic self-sufficiency, most Americans disliked their economic success.
The Irish
1815s : mid-1820s – Protestants, small landowners, tradespeople. Mid-1820s : mid-1840s : Catholics from poorer classes. 1815-1844 : 800,000 to a million immigrants. 1845 : early 1850s : Potato famine : 1.8 million migrated to United States in decade after 1845. More than half of Irish immigrants were women, most were employed, married late or not at all, became self-supporting. Irish disliked blacks and abolitionists : economic competition.
Hostility of native-born whites towards Irish. Destroyed Catholic convent, thought they wanted to destroy republic institutions or dominate a region. Nativists : anti-immigrant, formed societies that were usually secret, but became political. Occurred in flare-ups over issues, then died down, ran on fear and discontent. Protestants thought they were more democratic, also though Catholics threatened their jobs.
National Reform Association
George Henry Evans wanted to establish “rural republican townships”. Land reformers said interests couldn’t be reconciled with an industrial order (abandoned self-sufficiency), bad working conditions also couldn’t be fixed with economic dependency
Commonwealth v. Hunt (1842)
labor unions were not illegal monopolies that restrained trade.
Know-Nothing Party
started as Order of the Star-Spangled Banner, gained political power.
Immigrants Likely to Support Democrats?
Irish and Germans : worried about staying financially afloat (Jackson made Democrats seem anti-aristocratic). Anti-slavery was not expressed as much, thought Whigs threatened religious/moral values (i.e. public education, temperance)
Transcontinental (Adams-Onis) Treaty of 1819
gave up claims to Texas west of the Sabine River to Spain : Spain had Texas, CA, New Mexico. Spain ceded claims of Oregon north of the 42nd parallel.
Areas Claimed by Mexico after Independence
all North American territory of Spain
Far Western Trade
with CA and Oregon. Traded things manufactured in the US for furs. Cattle hides : California banknotes. Hispanics born in CA (califonios) were eager to buy; Americans that moved out west were assimilated into Mexican culture. Midwest traded with Mexico, CA trade was fine with Mexico. St. Louis beaver traders wrestled control from traders in Santa Fe. Mexicans depended on Americans for manufactured goods, officials relied on customs duties to support gov.
Spanish Missions
combined political, economic, religious goals, key instrument of Spanish expansion on frontier. Spain’s system of missions declined in late 1820s/1830s after Mexicans won independence, Mexico secularized missions (distributed lands to ambitious gov. officials/private ranchers). Indians terrorized frontier
Reasons why Southern Farmers Went to Texas
searched for land for cotton cultivation, Mexican gov. encouraged American settlement to bring in manufactured goods and for protection against Indians. Americans distrusted Mexican judicial system, lived in eastern part of Texas (Mexicans in west).
Gov. gave land grants to agents who brought Americans into Texas
Stephen F. Austin
led Mexican forces to crush American revolt against Mexican rule by Haden Edwards. Secured repeal of prohibition of immigration of Americans, took moderate position on rebellions. Wanted to restore Mexican Constitution of 1824 and secure greater autonomy for Texas. Santa Anna invaded Texas : Austin supported radicals for Texas’s independence
Santa Anna
Mexican president, ousted liberals from gov. and restricted power of regimes in Coahuila-Texas and other Mexican states.
The Alamo
200 Texan defenders, abandoned mission. Inflicted 1500 casualties, repelled attacks, and they all died.
Sam Houston
military leader of rebels that declared Texas’s independence, surprised Santa Anna near San Jacinto River, forced Santa Anna to sign a treaty recognizing Texas’s independence
Overland Trail
four-month journey, had to deal with wagons breaking, oxen dying, mule kicking, difficult trails. Underestimated distance across Great Salt Desert.
Donner Party
took so much time following the advice of a book that advised them on how to make the journey that they were snow-bound in the High Sierra and reached CA after turning to cannibalism.
Whig Plans
wanted to stimulate economic recovery, repeal Independent Treasury, substituting in a “fiscal agent”. Revenue tariff (incidental protection for American industries, low enough to allow most foreign products to enter US).
John Tyler
vetoed all of the Whigs’ plans, favored states’ rights. Passed bill keeping tariffs above 20% – satisfied northerners, angered southerners/westerners. Whigs lost control of the House, kept the Senate. Launched campaign to annex Texas, said British would pressure Mexico to recognize Texas’s independence in exchange for the abolition of slavery there.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
settled dispute over boundary between Maine and New Brunswick (Canada). Gave over half of the disputed territory to the US : favored by North.
James “Young Hickory” Polk
Tennessee, followed Jackson’s actions. Held some hope for protective tariffs, convinced northerners that annexation of Texas would advance their interests.
Election of 1844
Clay vs. Poly : Whig defections to Liberty party and immigrant vote hurt Clay. Polk lost popular vote (even in own state). Annexation of Texas had more national support than previously thought.
Manifest Destiny
America’s natural destiny was to expand to the Pacific Ocean. Supporters used lofty language and invoked God and Nature to sanction expansion. Democrats supported manifest destiny, Whigs dismissed it as concealing evil intent of expanding slavery. Wanted Oregon/CA, profitable trade routes, safeguarding democracy, preserve agriculture. Democrats thought acquisition of new territory went along with low tariffs and opposition to centralized banking.
U.S. Acquisition of Oregon
Division of Oregon at the 49th parallel, Polk secured from Congress the termination of joint British-American occupation, gave British 1 year’s notice. British got Vancouver Island and navigation rights on the Columbus River, Oregon was split at the 49th parallel.
Annexation of Texas
February 1845 : Congress passed resolution to annex Texas. Texans were uncertain : thought it would provoke invasion. Polk supported their claim to Rio Grande as the southern boundary of Texas (would give much more territory than the part of Texas that had declared independence already), Texas agreed to annexation. Ordered Zachary Taylor to sit at disputed territory at Corpus Christi. Slidell was sent to negotiate with Mexico, but Herrera’s government was too weak, refused to receive Slidell. Polk ordered Taylor to march south to the north bank of the Rio Grande, were attacked by Mexicans. Polk assumed they were already at war, angered Congress (undermining their power to declare war, hadn’t occurred in previously established American territory). Whigs didn’t want to be unpatriotic, backed appropriations for war against Mexico.
Battles of the Mexican-American War
Taylor won two battles north of the Rio Grande, defeated them at Matamoros and captured Monterrey in September. Decided not to attack them for eight weeks, Polk stripped Taylor of half his men and gave them to Winfield Scott, ordering him to make an amphibious assault on Vera Cruz and proceed to Mexico City. Battle of Buena Vista : Taylor held his ground against 20,000 of Santa Anna’s men. Stephen Kearny marched army to Santa Fe, took New Mexico territory without firing a shot. Fremont, Sloat, Kearny, and Stockton declared American control over California. Mexico City : Winfield Scott landed near Vera Cruz, pounded city into submission. Stormed pass of Cerro Gordo, routed Mexicans, took city.
Treaty of Guadaloupe-Hidalgo
ceded Texas with Rio Grande border, New Mexico, and CA to the US. Assumed claims of American citizens against Mexican gov, paid Mexico 15 million.
Zachary Taylor
became military hero, boosted political career, military genius, compared to Napoleon, democratic bearing and ordinary manner = common man
Sectional Divisions
Whigs disliked independent treasury that Polk reinstated, pursued Jacksonian policies on tariffs/internal improvements (split party). Vetoed Rivers and Harbors Bill of 1846, disappointed western Democrats. Northerners came to see slavery in territories as a disruptive issue, abolitionists disapproved of slavery in territories.
Wilmot Proviso
Democrats split over slavery issue in the territories : David Wilmot was spokesman for those against slavery. Stipulated that slavery be prohibited in any territory acquired by the negotiations, passed in House, stopped in Senate.
Election of 1848
Whigs (Taylor : Louisianian, slaveholder, war hero), Democrats (Louis Cass : Michigan, popular sovereignty, said slavery should be left to settlers in the territories. Was vague, people didn’t know what he meant, added to appeal, since they could interpret it however they wanted)
did better than expected in the election, opposed any extension of slavery
California Gold Rush
American carpenter found gold while making a sawmill. Builders made clipper ships that set records for speed to San Francisco, many traveled overland. Whites wanted to drive Mexicans, free blacks, and slaves away from the gold fields
Free-Soil Doctrine
belief that Congress had to prohibit slavery in all territories. Seward, Lincoln defined slavery/freedom conflict as national. Relied on image of free individuals working to achieve economic self-sufficiency as farmers, artisans, and shopkeepers.
Southern/Northern Conflict
extending Missouri Compromise line, free-soil policy, and popular sovereignty created conflict. Deseret and California applied to be free states, Texas (slave state) claimed undefined land. Northerners denounced slavery/slave trade in DC, South complained about the ignoring of the Fugitive Slave Act.
Popular (Squatter) Sovereignty
allowed each territory to decide whether it would be free/slave for itself, offered greatest hope for compromise
Zachary Taylor
elected in 1848, no platform. Thought southerners would protect slavery if they didn’t rekindle the issue of slavery in the territories, didn’t believe expansion of slavery into the territories was the only way to protect it. Wanted to exclude slavery from CA and New Mexico : left decisions up to the states (both of whom were against slavery). South agreed that states could bar/permit slavery, gave North 2 free states. Southerners questioned assumption that slavery would never occur in CA/New Mexico.
Compromise of 1850
Taylor didn’t have secure position in Whig party (didn’t reconcile with Webster/Clay). Clay proposed 1) admission of CA as a free state, 2) division of remainder of the Mexican cession into two territories (New Mexico/Utah) without fed. restrictions on slavery, 3) settlement of Texas-New Mexico boundary dispute on terms favorable to New Mexico, 4) fed. gov. would assume the public debt of Texas, 5) slavery would continue in DC but the slave trade would end, 6) more effective fugitive-slave law.
Effects of the Compromise
Seward said that God was against slavery. Clay’s compromise was stuck in a congressional committee. Clay broke with Taylor openly, Taylor attacked Clay as glory-hunter. Nashville Convention : fire-eaters (advocates of southern rights) spoke, people thought they were trying to disrupt the Union. 9/15 slave states sent delegates, moderates took over. Douglas replaced Clay as floor leadership, split big bill into smaller parts, Congress passed all of them. Left open question of whether Congress could prohibit slavery in territories outside of the Mexican cession. Unionists criticized anti-compromise candidates, didn’t dismiss possibility of secession.
Millard Fillmore
Taylor’s VP, took over after Taylor died of gastroenteritis. Appointed Webster as sec. of state. Thought the compromise was a final settlement of sectional divisions.
Fugitive Slave Act of 1850
denied alleged fugitives right of trial by jury, didn’t allow them to testify in their own behalf, permitted return to slavery on testimony of the claimant, enabled court-appointed commissioners to collect $10 if they ruled for the slaveholders, $5 if ruled for the fugitive. Allowed Southerners to hunt those who had run away decades before. Boston mob broke into a courthouse and killed a guard to rescue Anthony Burns. Vigilance committees appeared to help blacks to safety in Canada. Lawyers stretched out trials to increase amount South would have to pay, passed personal-liberty laws to bar state officials from enforcing the law.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852, caused sympathy for slaves. Targeted slavery : good intentions can’t prevail against an evil institution. 300000 copies sold in 1842, 1.2 million by summer of 1853. Stereotyped blacks (light-skinned were aggressive/intelligent, dark-skinned were docile), some plots were changed, but anti-slavery message was the same.
Election of 1852
Whigs nominated Winfield Scott (widened sectional split in party, owed nomination to northern votes, influenced by Free Soilers, weakly endorsed Compromise of 1850) Democrats were split (Van Buren and defectors formed Free-Soil party, which gained 10% of the popular vote. Split between Cass, Buchanan, and Douglas, ended with nomination of Franklin Pierce. Supported Compromise and idea of applying popular sovereignty to all territories). Pierce won, Whigs devastated in state elections in the South : breaking up of party.
Franklin Pierce
last presidential candidate to win popular/electoral vote in both North and South for 80 years. Also last president to hold office under the Whig/Democrat system. Whig party disintegrated : split into American (Know-Nothing) party, then became Republican party.
Republican Party
sectional, northern party supported by former northern Whigs and discontented northern Democrats. Other conflicts faded into background. Whigs more vulnerable to disruption than Democrats due to more aggressive free-soil wing. Democrats knew southern Whigs supported Douglas and that the northern Whigs were divided : repelled them from affiliation, many anti-slavery Whigs looked for another party. Republican party was the home for most of them by 1856.
Stephen Douglass/Kansas-Nebraska Act
proposed that Nebraska territory should have no restrictions on slavery : 1854. Wanted a Pacific railroad : national benefits of rail from anywhere in Midwest to Pacific. Southerners wanted the railroad to start in New Orleans/Memphis. Nebraska was north of the Missouri Compromise line : closed to slavery. Assumed that Compromise of 1850 overrode the Missouri Compromise everywhere, Southerners forced him to say that the Nebraska bill voided the Missouri Compromise, and to divide Nebraska into two : Nebraska and Kansas.
Surge of Free Soil
racists, passed laws prohibiting settlement by black people/voting. Slavery impeded white’s progress, rejected idea that slavery had natural limits. Thought Southerners were conspiring to expand slavery
Gadsden Purchase
purchase of land south of Gila River (Arizona and part of southern New Mexico), opposed by the North, had to slash 9000 miles from the purchase. Wanted to seize Cuba from Spain : Quitman planned filibustering military expedition. Northerners thought he wanted the land for slavery : Pierce was alarmed that Spain was ready to defend the island with military force, scrapped the expedition.
Ostend Manifesto
called upon US to acquire Cuba by any necessary means, including force, Pierce rejected the manifesto. Southern expansionists wanted to get Cuba and parts of Mexico, most southerners didn’t support idea of southward expansion. Whig sugar planters thought that Cuba’s sugar would enter the US duty free and compete with American sugar.
Nativist organization : Order of the Star-Spangled Banner. Wanted to rid US of immigrant/Catholic political influence by pressuring existing parties to nominate/appoint only Protestants to office, extend naturalization period for immigrants to vote. Usually voted Whig, stopped when Scott campaigned. Disappeared after 1856 : vulnerable to sectional conflicts over slavery. Northern force, also had southerners (accepted Kansas-Nebraska Act as part of the platform, disgusted anti-slavery northerners)
Origins of the Republican Party
Northern states : main opposition to Democrats, won elections from 1860-1880. Conservatives wanted to restore Missouri Compromise, some wanted abolition, others were free-soilers. Had to build organizations on state level. Needed people to be more concerned about slavery than temperance or Catholicism.
Bleeding Kansas
Boston-based abolitionists sent antislavery settlers into Kansas to stop efforts to turn it into a slave state. March 1855 : proslavery Missourians crossed into Kansas to vote for the first election for a legislature : fraud. Legislature expelled antislavery members, limited officeholding to individuals who swore allegiance to slavery, punished harboring of fugitive slaves by 10 years’ imprisonment, and made circulation of abolitionist literature a capital offense. Free-staters organized rival gov. at Topeka. Proslavery supporters burned buildings and destroyed two free-state printing presses : no casualties. Pierce denounced Topeka gov, recognized Lecompton.
Charles Sumner
gave “The Crime Against Kansas” : whipped US Senate for complicity in slavery, picked on Andrew Butler.
Preston Brooks – (Democratic representative) of SC, related to Butler, beat Sumner with his cane.
John Brown’s Raid in Kansas
went to Pottawatomie Creek, shot man associated with Lecompton gov., hacked other four to death with broadswords.
Election of 1856
Republicans nominated Fremont (helped conquer CA), northern Know-Nothings endorsed Fremont. Southern Know-Nothings picked Millard Fillmore, Democrats nominated James Buchanan. Fremont v. Buchanan in free states, Fillmore v. Buchanan in slave states. Fremont : congressional prohibition of slavery in territories. Fillmore : Whig voters, moderation in face of secessionist threats. 1) Know-Nothings dissolved : Northerners joined Republicans, Southerners found other affiliations. 2) Republican party did well even though they only existed for a year, had no base in the South, and ran a novice. 3) Democrats hard to defeat if united behind one candidate (national).
James Buchanan
moderate, pledged non-interference of slavery in territories. Only national candidate in the race, won the election. Disapproved of slavery, denounced secession, but said he couldn’t do anything about it.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
slave had been taken from the slave state Missouri into Illinois/Wisconsin Territory (closed to slavery). Sued for freedom on grounds of residence in free territory after master’s death, jury sided with Scott and set him free. Appeal : Missouri Supreme Court overturned decision. Scott sued in federal courts
Roger B. Taney
Andrew Jackson appointed him to replace Marshall : slave could not sue for freedom. No black could become a citizen of the US. Residence in free territory did not make him free because the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional (violated fifth amendment).
Lecompton Constitution
Election for constitutional convention took place, majority of free-staters boycotted because they thought it would be a fraud again. Proslavery delegates wrote a constitution that protected rights of slaveholders already in Kansas to their slave property, provided for referendum that voters could decide whether to allow in more slaves. Buchanan endorsed constitution : most of his votes came from the South (supported constitution), other territories would probably become free states. Douglas disapproved that the constitution couldn’t be voted against. Election for territorial legislature : fraud, governor gave free-staters majority in the legislature : referendum called on the constitution. December 1857 : referendum by constitutional convention : free-staters boycotted, Constitution was passed. Election by territorial legislature : proslavery abstained, Constitution went down.
Abraham Lincoln
odd occupations -> law and politics in Illinois. Pro-internal improvements : Whig. Opposed Mexican War/Kansas-Nebraska Act : Republican. Gave House Divided speech.
Stephen A. Douglas
appealed to small farmers of southern origin, author Nebraska-Kansas Act, Republicans supported his denouncement of the Lecompton constitution. Thought house divided invited secession.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
proposed by Lincoln, 7 debates in 1858, wanted public recognition. Douglas portrayed Lincoln as abolitionist/advocate of racial equality. Lincoln said Congress had no constitutional authority to abolish slavery in the South, asked Douglass about Dred Scott decision and whether people of a territory could lawfully exclude slavery. Douglass said popular sovereignty could still exist if territories didn’t enact laws that gave legal protection to slave property. Freeport doctrine alienated South. Lincoln rejected abolition/equality for blacks. Douglass won senatorial position, Republicans won small majority of popular vote, solidified sectional split in Democratic party, boosted Lincoln’s popularity (famous in North, infamous in South)
John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry
1859, raided fed. arsenal, wanted to ignite massive slave uprising in South. Didn’t inform slaves of plans, failed to provide men with food. Caught by Robert E. Lee and hanged on December 2nd. Had ties with northern abolitionists : moral and financial support. Republicans denounced raid, South thought it was because he failed. Rumors about slave plots to destroy region. Imaginary battle conspiracies, whipped slaves into admitting non-existent plots, fire-eaters encouraged witch hunt by spreading slave conspiracies in the press. South thought abolitionists were agents of the Republicans.
The South Contemplates Secession
1850 : didn’t think secession was possible. Events made them think North had deserted the principles of the Union (resistance to Fugitive Slave Act/Kansas slavery was unconstitutional). John Brown’s raid made people think that the Union was going to break. Southerners thought Northerners were treating them like slaves
Panic of 1857
broke decade of economic prosperity. Republicans developed economic program for protective tariff, federal aid for internal improvements, granting of free 170-acre homesteads.
The Election of 1860
Economic program to complement free soil. Nominated Lincoln, because Seward couldn’t convince them that he could carry PA, Illinois, Indiana, and NJ. Seward : radical regarding slavery. Southerners thought Supreme Court should safeguard slavery in any territory : took Dred Scott over popular sovereignty. Davis Resolutions : actively protected territorial slavery, embarrassed Douglas democrats. Lower South delegates left Charleston convention in 1860, went to Baltimore : seating hastily-elected, pro-Douglas slates of delegates. They agreed to : upper South delegates walked out. Remaining delegates nominated Douglas, others nominated Breckinridge. Moderates (former Whigs with the Know-Nothings) ran John Bell.
Jefferson Davis and the Confederate States of America
Lincoln won election, SC convention voted unanimously for secession on December 20, 1860, followed by Alabama, Mississippi, FA, GA, Louisiana, and Texas. February 4 : met in Alabama, established Confederate States of America. Davis was a reluctant secessionist : remained in Senate 2 weeks after his state seceded. Upper South rejected secession (depended on economic ties to the North, also had fewer slaves). Secession movement seemed to be falling apart by March 1861.
Crittenden Compromise
compensation of owners of runaway slaves, repeal of North’s personal-liberty laws, constitutional amendment to prohibit gov. from interfering with slavery in Southern states, amendment to restore Missouri Compromise and ensure fed. protection of slavery south of the line. Republicans opposed it. Lincoln thought southerners would overturn secession, but loyalty to the Union was conditional. Thought Cuba would become a condition to keep the South in the Union.
Fort Sumter
Charleston, SC. Seward (sec of state) advised evacuation of fed. forces, provoking war with France and Spain. Lincoln sent provisions but not men or ammunition. Confederates bombarded fort on April 12, fort surrendered. Lincoln called for men to crush the rebellion : VA, NC, Arkansas, and Tennessee joined Confederacy. Robert E. Lee resigned from army, North was ready to fight to punish secession.
The Conscription Act
(April 1862) able-bodied white males aged 18-35 would be required to serve in the military for 3 years (amended to become 17-45, then 17-50), not supported by South (assault on state sovereignty, exemption towards many occupations). Loophole let wealthy purchase substitutes.
Second Conscription Act
(1864) required all soldiers then in the army to stay in it for the entire war.
20-Negro Law
exempted an owner/overseer of twenty or more slaves from service (rich man’s war, poor man’s fight). Stimulated volunteering : harder to escape draft, 1/5 was drafted, 4/5 eligible white Southerners served in the war.
Supplying the Confederate Army
didn’t have facilities to produce arms/ammunition : relied on imports from Europe, weapons confiscations from arsenals in the South, guns captured during battle. 1862 : head of ordinance : Josiah Gorgas. Unsuccessful in providing troops with food/clothing : many didn’t have shoes, ran out of food but not ammo. Railroads were captured/broken, economy relied more on tobacco than food, Union invaded livestock/grain-raising districts.
Impressment Act of 1963
army officers could seize food from farmers at prescribed prices, also allowed them to force slaves into labor for the army.
Supplying the Union Army
could supply arms, clothes, and food more easily than the South.
Enrollment Act of March 1863
able-bodied white male citizens aged 20-45 eligible for drafting into the Union army : exempted high government officials, ministers, and men who solely supported widows, orphans, and indigent parents. Allowed substitution and commutation (paying $300 to the gov). Divided states into enrollment districts and made them meet quotas : hard to enforce, chaotic. Districts competed for volunteers by offering cash payments (bounties), “bounty jumpers” collected payment and deserted repeatedly. Stimulated volunteering, Democrats thought it violated personal/states’ rights.
Financing the War
both sides reluctant to impose taxes, South enacted a small property tax, North enacted an income tax, neither raised much revenue. Used war bonds : Southerners bought $15 million bond issue, Northerners (led by Jay Cooke) bought $150 million. Printed paper money.
Legal Tender Act
1862 : authorized $150 million greenbacks to be printed, along with $500 million of war bonds purchasable with the paper money. Easier to pay soldiers, to levy/raise taxes, and to sell bonds. Value depended on people’s trust in the government that issued it : North made the paper money legal tender (acceptable in payment for public/private debts), imposed stiff taxes : steady flow of revenue that increased confidence and checked inflation : prices rose 80%.
The South and Paper Money
didn’t make it legal tender, raised suspicion that the government didn’t have confidence in its paper issues. Raised less than 5% of wartime revenue through taxes : enacted comprehensive tax measure in 1863, but Union invasions made it difficult to collect taxes. Ordered farmers to give 10% of their crops to the government, disproportionately collected from farmers near the railroads used by tax collectors. Confidence in paper money dropped, Confederacy printed a billion dollars, accelerated inflation : prices rose 9000%.
National Bank Act : Feb. 1863 : opposed by Democrats, supported by Whigs. Established criteria by which a bank could obtain a federal charter and issue national bank notes : gave private bankers incentive to purchase war bonds (private bank obtained federal charter, could issue bank notes worth up to 90% of the war bonds it held)
Leadership : united, and produced a disproportionate share of strong presidents. Jefferson Davis was a former war secretary and US senator : experienced, honest, and brave
Leadership : loyal but contentious Democrats didn’t support conscription, national banking, or abolition. Lincoln couldn’t command Republicans’ respect : setbacks early in the war influenced many to think he was an ineffective leader.
Radical Republicans
included Secretary of the Treasury Chase, senator Sumner of MA, and representative Stevens from PA, cooperated with Lincoln on some issues. Vocally criticized Lincoln for not making emancipation a war goal and being too eager to readmit the Confederacy to the Union.
Lincoln’s Style of Leadership
private, met criticism with homespun anecdotes that caught opponents off guard : both encouraged and disarmed opposition from Republicans. Communicated with both sides of the party, fragmented opposition : brought opponents into his Cabinet. Believed that central gov’s power needed to be enhanced : Democrats disagreed, but Lincoln was conciliatory.
Davis’s Style of Leadership
made enemies, would rather have led the army than the gov., used sharp tongue to win arguments. Cabinet members frequently resigned (5 secs of war in 4 years), bad relationship with VP (clash of personalities and ideology)
Confederate Constitution
Feb. 1861 : guaranteed sovereignty of states, prohibited Confederate Congress from enacting tariffs/internal improvements. Many thought that the Confederacy existed to defend states’ rights and slavery : Davis wanted independence of the South from the North, overrode governors’ opinions.
Party Politics
South : suspended party rivalries, but encouraged disunity (went along personal/factional lines, Davis couldn’t get enough votes to pass measures he favored through Congress). North : organized opposition to Lincoln unified Republicans : Democrats won five large states during a low point in the war for the Union : Republicans learned that they had to stick behind Lincoln or lose the office.
Securing the Union’s Borders
Lincoln sent troops to defend Washington : Baltimore mob attacked MA regiment heading for DC. Lincoln dispatched federal troops to MD, suspended writ of habeas corpus (federal troops could prosecute Marylanders without formally charging them with specific offenses). Strong Union opinions in western MD, intimidated by Lincoln, MD and Delaware rejected secession. Armed Union sympathizers in Kentucky (slave state, Unionist legislature, secessionist governor), stationed troops under Grant across the Ohio River from Kentucky. Confederate Army invaded in 1862, Grant was dispatched to drive them out : third slave state to declare for the Union. Fourth was Missouri : savage fighting, clashing between Union and Confederacy, but never left Union.
Impact of Keeping the Borders
opened lines to free states, gained access to river systems in Kentucky and Missouri that led to the South. Lincoln’s firmness with MD crushed accusations of him being weak-willed. Taney ruled that Lincoln had exceeded authority by suspending the writ; Lincoln pointed out that he could do so in “Cases of Rebellion”, ignored Taney’s ruling.
Northern Advantages in Battle
population (22 million), 3.5x more able-bodied men, 90% of US industry, and 2/3 of its railroad track (easily sabotaged).
Southern Advantages in Battle
fighting simply to defend (North had to conquer them), could assign more white men to battle, could shift troops short distances without railroads (North had to go long distances), morale (home field)
New Weaponry
submarine, repeating rifle (Springfield/Enfield), Gatling gun. Trenches used more, stopped relying on cavalry, surprise attacks. Battles : volleys, charging, countercharging.
Anaconda Plan
made by Winfield Scott : blockaded Southern coastline (not enough ships), thrust down Mississippi River (splitting Confederacy). Bloodless end to the war : exaggerated Unionist spirit in the South. Union strategy dictated by need to keep border states (Kentucky, Tennessee separated from Richmond strategy)
First Battle of Bull Run
McDowell (Union) vs. Beauregard (South) : Beauregard won (reinforcements, disorganization of Union troops). Lincoln replaced McDowell with McClellan.
George B. McClellan
could turn mob into a disciplined fighting force, disliked by Lincoln (believed simultaneous, coordinated attacks on several fronts were needed to exploit manpower). McClellan wanted to maneuver the South into a bloodless defeat and negotiate peace treaty to readmit the South with slavery. Moved army to tip of peninsula, then moved up to Richmond (water transport reduced vulnerability of supply lines, threatened South’s supply lines, wanted to provoke South to attack army to avoid the siege of Richmond). Hesitated, overestimated South’s troops, didn’t attack without reinforcements. Few northern casualties at Seven Days’ Battles panicked McClellan, Lincoln dismissed him as general.
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
Confederate general, turned back McClellan’s reinforcements in Shenandoah Valley
Robert E. Lee
commanded army of northern VA, against secession, courteous, bold/willing to accept casualties. Attacked McClellan in the Seven Days’ Battles (Confederates slaughtered at Malvern Hill).
Second Battle of Bull Run
Lee/Jackson routed Union army under Pope that had been guarding Washington on the peninsula. Moved to invade western MD, where the harvest could provide him with supplies, and could threaten Washington, relieve pressure on Richmond, improve prospects of peace candidates in the North’s upcoming elections, and induce France/Britain to side with the South.
Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg)
tactical draw, Lee retreated south of Potomac, called off invasion. Lincoln issued Emancipation Proclamation (freed all slaves under rebel control), bloodiest day of the war
Ulysses S. Grant and the Western Fight
retained control of Missouri and Kentucky. Captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, on Tennessee/Cumberland rivers, moved to attack Corinth in Mississippi (railroad junction where troops/supplies were transported from the east to Memphis). Confederate generals Johnston/Beauregard surprised Union army near Shiloh, Union counterattacked with Buell’s reinforcements. Confederacy evacuated Corinth.
William T. Sherman
Grant’s lieutenant
New Orleans
Battle of Shiloh stripped New Orleans’ defenses, Butler/Farragut took city, Baton Rouge, and Natachez in late April. Memphis captured in June. North controlled entire river except for 200 miles.
Trans-Mississippi War
Confederate army from Texas repelled from New Mexico, armies vied to secure Missouri River, Union troops scattered Confederate troops in Arkansas. Indians fought on both sides in Missouri. Indian wars began in Arizona, Nevada, Colorado, and New Mexico.
Naval War
North had 40 active warships, South had none, also could be easily penetrated by river systems. Union failed to blockade coastline (blockade-runners had little chance of capture), North tightened blockade. Seizure of foreign ports shrank South’s foreign trade (captured Port Royal, SC, coast islands off SC, and NC’s river outlets).
Battle of the Merrimac and the Monitor
Union frigate Merrimac was covered with iron plate, renamed Virginia, and attacked wooden Union ships in Hampton Roads, VA. Fought indecisive battle : first battle of ironclads. South made first submarine, also succeeded in raiding merchant marine, but it had no impact because the Union didn’t depend on imports for war materials.
Trent Affair
Confederacy agents Slidell and Mason were sent to Britain, intercepted by Union captain, who brought the men to Boston as prisoners. Lincoln released the two, Britain built two Confederate commerce raiders (Charles Francis Adams threatened war if two ironclads were given to the South, Britain purchased ships for their own navy). Cotton diplomacy failed : excess cotton decreased British need, established trade with Egypt/India in response to threats of Southern embargo. British frequently blockaded, didn’t want to stop Union from doing so, Emancipation Proclamation gained support from England.
Confiscation Act
authorized seizure of all property used in military aid of the rebellion, including slaves (employed by armed services = “captive of war”), nothing actually freed them. Lincoln thought South had no basis for rebellion : hence, their property was still protected. Union had four slave states with proslavery Democrats, but support for emancipation grew (military advantage, Radical Republicans)
Second Confiscation Act
authorized seizure of property of all persons in rebellion and stipulated that slaves who came within Union lines would be free. Authorized president to employ blacks as soldiers.
Emancipation Proclamation
Preliminary – declared all slaves under rebel control free as of January 1, 1863 : gave slave states an opportunity to return to the Union and keep slavery. Final Emancipation Proclamation declared all slaves in areas of rebellion eternally free. Exempted Union slave states, parts of Confederacy in Union hands. Pacified Northern conservatives (military action) : stole initiative from Radical Republicans, mobilized Union support from Europe. Pushed border states towards emancipation (MD and Missouri would abolish slavery before the end of the war)
Freedman – served as cooks, teamsters, and laborers. Some worked for pay on abandoned plantations or were leased to planters loyal to the Union and who paid them. Encountered prejudice, didn’t earn much after deductions, and there were long labor periods. Some served as spies/scouts
broke down bigotry.
Freedmen’s Bureau
responsible for relief, education, and employment of former slaves : 40 acres of abandoned/confiscated land could be leased to freemen or southern Unionists with an option to buy after 3 years.
Black Soldiers in the Army
large-scale enlistment began after Emancipation Proclamation : drafts included blacks, recruiting offices were in border states, and freedmen enlisted in refugee camps. 186000 blacks had served in the Civil War (1/10 of all soldiers, 50% from Confederate states). Higher mortality rate than white troops (less KIA, but more died from disease), Confederacy didn’t treat captured black soldiers as prisoners of war (either re-enslaved or executed) Unequal pay equalized in 1864.
Slavery in Wartime
tightened slave patrols, moved plantations to Texas (safe), spread scare stories. Some were faithful to their owners and hid family belongings from Union soldiers : most chose freedom. Majority had no escape, no general uprisings by blacks, Confederate forces used slave labor. Wartime conditions weakened productivity : slaves refused to work, worked inefficiently, destroyed property. Confederate Congress armed 300000 slave soldiers : no mention of emancipation : damaged southern morale
Battle of Gettysburg
Lee moved troops towards southern PA : July 1863, Lee attacked Union flanks with some success. Uncoordinated, southern generals disregarded orders, Union moved in reinforcements and regained former losses. Lee attacked center of North’s defensive line, cannon missed, 1/3 of army and 15 generals were lost.
Battle of Vicksburg
Grant moved troops west of the city and down to a point on the river south of Vicksburg. Union gunboats/supply ships transported army to the east bank. Grant swung northeast in a semicircle to capture Jackson (Mississippi’s capital), then had a six-week siege of Vicksburg, which surrendered. Port Hudson also fell to Union : controlled the whole river.
Battle of Chickamauga
Rosecrans maneuvered Bragg’s (Confederate) army out of Tennessee and into Chattanooga, forced Bragg to evacuate Chattanooga. Bragg defeated Rosecrans, Grant arrived with reinforcements, broke Bragg’s siege. Union could strike Georgia.
War’s Economic Impact on the North
shoe industry/cotton textile industry failed, industries that manufactured arms/clothing benefited from government contracts. Government built United States Military Railroads : upped tariffs twice, passed Pacific Railroad Act of 1862 (transcontinental railroad from Omaha to San Francisco), greenbacks/national banking unified financial system. Northern manufacturers upped prices, excise taxes/inflation pushed taxes up. Wages were 20% behind cost increases : some gathered to protest.
Homestead Act
granted 160 acres of public land to settlers after 5 years of residence on the land, 20000 homesteaders occupied western land by 1865.
Morrill Land Grant Act
1862 : gave states proceeds of public lands to fund the establishment of universities that related to agriculture/mechanic arts. Spurred growth of large state universities in Midwest/West.
War’s Economic Impact on the South
comm output in the South declined 39%, railroads destroyed, cotton bales dropped from 4 million to 300,000. Union occupied food-growing/cotton-producing regions, lost carpenters/blacksmiths, food shortages, severe inflation worsened by agricultural shortages. South continued to grow more cotton than they could market : slave labor still needed, relied on conscription laws, land not used for food production, had to impress food from civilians. Traded with the North (cotton for bacon, salt, blankets, etc).
Dissent in the South
vocal group of states’ rights activists (VP Stephens, governors Vance and Brown) attacked Confederacy as a despotism, Confederacy’s common people saw the war as a slave-owners’ conspiracy.
Dissent in the North
Democrats opposed expansion of central government and emancipation.
Copperheads/”Peace Democrats”
wanted truce and a peace conference, thought administration war policy was going to exterminate the South, spark a social revolution, and make reconciliation impossible. Strongest in the border states, the Midwest, and the northeastern cities (southern farmers in the Ohio Valley, members of urban working class : immigrants)
Lincoln’s Reaction to Dissent
forcefully and hastily put down reactions, quick to impose martial law. Suspended writ of habeas corpus in Maryland, barred it nationwide and allowed arrest of rebels, draft resisters, and anyone who engaged in disloyal practices. Used dissent to rally patriotic fervor against Democrats.
Dorothea Dix was the head of the Union’s nursing corps. Clara Barton would found the American Red Cross, brought bandages to Antietam. Confederacy : Tompkins, Boyd worked in hospitals, spied. Prison camps had bad conditions, prisoner exchange stopped : Andersonville was a death camp (Confederate camp).
War and Women’s Rights
didn’t bring women closer to economic or political equality : lower wages, war volunteers didn’t earn anything, failed to capitalize on rising sentiment for abolition to secure the vote for women. Dickinson volunteered at hospitals and gave public lectures : Republicans wanted her to campaign for them.
Eastern Theater in 1864
Grant became commander of all Union armies (lieutenant general).Battle of the Wilderness : Grant pushed Lee back into the trenches guarding Petersburg/Richmond (couldn’t go to Union rear, cut their supply lines, or surprise the main force). Lee sent soldiers to raid the Shenandoah Valley, Grant sent his own soldiers to devastate the area.
Sherman advanced into Georgia, opposed by Johnston, who retreated to Atlanta and planned to conserve strength for a final defense. Davis was irritated with Johnston, replaced him with Hook, who attacked Sherman’s army and had to evacuate the city (taken on Sept. 2, 1864)
Election of 1864
Radicals nominated Chase, Republicans nominated Lincoln, Copperheads wanted truce and negotiations to settle outstanding issues. Republicans formed National Union party, nominated Andrew Johnson as VP. Democrats nominated McClellan. Lincoln was reelected.
Sherman’s March
Burned Atlanta, sent enough troops to ensure futility of Hood’s Tennessee campaign, then moved towards Savannah, destroying anything that could assist the South in their way. Took Savannah in December 1864, moved to South Carolina, reached its capital (Columbia). Fires and liberated Union prisoners gutted the city, Sherman moved to NC. Union armies took thousands of prisoners in Alabama/Georgia.
Surrender at Appomattox
Grant targeted Petersburg (city south of Richmond where railroads to the capital passed). Sheridan reinforced Grant’s army, smashed through western flank of Petersburg’s defenders at the Battle of Five Forks. Union took Richmond and put up the Union flag, retreating Confederates set the city on fire. Lee headed for Lynchburg (wanted to use rain connections to join Johnston’s army in NC), choked by Grant and Sheridan. April 9 : Lee asked for terms of surrender. Johnston surrendered to Sherman on April 18. Jefferson Davis was captured on May 10. April 14 : Lincoln was assassinated by pro-Confederate actor John Wilkes Booth. Union troops shot him, April 15 : Johnson became president.
Significance of Radical Republicans
supported black suffrage, demanding reconstruction policy, increased support for black male voting rights
Lincoln’s Plan
10% of Southern voters in each state would have to take an oath to the Union and accept emancipation, excluded Confederate government officials, army/naval officers, and military/civil officers that resigned from Congress/U.S. commissions in 1861 (had to apply for presidential pardons, also excluded blacks). Wanted to undermine Confederacy by establishing pro-Union governments, win allegiance of southern Unionists, and build southern Republican party.
Wade-Davis Bill
each former Confederate state would be ruled by a military governor, half of voters in each state had to take an oath, and then delegates could be elected to a state convention that would repeal secession and abolish slavery. Also had to swear an oath saying they had never voluntarily supported secession to become a voter or delegate. Pocket-vetoed by Lincoln.
President Johnson’s Background
amicable towards Radical Republicans, military governor of Tennessee from 1862-1864, strong anti-Confederate stance. Sought destruction of planter aristocracy, didn’t have abolitionist ideals or a variation on racist sentiments. Life-long Democrat.
Johnson’s Plan
Almost all Southerners who took an oath of allegiance would receive a pardon and amnesty, all property but slaves would be restored. Oath takers could elect delegates to state conventions, which would have to proclaim illegality of secession, refuse to pay state debts incurred under the Confederacy, and ratify the thirteenth amendment. Confederate civil/military officers and those with taxable property worth $20,000 or more were excluded.
Black Codes
Freedmen could marry, own property, make contracts, and testify in court against other blacks. Established racial segregation in public places, prohibited racial intermarriage, jury service by blacks, and court testimony by blacks against whites. Economic restrictions preventing former slaves from leaving plantations, indicated what “home rule” would have been like without federal interference.
Freedmen’s Bureau
suspended enforcement of racially discriminatory provisions. Congress voted to reestablish it for three years and give them the ability to run special military courts to settle labor disputes and invalidate labor contracts forced on freedmen by black codes (provided relief, rations, and medical care, built schools, gave blacks jobs on abandoned/confiscated lands, tried to protect their rights as laborers). Vetoed by Johnson, moderate Republicans joined with Radicals.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
passed through a presidential veto, gave blacks citizenship with the same civil rights as other citizens, and gave the government the ability to ensure black rights in court. Congress also enacted Supplementary Freedmen’s Bureau Act across Johnson’s veto.
Fourteenth Amendment
all people born/naturalized in US were citizens of the nation/states, no state could abridge their rights without due process of law or deny them equal protection under the law. Nullified Dred Scott case, guaranteed reduced proportion of representation in Congress, disqualified all prewar officeholders who had supported the Confederacy from state and national office unless Congress removed their disqualification with a 2/3rds vote. Invalidated Johnson’s liberal distributions of amnesties/pardons, repudiated Confederacy debt and maintained federal debt.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
invalidated state governments formed under Lincoln/Johnson plans and all legal decisions made by those governments. Divided ten former Confederate states (aside from Tennessee) into five military districts, each run by a Union general. Voters (blacks and non-disqualified white men) could elect delegates to a state convention that would write a new state constitution granting black suffrage. Eligible voters would ratify the constitution, and elections could be held for state officers. Congress would approve the state constitution, the state legislature would ratify the 14th Amendment, and the amendment became part of the federal Constitution, Congress would readmit the state into the Union.
Johnson’s Impeachment
Tenure of Office Act prohibited president from removing civil officers without Senate consent (could only be fired with Senate’s approval, wanted to stop him from removing secretary of war Stanton). Rider to an Army Appropriations Bill : barred president from issuing military orders except through Ulysses S. Grant, who couldn’t be removed without Senate permission. Johnson suspended Stanton and replaced him with Grant : Senate refused to approve Stanton’s suspension, and Grant vacated the office. Johnson removed Stanton and replaced him with Thomas, Republicans charged him with eleven counts of impeachment. Votes were 35-19 : one short of the number needed for impeachment, future presidents wouldn’t be impeached on political grounds or because 2/3 of Congress disagreed with them.
The Fifteenth Amendment
prohibited denial of suffrage by the states to any citizen on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude : didn’t guarantee black officeholding or prohibit voting restrictions like property requirements or literacy tests.
Progress of Congressional Reconstruction
Johnson regimes dismantled, state constitutional conventions met, voters elected new state governments. A majority of the former Confederate states rejoined the Union, followed by VA, MI, GA, and TX.
The Voting Electorate
Temporarily disenfranchised 10-15% of potential white voters and enfranchised more than 700,000 freedmen. Blacks gained voting majorities in 5 states, provided base for Republican party, also held one in five political offices (served in all southern legislatures), majority in South Carolina.
Carpetbaggers, Scalawags, and Freedmen
Carpetbaggers were Northerners that came South allegedly seeking wealth and power. They wanted to buy land, open factories, build railroads, or enjoy the Southern climate. Scalawags were Southern and were predominantly poor and ignorant, who sought to profit from Republican rule. They supported national banking systems, high protective tariffs, and prosperous planters that had opposed secession. Most were small farmers from NC, GA, AL, and AK who sought to improve their economic position. Freedmen provided 8/10 Republican votes. Sought land, education, civil rights, and political equality.
Reconstruction Critics Undermining Black Suffrage
Challenged eligibility of black legislators, expelled them from office. Contested elections, backed dissident Republican factions, and elected Democratic legislators. Anti-black violence.
Ku Klux Klan
widespread terrorist movement, intimidated black voters. Goals : to suppress black voting, reestablish white supremacy, and topple the Reconstruction governments. Attacked Union League and Freedmen’s Bureau officers and officials, white Republicans, black militia units, economically successful blacks, and black voters.
Enforcement Acts
witnesses to violations were afraid to testify and local juries refused to convict them, protection of black voters failed. Second : federal supervision of southern elections. Third : strengthened sanctions against those who prevented blacks from voting.
Growth of Black Churches
African Methodist Episcopal Church, Negro Baptist churches gained members, fervent and participatory experience. Provided relief, raised funds for schools, and supported Republican policies.
Growth of Black Schools
North paid wages of instructors, sought out literacy. Each southern state had a public school system with separate schools for blacks and whites, but black education remained limited (most schools couldn’t reach large black rural population, only had classes for short seasons).
Obstacles to the Freedmen
segregation on public transit, lacked capital to buy land and equipment needed to work it, whites opposed selling land to blacks, planters wanted a black labor force
landowners subdivided large plantations into farms of 30-50 acres, which they rented to freedmen under annual leases for a share of the crop.1/3 of the white farmers in Mississippi worked as sharecroppers. 80% of land subdivided into tenancies.
Crop Leins
Rural merchants advanced supplies to tenants and sharecroppers on credit. Renters had no property to use as collateral, so merchants secured their loans with an exorbitant lien (claim) on each farmer’s next crop. Soil depletion, land erosion, and agricultural backwardness locked South into a cycle of poverty.
Election of 1868
Grant vs. Seymour (Democrat, opposed reconstruction and paper money). Passive president, plagued by scandals (Gould and Fisk attempted to corner the gold market with Grant’s brother; vice president linked with Credit Mobilier, a fraudulent construction company created to skim off profits of the Union Pacific Railroad, etc), defended subordinates and came to be known for fraud, bribery, and corruption in office. Successful in foreign policy, but unsuccessful in attempts to annex non-adjacent territories (wanted to promote Caribbean trade and provide a haven for persecuted southern blacks).
The Panic of 1873
accelerated industrialization, rapid economic expansion, frantic speculation (took advantage of rising prices, new markets, high tariffs, railroads). 1873 : railroad’s construction costs outran new investments in Cooke’s transcontinental line : largest bank in the nation shut down, followed by smaller firms and the stock market. 18000 businesses collapsed, fed dispute over currency (to stabilize post-war currency, greenbacks would have to be withdrawn, but those dependent on easy credit wanted to keep the greenbacks in circulation)
Election of 1876 and Ending of Reconstruction
Hayes vs. Tilden. Supporting reconstruction became political suicide, Republicans lost majorities in the House and most Southern states. Democrats mobilized grass roots support, used scare tactics and vigilante groups, black suffrage was impeded, ensured stable black labor force. Undecided election : parties unofficially agreed that if Hayes won, he would remove federal troops from South Carolina and Louisiana, and Democrats could gain control of those two states.
Economic growth (stats) between 1860-1900
GNP grew 4% a year. Textile and iron production doubled. Manufacturing workers quadrupled, railroad quintupled. Manufacturing output went from $1.8 billion/year to $13 billion.
5 features of industrialization
Exploitation of coal deposits for cheap energy; Rapid spread of innovation and factories; pressure on firms to compete and lower costs as well as creation of monopolies; constant price level drop; failure of money supply to keep up with productivity resulting in large inflation and little available credit.
changing industrial system
less need for skilled workers, creation on monopolies, store-bought good cheapening, more demand for capital goods, more transportation
how did RR’s raise $/organize companies
To raise money railroads issued stock and received tons of money from gov’t. The organized companies were broken up into geographical units, each with a superintendent .
positives/negatives of RR consolidation
Consolidating railroads did create a far clearer system of lines and routes. However, this did create a few monopolies that all had large debts.
Interstate Commerce Act
Created 5-member Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to oversee railroads going through >1 state.
Andrew Carnegie’s “rags to riches” story
A Scottish immigrant who worked long hours as a child at a textile mill while taking night classes. He then got a job filling in for telegraph operators on break. He was great at it, and did lots of it, learning about the cities inner workings. Became secretary to PA Railroad head, then took over and made the company expand hugely.
Vertical integration
controlling all aspects of manufacturing, from raw materials to finished product
Henry Clay Frick
Partnered with Carnegie to help w/ vertical integration. Became chairman or Carnegie steel. He managed daily things, Carnegie did other philanthropic things. He Sold Carnegie Coke, and Carnegie fired him over a price change.
JP Morgan
Another steel producer. Paid almost $500 mil to merge w/ Carnegie steel. This created first company w/ over $1 bil capital.
John D. Rockefeller
Cleveland merchant. Started “Standard Oil”. Cut all extra costs (like Carnegie) . Standard Oil became huge. (90% of US oil by 1879)
Standard Oil Trust
Legal device that centralized control over various companies using boards of trustees
Horizontal integration
Monopoly essentially, controlling companies in one giant system. No competition.
Sherman Anti-trust Act
Act passed by Cong. In 1890. It outlaws trusts or any other monopoly-like consolidation. Standard Oil was taken to court, but they got away by claiming they’re a big Holding Company (company owning parts of other firms).
US vs. EC Knight Co
Case over fact that 5 companies controlled 90% of US sugar. Court said this was manufacturing, not commerce, so it’s a local issue.
New technology of era
Reliable electricity sources. Improved technology in every industry. Refrigerated rail cars, cigarette rolling machine, sewing machine, telephone, light bulb.
Thomas Edison
Self educated genius. First worked on telegraph, then invented phonograph in 1877, then perfected light bulb in 1879. Gave up his company after legal battles with Westinghouse.
Mass marketing strategies
Easy to remember names, guarantees, slogans, endorsements, various other gimmicks.
Positives/negatives of industrialization-Huge number of underpaid, poor, overworked workers and immigrants. TONS of pollution. However, also cheaper products, lifestyle improving technologies.
Reasons for slow economic development in south
Lack of capital, so impossible to get credit and start anything new. Few banks. Many stuck in agriculture. Gov’t policy designed to help N. industry.
New South Creed
Idea that South is good for industry because it has raw materials and cheap labor.
Impact on African American workers
Recruitment of blacks for labor caused many to move towards cities. Black workers were treated poorly.
Causes of southern industrial “lag”
North determined southern economy. Shipping costs from North industry was high, expensive rail rates, conservative gov’t.
Transition from workshop to factory
Wasn’t a sudden change, but several smaller sudden changes. Started with small local stores. Then larger production warehouses with assembly lines. Factories grew in size and became more mechanical, traditional methods and skilled workers were of lesser importance. Unskilled women and children now work fine.
Characteristics of unskilled laborers
Drifted among cities and industries. Generally last hired and first fired in bad times. Worked for small wages.
Immigrant labor
Hired as poorly treated and poorly paid unskilled workers. Many worked very hard, even Sunday overtime to try and improve their economic situation.
Women in the workplace
Married women tended to remain at home. Many of the poor did work at home to gain more money. Some textile mills sent out work to crowded apartments to be done by women and children. Although few women worked outside the house (13% in 70) most did servant type jobs as a cook, maid, laundress, or cleaning person. When industry jobs grew, many women took them. By 1900, 3x # of women working.
Horatio Alger novels
Told stories of poor rising in society through hard work, and ambition.
reality of “rags to riches”
While Carnegie had one, it was uncommon. There was some chance that people could rise to the top of small companies. People could move to semi skilled positions that paid slightly better. People could move upward within their social class.
National Labor Union
One of two groups that tried to create a huge union and unite all workers from different professions. Did well at first then failed. Had many goals like fixing bank, 8hr work day, immigration reform
Knights of Labor
The other group that did stuff like the NLU. Started as a secret society based on freemasons.
Terrence Powderly
1879 became head of Knights of Labor. Opposed strikes. Welcomed women into Knights.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Result of U.S. Chinese hatred. Banned Chinese immigrants for 10 years
Haymarket Square Riot
protest rally, someone threw a bomb onto the strikers, killing 7 cops. The cops then shot at the protesters and crowd killing 4 strikers. One cause of Knights’ decline
American Federation of Labor
Another big labor group, formed with former Knights members. Focused more on specific work issues, not grand things like Knights did.
Samuel Gompers
Agreed w/ idea of working daily in immediate issues.
Great Strike of 1877
Huge strike. Started with railroad pay cuts, making them mad all over U.S. Almost 2/3 of railroads stopped. After 2 weeks, 100 people had died.
how did government//business respond?
Gov’t sent troops two weeks after it started. Employers tried to prevent this. They made workers sign contracts saying they won’t join a union or strike. Some places hired private police.
Pullman Strike
After a pay cut, Pullman workers joined a railroad union and went on strike.
Eugene Debs, government response
Led the Pullman strike, hoping to show the world the oppression of US workers. Claiming this was “restraint of commerce” troops were sent in and Debs got arrested.
Laissez faire
Idea that gov’t should be “hands off” and never meddle with businesses.
Social Darwinism
Idea that unregulated competition and “survival of the fittest” is best for business.
Henry George
Had idea that when land is purchased, nothing is improved about it, and then resold for a higher value, the change in price of the land should be taxed when it’s sold. Idea became very popular.
Edward Bellamy
Wrote book about a utopia in year 2000 where everybody is paid the same, and people just want to work for the greater good. Ideas became popular.
Karl Marx
Had idea that the cost of the labor in making a product, is what determines its true value. Also believes strongly in equality of all. He created communism.
Jacob Riis- How the Other Half Lives
A dramatic photographic exposition into the lives of poor workers (usually immigrants) in NYC. Convinced people of the horrors of many lives.
innovations in transportation
First people lived in walkable communities, horse drawn buses on scheduled routes started in the 1820s, horse drawn street cars on rail tracks became popular in the 1830s and stayed popular for a while.
Immigration patterns / old vs new immigrants
Old immigrants came mostly 1840s-1850s, and were from NE Europe, like England and Ireland. New Immigrants were 1870s and later, and most came from SE Europe, like Italy, Russia, and Poland. New immigrants were more different than old ones because different language and culture.
Housing patterns/living conditions
All immigrants came through NYC. The Germans and Scandinavians who had more money took the train further and went to Chicago or Milwaukee. Poorer Irish and Italians stayed in East, at NYC or Boston. Some poor Irish got jobs moving along the railroad to go west. Various neighborhoods had different ethnic origins, but horrible cramped conditions.
New issues in law enforcement
In times of great poverty with lots of people, there was lots of riot, robbery, drunkenness, prostitution corrupt government. Cities hired police, but they had other responsibilities, like sweeping streets in NYC.
Political machines
Organizations run by politicians who had influence in their city. Using local ward captains, they had a wide net of influence and knowledge. Would do small acts of charity for the poor. Gave corrupts tax breaks to contractors, and in return would overpay the contractor and have the contractor give back some of the extra. Boss Tweed was head of NYC Tammany hall.
YMCA, Salvation Army
YMCA was meant to be an alternative to the evils of poor city life. Helped newcomers with city lifestyle, rec. facilities, and a library. A Methodist minister started the Salvation Army to give food, shelter, and temporary jobs to families. Funded by donations.
Social Gospel
A movement of protestants to correct contemporary social wrongs. Insists that true Chirstians first social injustice hear on wherever possible
Jane Addams and settlement houses
A younger generation of poverty helping workers led by Jane Addams. Settlement houses were places run by women where poor immigrants could come and eat, attend classes, other things.
Characteristics of Democrats and Republicans
Republicans had all presidents, 1857-1912, except 1884 Cleveland. Democrats were big in the South, closeish Midwest (IL, OH), and places with lots of immigrants. Controlled by south’s white elite. Hated republicans for what happened during/post civ. War. Democs. Had strong political machines in major cities. Republicans were in small town North East and upper Midwest, also had support from natives and professionals in cities.
Major issues of the 1890’s
Two biggest: nature and size of the money supply and how to staff the gov’t (spoils system?) Others: Tariffs, veteran pensions, railroad development, and monetary policy.
Rutherford B. Hayes
1876 president. Best thing he did was being moral and upright after the corrupt and scandalous Grant.
Monetary Debate
Debate over what should the money supply be. Was paper dollars backed by gold and silver of gov’t, but some wanted just gold backed, or only actual specie. Also debate of if Civ. War greenbacks could become a national currency or not and whether to support inflation (and farmers) or deflation (regulated supply).
Greenback Labor Party
Party formed to advocate for more paper money to create inflation and help workers and farmers in west and south. Got 14 congress seats in 1878. Then faded out.
Coinage and Bland-Allison Act
Coinage act of 1873 had gov’t stop making silver coins, as they were barely used. Then silver mines discovered in Nevada, so some wanted silver back to help inflation and remain valued money. Bland-Allison act passed in 1878 made silver money again, and treasury had to buy $2-4 million silver a month to make into money. Treasury made minimum amount, then didn’t circulate it, so pointless.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Said gov’t must buy and make 4.5 mil ounces of silver monthly (designed because it’s the amount produced), and then gov’t must make bank notes worth a standard amount of silver or gold. First helped money supply, then value of silver fell and the whole thing got confusing.
Stalwarts vs. Half-Breeds
Two republican factions. Disagreed over whom they should be giving jobs to with spoils system. Believed essentially the same thing, except who controlled the party machines and therefore ability to give jobs. Roscoe Conkling led Stalwarts, James Blaine led half-breeds.
Pendleton Act
Passed in 1883, set up a commission to prepare exams and standards of merit for some gov’t jobs. Also forbade political candidates from asking gov’t workers for money. At first covered few gov’t jobs, then expanded.
Election of 1884
Repubs nominated Blaine, who was more radical, supporting economic development and more foreign policy. He was rather corrupt though. Democs had relatively clean Cleveland, who was against corruption. He won, the only democ for a while.
Tariff issue
Debate over what should have tariffs, and for how much. Tariffs were needed for some industries to do well, and helped improve their worker pay. Manufactures of finished products wanted low one on raw materials and farmers generally hated the tariff because it raised equipment prices and made it harder to sell things abroad. Republicans=for, democs=against. Cleveland wanted to lower the tariff because of gov’t budget surplus causing corrupt pointless projects, also to reduce prices and monopolies.
Election of 1888
W.H. Harrison’s grandson (Benjamin) with repubs against Cleveland. Repubs showed Cleveland as a supporter of zero tariffs and pro-British. Harrison won.
Southern Alliance
Farmers in south had trouble of worsening debt and low profits. They bonded and got together into alliances. It helped them realize their political power and feel not so alone. They eventually became a huge organization and formed the populist political party.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Ruling said racial segregation is okay, as long as facilities of equal quality are available to different races.
Election of 1892
There was growing nat’l discontent, with many strikes and fights. Repubs nominated Harrison again, who ignored all the unrest. Democs has Cleveland again who disliked the populists, and was willing to deal with the unrest. Cleveland won. Populists were able to get 8.5% of the popular vote.
Causes of Panic of 1893
Very bad recession in 1893. Railroad growth slowed, slowing steel and other huge related businesses. Railroads had been issuing more stock than they should have already. PA railroad bankrupted. Banks were weak already, with few people using silver, and low gold supplies, yet earlier laws required purchase of silver. Stocks were falling, and everyone was turning money to gold.
Results of the depression
By 1894, 15,000 commercial things (including 600 banks) failed. People were starving and jobless. Prices of everything plummeted. 20-25% unemployment, 1/3 of US rail was bankrupt. One man, Coxey, thought the solution to the problems was to have public works programs, paying paper but “legal tender” (like the 1930s or today) to help people. He led a march to DC to advocate this.
William Jennings Bryan
Dark horse democ nominee for pres. in 1896. Great speaker. Praised western farmers as basis for the country, and strongly supported returning to silver standard. Populists backed him up too. Lost to the high tariff maker, McKinley.
Reasons for revival of expansionism
Tons of politicians asserted that the US had a destiny to expand into the rest of the world. Also following the example of Europe and Japan. Businesses wanted to expand markets.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Wrote a book, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, and advocated for the creation of a large navy, and getting land for bases all over the world.
Josiah Strong
a reverend who preached that god is training people for their mission of spreading Christianity to the “weaker races”.
A nickname given to those who wanted expansion.
Troubles in Latin America
US stopped Chilean gang from buying guns in US. Chileans killed two US sailors, then their gov’t apologized. Another, Eng. And Venezuela couldn’t agree over a border .An angry Cleveland made a committee to investigate and settle it. Eng, decided to listen to what they found in 1897.
Monroe Doctrine
US reminded Eng. of it during their Venezuela argument. Eng. replied that it has no power on international law. This is what made Cleveland mad.
Expansion in the Pacific
US, Eng. and Germany all wanted Samoa. Hawaii then became the next area of interest.
Desired by US, Germany, and Eng. After almost fighting, an agreement was made that the three countries would form a 3-part “protectorate” We wanted Samoa for the port of Pago Pago, to use it as a fueling station.
We had been trading with Hawaii for some time. In mid 1800s, several plantations staffed by Chinese and Japanese appeared. In 1887, a treaty let us use Pearl Harbor as a naval base.
Queen Liliuokalani
Hawaiians didn’t like the foreign power in Hawaii. When the queen took power they were happy because she was strong and hated Americans. When the US decided Hawaiian sugar was hurting the mainland economy, they imposed a tariff on it. People then quickly overthrew the queen and asked for US annexation, because the economy was suffering horribly.
Pres. Cleveland’s attitude towards Hawaii
When Hawaii asked for annexation, it was a “ripe fruit for plucking”. Cleveland investigated the situation, and wasn’t sure if Hawaii would be peaceful about being annexed. So he did nothing. When McKinley took power, he quickly annexed it.
Significance of Cuba
US didn’t really do much, because slave revolt was bad for business with Cuba, and gov’t had urged to give Cuba some freedom before.
Valeriano Weyler
The Spanish commander in rebelling Cuba. Used concentration camps to isolate the rebels. These camps were horrible, and maybe 200,000 Cubans died.
William Randolph Hearst/ Joseph Pulitzer
Newspaper owners, who used the Cuban situation to scream latest developments to get readers, and enflamed the situation.
Yellow journalism
Journalism based on sensation and big headlines to attract readers.
De Lome letter (critical of McKinley)
A letter by a Spanish minister, saying McKinley was “weak”, and just wanted crowd admiration. Hearst published it in his Journal, further angering people.
An explosion rocked the U.S.S. Maine and killed 266 crewmen. While it was actually an accident, everyone believed that it was an underwater Spanish mine. The public was outraged, and McKinley resisted war.
Teller Amendment
An amendment suggested by senator Teller, which renounced any U.S. interest, jurisdiction, or control in Cuba, and said we would leave it alone once they had independence.
George Dewey
An admiral and chief of the squad in Hong Kong. He sailed to Manila Bay in the Philippines, destroying or capturing all 10 Spanish ships, and killing some Spanish.
Rough Riders and Theodore Roosevelt
July 1, 1898, the US captured two defended Spanish garrisons. Theodore Roosevelt led the volunteer “rough riders” unit that did this.
Was it a “splendid little war”
Not really. Badly trained troops wearing heavy uniforms in hot weather were barely cared for by the dreadful medical situation when many got food poisoning, yellow fever, malaria and more.
Treaty of Paris
Ended Spanish-American war. Spain recognized Cuba independence, and for $20 mil, gave US the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam.
Platt Amendment
Spelled out conditions of US-Cuba relations. Says US troops will leave after Cuba agrees to not make a treaty with another country that would limit its freedom, not borrow beyond what they can, the US can intervene with stuff if we want, and we can keep a naval base there.
Question of Philippine Annexation
People didn’t know much about the Philippines, and weren’t sure what to do. Businesses did want the Philippines for a further expanded market. McKinley felt it was dishonorable to either ignore the Philippines, or give them back to Sp.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Led first independence movement to remove Spain in 1896. When US took over, he ordered his force to attack. 70,000 troops were sent to Philippines, and resistance was defeated.
Guerrilla war in Philippines
After the first resistance, guerilla attacks became common. With the bad situation in the Philippines, US passed the Philippine Government Act in 1902, which gave a US appointed governor, and eventually Philippine independence, which finally came in 1946.
Anti-Imperialists and their arguments
They felt that conquering and controller a new land went against the Declaration of Independence and Constitution.
Open Door Policy
Some countries had exclusive rights to some Chinese ports. After US requests that all countries open their ports to all, sec. of st. John Hay said that an “open door” principle to US business was accepted. This displays the influence of trade on foreign policy. Shows idea of US’s “informal empire”
Boxer Rebellion
1900 a secret anti-foreigner society of members called “boxers” rampaged through China, killing foreigners and Christian converts. US used the army to fight and suppress the Boxers.
Crisis over Panama Canal
French first tried to build the Canal, but ran out of money. Sold the project to the US, but Columbia wanted to make a new contract with us. We made a revolution, where a US warship hovered off the land, forcing Columbia to not do anything. The new country gave the US the right to the Panama Canal. We later paid $25 mil to Columbia because we felt bad.
How was the Progressive Movement different from earlier reform movements?
1830s and 40s, reform saw gov’t as unrelated or in the way, so the groups led themselves. Early 1900s progressivism saw gov’t as an ally.
Characteristics of new immigrants
Most moved to cities. In early 1900s, still mainly from SE Europe, but also a lot from Japan and China, and a few from Mexico.
New middle class
Native-born middle class was growing and forming quickly. The number of professional white-collar workers went way up. They generally were ambitious, educated, and valued stability and manners.
Middle class women
Cities gave them opportunity, yet also the frustrations of limits they had, and isolation. Many became secretaries, teachers, librarians, clerks, etc. Many went to college.
Migration of African Americans
Most lived in S, but looking for opportunity meant by 1910, 20% went to cities. Got relatively low-level jobs like bricklayers or miners. Black women were servants or tobacco factory workers.
Rise in Lynching
Tons of racism resulted in many lynchings in S. and all over. About 75 a year.
Black Culture
Due to hardship, blacks formed a strong group and culture. They formed a church, some universities, a few businesses, a baseball league, ragtime music, and others.
Business consolidation
Around 1900 there were tons of consolidations, forming huge companies. This caused salaries of many workers to go up.
Characteristics of the average worker
All worked 9.5+ hours a day in very unsafe conditions. No benefits of any type existed.
Scientific management- Taylorism
The concept created by Frederick Taylor of increasing work speeds by standardizing work and rewarding the fastest workers.
Growth of AFL
Grew hugely, but still had only 1/5 of nonfarm workers. Often didn’t do much because they feared striking would cause workers to be fired and replaced. AFL worked with skilled workers, not base jobs.
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
Another union that tried to help worst treated workers. Nicknamed wobblies, founded in Chicago, led by “Big Bill” Haywood. Never a large group, they were mostly W. miners, lumber workers, and other basic laborers. Did have some successful strikes. MUCH more radical than the AFL, they wanted a revolution of the labor system. After constant political and police harassment, it broke in 1920.
Growth of socialism
Started gaining support by some workers and middle-class. Wanted an end of capitalism, and public ownership of factories, communication systems, railroads, and utilities. Had many different ideas how to do this. Formed Socialist Party of America (SPA).
Eugene Debs
Member and most popular spokesperson for the SPA. Ran for pres. 5 times 1900-20. Never did great, but did get 6% in 1912.
What is progressivism?: It was a political response to industrialization and its side effects: immigration, urban growth, concentration of power, and growing class divisions. It was different from the populists because they were farmers and this was mostly city people. Mostly the native middle class.. They were reformers, not radicals. They wanted to change capitalism, not destroy it.
Thurstein Veblen
A crazy and brilliant economic reformer. In his book The Theory of the Leisure Class, he made fun of the business elite. He said that engineers, who were shaped by discipline of machines, would be better leaders than the business class.
Charles Beard
In his book An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution, he supported big business reform by saying the constitution served the rich of its time.
William James
Philosopher whose essay, Pragmatism, said truth comes not from law or theory, but from experience. Truth is what works.
Herbert Croly and the New Republic
In his book, The Promise of American Life, Croly said that the US should have a gov’t fed by activists, looking out for interests of all people, not just rich. To support his ideas, he created the New Republic magazine.
Nickname given by pres. T. Roosevelt to authors of the many articles exposing political and business corruption. Their stark journalism emphasizing facts was powerful.
Examples of progressive reforms
Many anti-Tammany hall reforms. A progressive administration in Detroit cleaned up corruption, made taxes fairer, and increased most people’s quality of life. The mayor of Toledo, OH led reform as he made playgrounds and free schools, made lodging houses, and open air churches for all faiths.
Governor Robert LaFollette
Wisconsin governor who regulated things more than anyone else. He cleaned up the state gov’t, created a direct primary system, railroad regulation system, increased corporate taxes, limited campaign spending. Created a reference library so lawmakes could learn about issues from fact, not from lobbyists. This is known as the “Wisconsin Idea”.
Mann Act
Transporting girls across state lines for immoral purposes became federally illegal. Prostitution in big cities closed down or became more discreet.
Anti-Saloon League (ASL)
Desire for legal alcohol prohibition. Like other progressive organizations, they had a large office and a press printing propaganda. Claimed alcohol causes inefficiency, corruption, and health issues. Succeeded with 18th amendment. Very controversial.
Pure Food and Drug Act
One of the many federal efforts to address the issue of dangerous drugs. Opium, heroine, and cocaine had become popular.
Immigration restrictions
After many attempts, congress passed a literacy test law on immigration in 1917.
The control of reproduction to change an organisms characteristics. Some states legalized forced sterilization of criminals, sex offenders, or people with mental issues. The sup. court upheld their legality. Shows growing racism of progressive era.
Booker T. Washington vs. W.E.B. DuBois
Washington believed that blacks must gain job skills, and their economic value would cause racism to fade, but they must be patient until that happens, not to fight. DuBois strongly disagreed, and argued blacks should demand the same intellectual opportunities as whites. He felt blacks should resist racism.
Led by DuBois, they were a group that resisted racism. They called for black political equality and an end to racism. Had 6,000 members by 1914.
National American Women’s Suffrage Ass’n
Association designed to get woman suffrage. Carrie Chapman’s “winning plan” was to lobby legislators, conduct referenda, organize parades and rallies. Ass’n was mostly native white middle class women.
Carrie Chapman Catt and Alice Paul
Catt lead the NAWSA for the above plan. Paul had a different idea, which was to pressure the fed gov’t to make a suffrage amendment. In 1920 the amendment was finished ratification with help from argument that women helped in WW1.
Jane Addams
Observed that the nurturing impulse to care for children drew women into dealing with politics when hazards came from the outside world.
Emma Goldman
An anarchist who gave speeches around the country on politics, feminism, and modern drama. Also edited a radical monthly magazine.
Margaret Sanger
Wanted birth control to prevent unwanted pregnancies in slums. First fled to Europe to avoid arrest, then returned to open the first birth-control clinic in 1916 in Brooklyn.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman
Leading feminist intellectual. Wrote Women and Economics about sexual discrimination, stereotyping, and how it’s all based on women dependence on men. She advocated for women freedom and equality in life.
TR’s approach to labor
When dealing with disputes, TR didn’t do what past pres.s had, and use troops. He defended the worker right to organize. He did believe that giant companies were needed for US to be great.
“trustbusting” and other government regulation
TR didn’t want huge companies to get way too huge. He broke up many huge companies, incl/ standard oil. Passed 1906 Hepburn Act and 1903 Elkins Act to tighten rail regulation, and let the commerce commission set price limits and examine financial documents.
Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle
Described horrible conditions in meatpacking plants.
Sierra Club
A group hoping to preserve wilderness for its beauty and appeal.
TR and the environment
TR was a preservationist and loved nature, but understood conservationist call for planned development of nat’l natural resources. Set aside 200 million acres of land as nat’l forests, mineral reserves, and places for water power.
Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
Ballinger was a Seattle lawyer who sold millions of acres of public land in Alaska to some business people, in NY, including JP Morgan. The head of the dept/ of interior objected, then got fired for it. Pinchot, the head of the forest service complained, and then got fired for it. This worsened the already bad Taft (current pres.) and TR (former) relations.
New Nationalism
TR said in 1910 that the fed gov’t should support “new nationalism” and become a powerful reform instrument.
Bull Moose Party
Republicans tried to take away TR’s nomination, so TR formed the progressive party. Roosevelt flaunted his buffness, and gave the party the nickname the “bull moose party”.
Election of 1912
William Taft ran again with republicans, TR ran as a progressive (bull moose) and Woodrow Wilson ran as a democrat. Wilson won.
Tariff Reform
Wilson imposed new lower tariffs, including some things without one, like settl and iron. He also passed an income tax, allowed by the recently passed amendment 16.
Banking reform- Federal Reserve Act
Different groups strongly lobbied for different types of bank reform. Wilson ‘s greatest achievement was the Federal Reserve Act. This act created 12 regional federal banks with mixed public/private control. Each regional bank could issue federal reserve notes (money) to local banks. These local banks then used the money to make loans. The Federal Reserve Board was created to control interest rates on the money, and on money flow.
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
A 5 member watchdog agency to investigate possible violations of federal regulations, to require regular reports from big companies, and to order “cease and desist” orders when it found methods of business corruption.
Louis Brandeis and Muller v. Oregon
The Boston lawyer Louis Brandeis successfully convinced the court that a 10 hour work day limit for Oregon was fair, by giving economic, medical, and sociological evidence. This shows the courts changing to listen to people and current times over businesses.
16th Amendment
allowed an income tax, after having been declared unconstitutional by a previous court case.
17th Amendment
1913, it allowed people to directly elect senators, not just the state gov’ts.
18th Amendment
created nationwide prohibition of alcohol.
19th Amendment
gave women the right to vote.
Use of Roosevelt Corollary
United States had the right to meddle in Latin America when there was chronic wrongdoing by a Latin American nation. Operated Dominican Republic’s customs service for 2 years, took over management of its foreign debt.
“Gentlemen’s Agreement” with Japan
Tokyo pledged to stop emigration of Japanese laborers to the US, Roosevelt told San Francisco school board to reverse decision to make segregated schools for Asians.
Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy
Advancing American commercial interests abroad : Taft persuaded US bankers to explore Chinese investments, got nowhere with American-financed railroad in Manchuria. US supported revolution in Nicaragua brought Diaz to power, lent them $15 million in exchange for control of their national bank, customs service, and national railroad.
Wilson’s Relationship with Mexico
Tried to promote good government in Mexico City, protect large US capital investments in the country, and to safeguard the US citizens traveling in Mexico or living along its border. Wilson refused to recognize Huerta’s regime, authorized arms sales to Huerta’s rival, blockaded Vera Cruz.
US Foreign Policy Goals
Search for world order on US terms : international system founded on American ideological blend of liberalism, democracy, and capitalistic enterprise. Stable global order of democratic societies that welcomed American political values and corporate expansion.
Background Reasons for War in Europe
Military alliances between Germany/Austria/Italy and France/Russia/Britain. Imperial ambitions (Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire), nationalism, conflicts over religion (in Serbia : wanted Pan-Slavism), restlessness, thoughts that war would strengthen national character and add excitement to life.
American Responses to Tensions in Europe
Wilson proclaimed American neutrality, called on the nation to be neutral. Some held emotional ties with Britain; some immigrants (Germans, Irish, and Scandinavians) didn’t mind seeing Germany win.
Challenges to Neutrality
Wilson’s vision of a world order built on liberalism, democracy, and freedom for American capitalistic enterprise would have been impossible if Germany won; thought Allied victory wouldn’t necessarily ensure a liberal peace. Neutrality conflicted with rights on the oceans, Britain declared the North Sea a war zone. Germans said the waters around Britain were a war zone, cautioned Americans against travel on British or French vessels.
Lustitania Incident
Germans sank British liner, killed 128 Americans, public opinion turned against Germany. Wilson gave the “too proud to fight” speech, many called for mobilization for war. Some deplored drift towards war (pacifists, German-Americans, feminists, social-justice reformers)
The Election of 1916
Wilson vs. Hughes, Wilson won. Democrats based their campaign off of the fact that they didn’t go to war, Republicans criticized Wilson for not being aggressive enough and pursuing policies that would lead to war. Hughes did well among Irish and Germans, Wilson did well with women in western states : Americans didn’t want war.
1917 : German leaders resumed unrestricted submarine warfare : argued that Americans were already financing the Allied war efforts, and that submarines could win the war for them before the American army entered the war. Wilson broke diplomatic relations, Germans sank 5 American ships.
Zimmerman Telegram
Zimmerman was the German foreign secretary, told German ambassador in Mexico that if Mexico joined the war against America, they would restore Mexico’s territories of Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico.
Difference of War’s Effect on US vs. Europe
Europe fought for 4 years, the US fought for 19 months. European army casualty rates were above 70%, US’s was 8%. American homeland was untouched, France and Belgium were destroyed in some places.
Selective Service Act
required all men between 21-30 (later expanded to 18-45) to register for military service.
War Industries Board
coordinated military purchasing, assured production efficiency, and met the military’s needs for weapons, equipment, and supplies. It was unproductive until Bernard Baruch was placed in charge.
Fuel Administration
Created under the jurisdiction of the Lever Food and Fuel Control Act, led by Garfield, controlled coal output, regulated fuel prices and consumption, and introduced daylight-saving time.
Food Administration
Headed by Hoover, oversaw production and allocation of food (wheat, meat, and sugar) to assure adequate supplies for the army.
Effect of War on American Business
Corporate executives tried to act as consultants, advisors, and administrators of wartime regulatory agencies. Factory owners distributed pro-war propaganda. Trade associations mobilized productive strength. Business made production/distribution more efficient, government encouraged industrial cooperation (merging), loopholes in excess-profits tax, wartime profits increased.
General Pershing
Led the American Expeditionary Force. Originally German, commander of Mexican expedition against Pancho Villa.
American Expeditionary Force (AFE)
Marched, trained, waited; many were excited about going to Europe. French were hospitable and their culture was enjoyable. Distinct fighting force, didn’t see fighting until early 1918.
Bolshevik Revolution
Top leaders (Vladimir Lenin) returned from exile. Armed coup overthrew Kerensky and seized power, freed German troops on the Russian front for fighting in France.
African Americans in the War Effort
270,000 blacks volunteered/were drafted in WWI. 50,000 of them went to France. Navy assigned them to menial positions, marines excluded them, lots of racism. 92nd division saw combat in the Meuse-Argonne. French superficially treated them as equals.
Liberty Loan Drives
Series of government bond drives, financed a lot of the cost of WWI. Advertised through propaganda and coercion.
Committee on Public Information
Headed by Creel, most effective wartime propaganda agency. Combated wartime rumors with facts, proclaimed government’s version of reality and discredited those that questioned that version. 21 divisions to handle posters, “news”, ads, films; targeted recent immigrants of dubious loyalty, working class, “four minute men” : network of speakers who gave talks to audiences about the war.
The New Republic
Croly, Lippmann, progressive individuals associated with the magazine supported the war. Administration officials met with them to brief them on government policies. Dewey condemned war’s efforts.
Reasons for Wartime Intolerance
Lynched anti-war people, called them traitors, forced them to buy war bonds, kiss the flag, recite the Pledge of Allegiance, removed German books, changed German names.
Examples of Opponents of War
Religious pacifists (Quakers, Mennonites), German-Americans, conscientious objectors were drafted and given noncombatant duties, but were abused. Jane Addams, socialist leaders (Debs, Berger); war split American women’s movement. Shaw and Catt supported the war. Bourne gave speeches against it, and the pacifist Rankin voted against it in Congress.
Espionage Act of 1917
Set fines of up to $10,000 and prison sentences of up to 20 years for a variety of loosely defined antiwar activities.
Sedition Amendment to the Espionage Act
imposed heavy penalties on those who used disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about the government, Constitution, flag, or military. Authorized postmaster to bar a wide variety of suspect material.
Results of War on Labor
WWI made the American economy prosper, lowered unemployment, factory output grew by 1/3rd, and work force grew by 1.3 million. Wages rose and so did prices (by 60%). No-strike rule : Gomper ordered AFL workers to stay on the job for the war. Job seekers strained housing, schools, and municipal services. US agricultural prices doubled, farmers’ income rose.
Black Migration
Half million blacks moved northward during the war, settled in cities. Economic opportunity : industry turned to them to help pick up the slack. Labor agents recruited blacks, spread job opportunities, brought their church with them. Concentration of blacks in NYC laid groundwork for Harlem Renaissance. Membership in the NAACP doubled from 1918-1919. Whites resented labor competition and homeowners were irritated.
Women’s Role in the War Effort
Encouraged women to support the war so they could help shape the peace : some served in the military and volunteer agencies, 1 million worked in industry, more thousands were streetcar conductors/bricklayers/etc. Guaranteed women’s suffrage, but war did not permanently better women’s status (lost jobs to returning veterans, men went on strike; female judges were forced to resign).
War’s Effect on the Progressive Movement
Stifled reform energies and brought about a decade of reaction. Socialists and those who favored radical overhauls endured hostility and persecution. Increased corporate regulation, but wartime regulatory agencies were dominated by those that were supposed to be regulated. Conditions of industrial workers were bettered, pushed war plants for 8-hour workdays. Federal ban on child labor, worker-compensation benefits, safety and sanitation inspections of factories, and observation of all state labor legislation. Railway workers were allowed to unionize. Housing projects for workers, several states banned child labor, set wage-and-hour rules, and enacted benefits/protections for factory workers. Strengthened drive for prohibition and anti-prostitution.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Eight involved territorial settlements in Europe : self-determination/autonomy for those dominated by Austro-Hungarian or Ottoman empires. Ninth insisted that colonial disputes should be resolved in the interests of colonized people and the European colonial powers. Remaining five points emphasized world of unrestricted navigation, freer trade, reduced armaments, openly negotiated treaties, and a general association of nations.
Significance of the Treaty of Versailles
Wilson, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France, and George of Britain. Peace treaty with Germans was harsh : disarmed, stripped of colonies, forced to admit sole blame for the war, and had to pay $56 billion for the war. France regained provinces of Alsace/Lorraine and took control of Saar Basin for 15 years. Germany lost 1/10th of its population and 1/8th of its territory under the Versailles treaty. Recognized the independence of Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.
Fight over the Treaty
Germans resented it, didn’t come to terms with Russia. 14-country Allied armies assisted a counterrevolutionary Russian force seeking to overthrow Lenin and Russia’s new Bolshevik government. Territorial settlements left Russia as weak as possible.
The League of Nations
Republicans rejected the League.
Racism after the War
Blacks were lynched, bloodiest in Chicago. Red Scare : fear of “bolshevism”. Strikes were quickly put down and accused of wanting to duplicate Russia’s anarchy. Legislatures expelled socialist members, Justice Department arrested suspected communists and radicals.
Election of 1920
Democrats nominated Cox (mildly progressive) and Franklin D. Roosevelt as VP. Republicans nominated Harding and Coolidge for VP. Harding won by a landslide. American membership in the League of Nations was dead.
General economic trends of the 20’s
Increasing number of national chains and business consolidations. Until 1922, the economy was bad, but after that, overall very prosperous.
Effects of the automobile on industry
The automobile became a huge market of its own, but also created huge businesses. 9% of manufacturing wages in 1930 were from cars. Created gas, rubber, road building, advertising businesses. Companies also had some things made abroad.
Impact of assembly line/consolidation
Assembly line increased worker output by 40%. “Fordism” was US industrial system of repetitive assembly line jobs. There was “merger mania” where ton of companies formed into few huge ones. Even separate similar businesses would often work together.
Installment paying was a new idea. By 1929, credit purchases were 75% of cars.
New advertising
Use of advertising helped economic boom. Radio relied on advertising income. Ads used celebrity endorsement, glamorization, and threats if product isn’t used.
Women in the workplace
WWI gains quickly faded, and proportion of women stayed the same. Those who worked had wage discrimination. 1/5th of working women were secretary type people. Also as unions weakened, weakened women’s power. Women also got more education.
Labor unions in the 20’s
As wages rose, bosses tried to limit unions, and unions weren’t adjusted to more modern Fordism, union membership declined. Also, big companies would often be nice and give workers cafeterias or company stock at special prices to have good labor relations. Some unions had racism keeping our blacks. Some companies hired black “scabs” to stop unions.
Problems of farmers
As usual, farm prices were low, so farms made little money, and had trouble paying their loans. The American Farm Bureau Federation asked the gov’t for help.
McNary-Haugen Bill
The fed. gov’t tried to help by passing this bill that would buy surplus crops at a good price, and sell them worldwide. The conservative pres. Coolidge vetoed it twice.
Character of Warren G. Harding
Handsome, cheerful, enjoyed liquor and gambling, enjoyed his mistress. His commonness appealed to public.
Appointees- good and bad
• Good, he appointed the editor of an Iowa farming magazine (Henry A. Wallace) as secr. of agriculture, Charles Evans Hughes as secr. of state, and Hoover as a dominant secr. of commerce.
• Bad, he made his campaign manager Harry Daugherty attorney general, he made senate pal Albert Fall as secr. of interior, and a draft dodge he met in HI, Charles Forbes, as director of veterans bureau.
Tons of them. Charles Forbes took money from the veter. bureau, and then fled abroad. The bureau’s general counsel committed suicide, like an associate of the attorney gen. did too. The attorney general was forced from office. The biggest scandal was secr. of the interior Albert Fall leasing gov’t oil reserves in Elk Hills, CA and Teapot Dome, WY in return for “loans” of tons of money.
Election of 1924
After Harding had a heart attack in office in 1923, Harding couldn’t run again. VP Calvin Coolidge took over, and then won in 1924 against democrat John W. Davis.
How did the federal government support business?
The 1930 Smoot-Hawley and the 1922 Fordney-McCumber tariffs were very high, and helped domestic businesses. The Supreme Court with chief justice W.H. Taft overturned many progressive things that opposed business.
Washington Naval Conference
After WWI, the US, Eng., and Japan were headed towards a naval arms race, which would be expensive. Pres. Harding had a conference to deal with it. Eventually, The US, Eng., Japan, Italy, and France all agreed to destroy some ships to have a certain tonnage of ships. Also no ship construction for 10 years, and the US and Japan won’t mess with each other in the pacific.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Pact among US, Fr. And 60 other nations saying there won’t be aggression, and outlawing war. It had no enforcement though, so it failed eventually.
Dawes Plan
Scaled back US war debt and reparations from allies and Germany.
Effects of 19th Amendment on national politics
Cleaned up politics some, with elections being held at schools and churches instead of bars, and also gave women other rights such as jury duty and public office holding. On the whole though not much changed.
Women’s legislation in Congress
The sup. crt. opposed child labor laws in 1922 and women protection laws in 1923. A 1924 consti. amend. on child labor was ratified by only a few states.
Urban growth and its ramifications
More people now lived in cities than rural areas. The disadvantage was that it meant that all production was in cities, and people in cities could get things faster.
Impact of technology on women
New technology meant fewer working hours and physical effort. Yet also meant women did more house things at home, like laundry, than before.
Effects of automobile on society
Created issues of parking, roads, traffic jams, and lots of accidents. However, it also allowed people to go on vacation, visit life outside (or inside) the city, makes shopping easier. Farmers got tractors. Which was good, but gave them more debt.
New environmental problems
With greater electricity consumption and more cars, coal and gas use went up a ton. Tons of natural gas was simply burned off. The Sierra Club and Audubon Society protested slightly, but nothing really happened other than having one preserve made.
Entertainment of the 1920’s
Mass production of culture and entertainment as people couldn’t get it from the rest of their lives. Rise of the penny press, dime novel, and sentimental romance. Magazine sales went way up, books were sold through dept. stores or by mail instead of book stores. Lots of radio and movies. Lots of baseball and boxing.
Evolution of dating
In earlier times, dating meant a path to marriage. In the 20s, dating meant a way to test another person’s compatibility without considering marriage.
The flapper
Stereotypical sophisticated, fashionable, pleasure-seeking modern woman. Somewhat a creation of journalists and businesses.
Jazz Age
This time in the ’20s. It did not involve everyone, many remained the way they had previously. However for some, it was a time of parties, alcohol, jazz, loose morality.
Why were so many writers alienated?
Most of the writers at this time were ridiculing the American society that had formed.
Harlem Renaissance
Surge of African American culture as blacks moved into northern cities. The movement had many forms including poetry, books, and plays.
Art/Architecture of the 20’s
The modern skyscraper (70+ stories) developed and was constructed. Art was America focused. Some painted classic “western” stuff, others showed big cities.
Many new composers, some based on folk and earlier traditions, others based on more modern even slight jazz influences. Jazz was also a huge growing area of music. Originally of black tradition, it was gaining imitation by whites.
Immigration restrictions
With post war superpatriotism, US hated everyone. So we passed immigration restrictions allowing 164,000 total immigrants yearly with the National Origins Act. Also, a country could only have as many immigrants as 2% of the number in the US from that country in 1890. Designed to keep you the “new immigrants” who came later. No Asians at all.
Sacco and Vanzetti
Two Italian immigrants who killed a two people and then robbed a factory. They were both immigrants and known anarchists, so nativist America hated them. Arrested and sent to death, even with weak evidence.
Resurgence of the KKK
As the US became more insanely nativist again, the KKK became popular. The KKK had a slight scam going, charging people for their robes and all sorts of things. The KKK claimed to be totally American, and they would return things to before.
Marcus Garvey
Great orator who spoke of glorifying all things black. Formed the Universal Negreo Improvement Organization (UNIA). Wanted economic cooperation, so he formed a black supermarket chain and other businesses. Wanted a return to Africa, so blacks could form a strong nation and protect blacks all over the world. Later arrested for fraud, and the UNIA died.
Scopes Trial
Fundamentalists resisted the teaching of evolution, Teacher John Scopes taught evolution, then was arrested. The ACLU had agreed to help scopes if he did this, and he went to court against William Jennings Bryan and others. Scopes was found guilty, but the verdict of the case was that the teaching was okay.
Prohibition tried to restrict all alcohol. Did restrict it some, but wasn’t entirely successful. Hard to change an entire country’s habit.
election of 1928
Democratic NY governor Al Smith ran against Herbert Hoover. Smith campaigned lots across the country. Hoover read boring speeches on the radio. Hoover won by far.
Hoover’s ideology
Quaker, did many humanitarian things. Supporter or rational economic developments, as in he felt the economy should run like a good machine. Supported welfare capitalism”. Strongly believed in volunteerism. Encouraged higher wages to cause more purchases. Also supported the 8-hr workday. Cared more for business than workers.
Reasons for Black Thursday
Americans played the market on borrowed money (credit/”margin” buying). Agriculture, mining, textiles, and other industries remained depressed, automobile production slowed, construction industry declined.
Reasons for Black Tuesday
16 million stocks changed hands in frantic trading, most at exceptionally low prices, bankers who formerly restored confidence didn’t attempt to.
The Federal Reserve – Federal Reserve Board’s easy-credit policies and Mellon’s push for income-tax cuts left a lot of money to be put into stock speculation. Fed increased interest rate on federal reserve notes, warned banks not to lend money for stock-market speculation. Fed tightened credit again, finally led to Black Thursday.
Underlying Causes of the Depression
Increased productivity didn’t generate corresponding wage increases for workers, but higher corporate profits. Wealthy spent money on nonessentials and luxuries, and discretionary spending decreased when the crash came. Automobile, housing, textile, tire, and other durable-goods industries were overextended and reducing themselves. Decline in farm prices, important sectors of industry lagging technologically. Or, the Fed failed to assure an adequate money supply to enable the economy to bounce back from the crash. Global economic crisis : lowered exports.
Depression’s Impact on the Economy
GNP dropped from $104 billion to $59 billion, farm prices fell by 60%, wheat prices went from $1.04 a bushel to 51 cents. Railroad corporations that controlled 1/3 of the nation’s track mileage went bankrupt, 5500 banks closed. Employment rate rose by 3%.
Depression’s Human Toll
High unemployment rates, idle factories, bankrupt farms, closing banks left families without savings. Blacks, Mexicans, southern sharecroppers, and other groups suffered. 5% of nations’ farms were foreclosed or forced to be sold. Children had poor diet and inadequate medical and dental care : malnutrition, rickets, pellagra, long-term health problems. Closed schools, suicide rate jumped 30%.
Hoover’s Response
Committed to localism and private initiative. Pledged business leaders to maintain wages/employment, told state/municipal governments to make public-works projects. Set up private lending agency, National Credit Corporation. Reconstruction Finance Corporation made loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads. Glass-Steagall Act allocated $750 million of the government’s gold reserves for loans to private businesses. Authorized $2 billion to be given to state and local governments for job-creating public-works programs. Called for a tax increase, alienated voters.
The Bonus March
Ten thousand veterans came to Washington to lobby for passage of a bill giving veterans bonuses in twenty-year endowment policies against which the veterans might receive government loans. The bill was rejected.
Election of 1932
Hoover won Republican nomination, Democrats nominated Roosevelt. FDR’s campaign speech named an era the “new deal”, but contradicted itself on presidential agenda. Won by landslide margins.
3 Components of the New Deal
Industrial recovery through business-gov. cooperation and pump-priming federal spending, agricultural recovery through subsidized crop reduction, and short-term emergency relief for the jobless, funneled through state/local agencies when possible, but provided by the federal gov. if necessary.
The Brain Trust
Circle of advisors : Columbia professors Moley and Tugwell and lawyer Berle. Moley was conservative, disapproved of the New Deal. Tugwell and Berle rejected laissez-faire, advocated federal economic planning and corporate repudiation.
Eleanor Roosevelt
Exposed FDR to reformers, social workers, and advocates of minority rights.
FDR’s Cabinet
Diverse. Secretary of Labor : Perkins, first woman Cabinet member, used to be industrial commissioner of NY. Interior Secretary Ickes was a Republican progressive who had organized liberal Republicans for FDR. Secretary of Agriculture : Wallace, good agricultural economist, crop experimenter, farm-policy theorist. Treasury Secretary Mogenthau tolerated unbalanced budgets necessary to fix the depression, though was a fiscal conservative.
Banking Crisis
Closed banks for 4 days, reopened healthy ones (Emergency Banking Act) with a Treasury Department license, provided for management of failed banks, and enlarged gov’s regulatory power over money/banking. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation ensured all bank deposits up to $5000 and separated deposit banking from investment banking.
Innovative New Deal Measures
Civilian Conservation Corps employed jobless youths in reforestation, park maintenance, and erosion control. Home Owners Loan Corporation helped needy citizens refinance their home mortgages, Farm Credit Administration did the same for rural Americans facing loss of their farms. Federal Emergency Relief Act : appropriated $500 million to replenish empty relief coffers of states and cities. Tennessee Valley Authority : built hydroelectric network that supplied cheap power to the region and developed a flood-control system, recreational facilities, and a soil-conservation program. Agricultural Adjustment Act allowed producers of major agricultural comms to receive subsidies in return for cutting production, supervised by the Agricultural Adjustment Association : wanted to return farmers’ buying power back to what it had been. National Industrial Recovery Act used Hoover’s trade associations.
Significance of the National Recovery Administration
Oversaw codes of “fair competition” for all industries : set production limits, prescribed wages and working conditions, and forbade price cutting and unfair competitive practices. Textile-industry code banned child labor, prohibited employers from discriminating against union members and affirming workers’ legal right to organize/bargain. Most businesses cooperated with the association.
State of Agriculture
Drought and New Deal policies caused agricultural production to decline and commodity prices to rise, income increased 50%. Didn’t help landless farm laborers, migrant workers, or tenants/sharecroppers from the South. Landowners banked subsidy checks, removed acreage from production, and left the sharecroppers to shift for themselves.
The Dust Bowl
Drought turned Great Plains into a dust bowl, some migrated to the cities or went west to become migrant agricultural workers.
FDR’s Relationship with the Public
New Deal was highly popular, good relations with the working press, presented favorable impression to the public. Had fireside chats over the radio, charismatic. Democratic majorities increased in the House/Senate.
Challenges from Right/Left
Conservative business leaders thought New Deal was a threat to the capitalist system, formed the American Liberty League to point out that FDR’s policies would lead to socialism. Demagogues targeted lower ranks of American life, threatened FDR. Physician, Townsend, proposed government pay $200 each month to all retired citizens over 60. Long, a country lawyer, was governor of Louisiana, wanted a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes over $5 million.
Ideas of the Second New Deal
Enlarged/reorganized federal program of relief for the jobless, assistance to rural poor, support for organized labor, social-welfare benefits for older Americans and other disadvantaged groups, stricter business regulation, heavier taxes on wealthy. Works Progress Administration provided work instead of handouts, arts were supported, theater troupes traveled, work given to part-time students. Deficits appeared due to relief spending, Public Works Administration gave many people construction jobs. Not Keynesian in philosophy.
Organized Labor
Wagner campaigned for a prolabor law (National Labor Relations Act) : guaranteed collective-bargaining rights, permitted closed shops, outlawed spying on unions and blacklisting labor agitators. Created National Labor Relations Board to supervise shop elections/deal with labor-law violations.
Significance of New Democratic Coalition
Farmers, urban immigrants, unionized industrial workers, northern blacks, women voted Democrat due to agricultural programs, New Deal relief programs, organized labor, repairs to unemployment, believed the New Deal was a force for racial justice.
Reasons for Supreme Court Packing Scheme
Court-reform bill that would allow the president to appoint another Supreme Court member for each justice over the age of 70. Felt that key measures of the New Deal would be declared unconstitutional, public was skeptical, ended up appointing 4 liberal justices when many retired.
Reasons for the Recession
Steeply reduced consumer income, social-security payroll taxes withdrew $2 billion from circulation. Terminated PWA and cut the WPA and other New Deal relief programs sharply. Contracted money supply from the Fed to forestall inflation.
Farm Security Administration
Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenancy Act, made low-interest loans letting tenant farmers/sharecroppers buy family-sized farms of their own. Network of well-run camps with sanitary shelter/medical services to migrant farm workers. Photographed life of tenants, migrants, and dust bowl families.
Why did the New Deal End?
Growing strength of anti-New Deal congressional coalition of Republicans and conservative Southern Democrats. Vulnerably after court packing, Congress slashed relief appropriations, investigated NLRB, cut corporate taxes, forbid federal workers from participating in electoral campaigns.
FDR’s initial response to German victories
FDR initially hoped neutrality in the US would keep it safe and secure. Then tried lending monetary aid to nations resisting aggression instead of fighting.
Neutrality Acts- cash and carry
The Neutrality Acts were passed in the 1930s, and said the UUS wouldn’t do stuff like sell weapons to warring countries, so that the US wouldn’t end up fighting (like WWI). FDR had congress add the “cash and carry” policy, which states that the US can sell weapons to other countries if they pay cash, and immediately carry away the weapons on their (not US) ships.
Election of 1940
Feared of the Nazi’s, FDR ran for the democrats again. The repubs ran dark horse candidate Wendell Willkie. Proving his desire for neutrality by giving Eng. 50 US ships so we won’t fight, FDR won.
A way to help Eng. w/o making them pay us. Idea is that we lend or lease war supplies to any country who is needed for the defense of the US. US started getting more involved as we protected shipments to Eng. and would shoot down things in our way.
Atlantic Charter
Public statement after FDR talked with Brit Prime Minister Winston Churchill about military strategy. The Charter said what both wanted after the war, condemning aggression, supported national pride, and supported idea of disarmament. Similar to 14 points.
Growing tension between Japan and US
US didn’t really want Japan expanding into all of Asia (as they were doing). US wasn’t quite ready to fight 2 wars, yet there wasn’t any opposition to fighting Japan. We tried economic things first, ending 1911 Treaty of Trade w/ Japan. Then stopped selling fuel and metal to Japan. Japan saw war as the only option.
Pearl Harbor and Japanese aggression
Dec. 7, 1941. Japan destroyed the Pearl Harbor naval and air base in HI. US declared war on Japan. Dec. 11, Germany declared war on the US, followed by Italy. The US involvement in global war had begun.
Challenges to mobilization
Businesses didn’t want to change into war production because it is ephemeral. Arguments between the military, industry, and labor slowed things. FDR didn’t want to be seen as a violent warring person, so he didn’t speed things up at all. After Pearl Harbor and the War Powers Act gave the pres tons of power, things sped up.
Changing roles of women
The Women’s Army Corps (WAC) and the Women Accepted for Voluntary Emergency Service in the Navy (WAVES) had 350,000 women during the war.
War production board and government regulations
FDR created the WPB to organize the huge military production he wanted. It allocated scarce materials, stopped the production of many civilian goods, and distributed contracts to competing manufacturers. The War Manpower Commission (WMC) allocated peoples for military, industry, and agriculture.
National War Labor Board
The NWLB mediated disputes between management and labor, hoping to stop strikes or huge wage increases.
The Office of Price Administration had strict price controls to stop inflation, as more personal income went to fewer consumer goods.
Impact of war on economy
Fantastic. With tons of employment and a huge military market, the war ended the depression. The gov’t spent a ton more than ever before, worker wages and benefits increased. Wealth was also redistributed, as worker pay improved, the size of the middle class went up a lot. Productivity soared.
Raising money for war effort
The sale of war bonds help decrease inflation by lowering consumer purchasing power. $40 billion of bonds to small investors, and more to others. Bonds raised ½ needed money. Increased taxes to 90% on wealthy, had other taxes for other classes.
Office of Scientific Research and Development that contracted $1 billion for scientific productions and improvement. Developed better radar and sonar, new rocket weapons, pressurized airplanes. Lots of things.
Manhattan Project
After Einstein said Nazi’s were learning how to use atomic weapons, US and allies had Manhat. Proj. to develop a nuclear weapon. By 1945 they had succeeded.
Office of War Information
Created by FDR to shape public opinion of the war. Used ads, artists, radio, etc. to emphasize the evilness of the enemy countries.
GI Bill
Gave living expenses, tuition fees and supplies to veterans following their ambitions after the war.
Where were people moving?
Tons of people moving to the centers of war production, much of which was in the Pacific coast states.
Impact on entertainment
The media had a stronger emphasis on mass production to mass audiences than before. Super high number of moviegoers. Many patriotic war movies and songs created. Nonfiction books were popular.
Impact on families
Women were encouraged to work for the war effort, and men were encouraged to fight. Many more independent and delinquent children as both parents worked.
Congress Of Racial Equality was a new civil-rights group that advanced strategies of nonviolent resistance to Jim Crow laws.
A. Philip Randolph
President of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters who wanted a march of 100,000 blacks in DC to “wake up and shock” the white racist America. HE threatened FDR that if racism wasn’t removed from the military efforts, this march would happen.
Executive Order 8802
FDR’s response to Randolph’s threat. Prohibited discriminatory employment practices in federal agencies, unions, and companies involved with war work.
Fair Employment Practices Commission, created as part of exec. order 8802 to enforce the order. Although no way to enforce the policy, it really worked.
Navajo Code Talkers
Used the Navajo language to communicate between war command centers. Very effective, as Japanese could intercept messages, but not interpret them.
Temporary Mexican workers. US made a deal with Mexico to get 200,000 of them in return for fair wages, medical care, and housing. Many more illegal ones came.
War Refugee Board
Agency created by FDR to help rescue and relocate Jews condemned in Nazi concentration camps. Unfortunately, they didn’t do much.
Japanese Internment
Although there was absolutely no proof to have any fear of Japanese-Americans rebelling, in Feb. 1942, FDR gave in to racist pressure and allowed the internment of the west coast Japanese in camps on the. Sup. crt. Upheld constitutionality in Korematsu case.
“Grand Alliance”
The Declaration of the United Nations, which created an alliance among 26 countries to take down the axis of evil.
Operation Torch
Allied army of US and Brit troops went to West Africa to go East, and trap the Germans being attacked on the other side by English forces coming from Egypt. It worked.
Soviet and German armies fought at the Battle of Stalingrad. It went on for a while. Tons of death, but Soviets won, and held onto their border.
Battle of the Atlantic
Allies sent thousands of bombers over Germany, and pushed the Nazi’s out of the Soviet Union. Won due to US’s science and industry. Radar, direction finders, special torpedoes and depth charges, and tons of planes helped win.
Operation Overlord
A combined land-sea-air attack on France to remove the Nazi’s and go east. D-Day, June 6 1944, the attack began. Able to break through Germans, and liberate Paris a month later.
“island hopping”
A force led by Admiral Nimitz “island hopped” across the Pacific. They went around and captured lots of islands that would be strategic points to bomb Japan from.
In Jan. 1943, FDR flew to Africa, while Operation Torch was going on. FDR talked to Churchill, and they agreed to attack Italy before France, and that they would keep fighting until the Axis of Evil accepted “unconditional surrender”.
FDR and Churchill went on to meet with Stalin. They set the date for D-Day, and how they would divide Germany once they won. Stalin also agreed to help FDR attack Japan after Hitler had been taken down.
Yalta Conference
Agreements in Feb. 1945 among Churchill, FDR, and Stalin. Stalin agreed to attack Japan 2-3 months after Germany surrendered. FDR and Churchill agreed to let Stalin have Manchuria and other places Russia lost from Japan earlier. Stalin also agreed to tell Mao Zedong to stop his communism rebellion and agree with China’s leader. Stalin dropped demands for $20 billion from Germany in reparations.
United Nations
At Yalta, Stalin agreed to let FDR hold the United Nations Conference, to setup the permanent United Nations.
FDR’s death
FDR abruptly died on April 12, 1945. This left the unprepared VP Truman to take over. Truman destroyed relations with the Soviets, as he stopped all aid to them, and they strengthened their power in East Europe.
Potsdam Conference
Truman, Churchill, and Stalin all met to complete postwar deals that started at Yalta. They could barely agree on anything, even punishing the Nazis. Anything major was left for the Council of Foreign Ministers to figure out later.
Reasons for/against the Atomic bombs
The Japanese government was fighting to the death, and wouldn’t surrender. We warned them, and gave them one week before we would destroy them. They rejected this, so we sent an atomic bomb to Hiroshima on Aug. 6. On Aug. 8, Stalin kept his agreement and declared war on Japan. On Aug. 9 we dropped another bomb on Nagasaki. Japan surrendered on August 14th, 1945.
The Effects of Rapid Demobilization
Pleased/frightened Americans : worried that veterans would bring back bloodlust and proposed demilitarization centers for rehab prior to their release. Half a million divorces, drastic housing shortage, many lost jobs. Economic boom : rise in economic output.
GI Bill of Rights
2.3 million veterans received $500 a year for tuition and $50 a month for living costs, $15 billion total in education, medical treatment, and loans aided economic recovery.
Truman’s Relationship with Congress
Employment Act of 1946 was Truman’s only major legislative accomplishment. Congress removed the goal of providing full employment and the broad executive authority needed for that, also rejected requests for public housing, higher minimum wage, social-security expansion, a permanent FEPC, an anti-poll tax bill, fed. aid to education, and gov. medical insurance. Congress eager to dismantle wartime controls, incapable of dealing with inflation.
The Conflict over Poland
Soviets wanted to protect themselves against invasion : wanted a buffer of friendly nations along its western flank. Stalin put governments in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania, disregarded Yalta Declaration of Liberated Europe and barred free elections in Poland and suppressed Polish democratic parties. Stalin thought it was critical to national security, Truman thought it was a violation of the right of nations to self-determination and a betrayal of democracy to spread communism, and took a combative stance on it.
Containment Policy
Idea that strong, sustained US resistance could “contain” Soviet expansionism. Many rejected compromise with communists.
Ways the Cold War was Waged
Economic pressure, nuclear intimidation, propaganda, and subversion instead of direct military confrontation.
Truman Doctrine
Portrayed struggles in Greece/Turkey as a conflict between liberty/oppression, US had to support free people, or they would endanger peace of the world and their own nation. Committed US to the role of global policeman, was the foundation for most of the Cold War policy for the next four decades.
Marshall Plan
massive American assistance for European recovery, wanted to help hungry/homeless of all European countries : predicted Russia/allies would reject American assistance because of the conditions associated with acceptance, economic recovery in western Europe would expand sales of American goods abroad and make the US prosper. Appropriated $17 billion for economic recovery in 16 nations over a 5-year period.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
10 nations of Western Europe adopted NAT, establishing a military alliance with the US and Canada and declaring that an attack on any member of the alliance would be considered an attack against all. Truman asked Congress to authorize $1.3 billion for military assistance to NATO nations, appointed Eisenhower to supreme commander of the new mutual defense force, authorized stationing of four American army divisions in Europe as the nucleus of the NATO armed force. Soviets created German Democratic Republic, exploded atomic bomb, set up the Warshaw Pact.
Douglas MacArthur
head of the US occupation forces ruling Japan after the war, oversaw country’s transformation into a democracy. Mutual Security Treaty let US retain its military bases and troops in Japan, near Soviets’ Asian rim. Japan devoted resources to economic development, gained anti-communist ally in Pacific. Aided Philippines in defeating communism and helped French reestablish their colonial rule in Indochina.
China’s Civil War
Nationalist (Jiang Jieshi) vs. communism (Mao Zedong). Escalated assistance to nationalist forces ($3 billion). Nationalist armies had low morale, alienated peasants and city dwellers. Truman blamed it on the fact that Jiang didn’t achieve necessary reforms to garner support, embittered Americans who thought their future lay in Asia instead of Europe.
Committee of State and Defense Department officials created a report emphasizing the Soviet Union’s aggressive intentions and military strength. Called for a massive US military buildup to counter their design for world domination, advocated a large standing army and the quadrupling of defense expenditures to fight communism. Truman ordered implementation and tripled the defense budget.
Significance of the Korean Conflict
North Korea invaded South Korea (communist vs. democratic), Truman thought the move was a case of Soviet-directed aggression, secured UN sanction for “police action” against the aggressor. Ordered American air and sea forces to aid South Korea, appointed MacArthur to command the UN effort in Korea. Truman ordered limited war (to hold the border); MacArthur criticized policy, Truman dismissed him. Public opinion turned towards the Republican criticisms, took 2 years to approve a truce. Cost many lives, casualties, and $54 billion, sped up implementation of NSC-68 and the transformation of containment into a general global policy. US supported all perceived enemies of communism, preserved a balance of power by keeping South Korea from falling, established commitment to anticommunism, shift of focus from Europe to Asia. Truman set precedent for undeclared wars, expanded presidential powers, institutionalized the “warfare” state.
Taft-Hartley Act
Labor-Management Relations Act, modified union practices (Wagner Act) : outlawed closed shop and permitted the president to call an 80-day cool-off period to delay strikes that might endanger national safety/health. Increased difficulty of organizing non-unionized workers, Truman vetoed it, Congress overrode it.
Treatment of African-Americans during Truman’s Administration
African-Americans wanted to be able to vote, conducted voter-registration drives, raised number of blacks registered to vote in the South to 12%, but majority still faced intimidation, repression, and murder. Liberals and leftists joined Eleanor Roosevelt in establishing the National Emergency Committee against Violence. Truman thought all Americans should enjoy full rights of citizenship, white racism damaged American relations with the rest of the world. Established President’s Committee on Civil Rights to investigate race relations, report proposed antilynching and anti-poll tax legislation, called for an end to racial discrimination and segregation.
Delegates that dissented about taking strong civil rights action left the Democratic convention, formed States’ Rights Democratic party and nominated Thurmond for president. Wanted to use political power as leverage to restore their domination of the Democratic Party and to protect the “southern way of life”.
Election of 1948
Progressive Party nominated Wallace for president, threatened Truman’s chances in the northern states. Republicans vaguely approved New Deal policy and the administration’s bipartisan foreign policy, nominated Dewey/Warren for president. Truman campaigned fiercely, won reelection. 1948 : Truman barred discrimination in federal employment and created a committee to ensure equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin.
Measures of the Fair Deal
Asked Congress to enlarge New Deal programs regarding economic security, conservation, and housing and to go past FDR’s initiatives in civil rights, national health insurance, federal aid to education, and agricultural subsidies. Boosted minimum wage, increased social security coverage/payments, authorized construction of houses, conserved soil and flood control, paid for public power/slum clearance.
House Un-American Activities Committee
Platform for reactionaries’ denunciation of the New Deal as a communist plot to socialize America.
Results of HUAC Accusations
Blurred distinctions between dissent/disloyalty and radicalism/subversion. Many suspects were threatened with loss of their livelihoods, frightened unions into expelling communist members and staying away from progressive causes. Hollywood exiled dissenters against HUAC, barred employment of anyone with a questionable past. Truman prosecuted 11 leaders of the American Communist party under the Smith Act (outlawed conspiracy to advocate the overthrow of the government, ruled constitutional by the Supreme Court).
Alger Hiss
Chambers identified Hiss as an underground party member, initially denied communist affiliation and claimed not to know Chambers : liberals believed him, then admitted he had known Chambers. Hiss continued to deny being a communist, Chambers accused him of giving him secret State Department documents to be given to the Soviets. Hiss was indicted for perjury, sentenced to five years in federal prison.
The Rosenbergs
British arrested Klaus Fuchs for passing atomic secrets to the Soviets during WWII, also arrested Gold, who implicated Greenglass, who named his sister and brother, the Rosenbergs, as co-conspirators. Sentenced to die by electrocution, claimed they were being persecuted for leftist beliefs.
Joe McCarthy and McCarthyism
Republican senator, said communists in the State Department were undermining American power in world affairs, claimed he had a list of 205 names known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party. Branded as being a fraud and a hoax, McCarthyism became synonym for public charges of disloyalty without sufficient regard for evidence. Appealed to Midwestern Republicans, blue-collar workers, traditionally Democratic Catholic ethnics, many also hated privilege and gentility.
McCarran Internal Security Act
required organizations deemed to be communist to register with the Department of Justice and to furnish membership lists and financial statements. Barred communists from employment in defense plants, empowered gov. to deny them passports and to deport aliens suspected of subversion. Authorized arrest/detention during a national emergency of anyone suspected of engaging in espionage or sabotage.
Election of 1952
Stevenson nominated for Democrats, Republicans nominated Eisenhower, with Nixon as VP. Republicans won : Nixon continued attacking Democrats, Eisenhower pledged to go to Korea to end the stalemate. Gave GOP control of both houses of Congress.
Eisenhower’s Approach to the Presidency
Kept the nation prosperous and out of war, unified the country, inspired confidence. Devoted energy to major matters only, and brought contending factions together. Rarely intervened publicly in the legislative process, restrained view of presidential authority, appeared passive (let cabinet run smoothly, didn’t use office as leverage), created orderly chain of command.
Philosophy/Examples of “Dynamic Conservatism”
Advocating using any and all weapons in the federal arsenal (changes in monetary/credit policy, modification of tax structure, speed-up in construction of public works) to stimulate economy and check recessions. Extended social security benefits, raised minimum wage, added workers to those eligible for unemployment benefits, increased federally financed public housing for low-income families. Authorized Interstate Highway Act, construction of St. Lawrence Seaway, and creation of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
Reasons for McCarthy’s Fall
Accused the army of harboring communist spies, army accused him of using influence to gain preferential treatment for a drafted member of his staff. Behaved boorishly on televised hearings, slurred reputation of a lawyer assisting the army counsel. Senate voted to censure the senator, demolished him as a political force.
The Warren Court
Defended constitutional rights of people accused of subversive beliefs. Brown vs. Board of Education : overturned Plessy v. Ferguson, held that segregation generated a feeling of inferiority and violated the equal-protection clause of the 14th Amendment. Ordered desegregation of all schools.
Southern Manifesto
Denounced Brown as a clear abuse of judicial power, competed to outdo each other in opposition to desegregation. Signed by 100+ members of Congress in 1956.
Central High School
Faubus (governor of Arkansas) ordered National Guard to bar black students from entering the school under a federal court order. Another court order forced Faubus to withdraw the guard, replaced by a mob of whites. Eisenhower ordered the mob to disperse, then took control of the National Guard and dispatched them to protect the rights of blacks. Faubus shut down all of Little Rock’s public high schools. Foreshadowed TV’s role in the end of Jim Crow, showed fed. gov’s powers to use the law to mandate changes in the South, passed Civil Rights Act of 1957 to establish a permanent commission on civil rights with broad investigatory powers.
Korean Armistice
Set the boundary between North and South Korea close to the 38th parallel, established a panel of neutral nations to administer the prisoner of wars’ return.
Significance of Dulles
Secretary of State, against atheistic communism, wanted to liberate Eastern Europe and unleash Jiang Jieshi against communist China. Condemned neutrality as immoral, threatened reevaluation of American commitments if its allies didn’t follow the US lead in the Cold War. Insisted on brinkmanship : art of never backing down in a crisis, even risking war.
“New Look” Defense Program
Emphasized atomic bombs and the planes to deliver them while cutting back on the army and navy. Stressed threatening Moscow with massive retaliation instead of using US troops in wars in remote places. Spurred Soviets to enlarge their own nuclear stockpile.
Central Intelligence Agency
Allen Dulles commanded CIA, established by National Security Act of 1947 to conduct espionage and to analyze information on foreign nations, involved in undercover operations to topple US-hostile regimes. Subverted governments, bribed foreign politicians, and subsidized pro-American foreign newspapers and labor unions.
Significance of the Early Vietnam Conflict
French were fighting with the Vietminh (broad-based Vietnamese nationalist coalition of guerrilla fighters led by communist Ho Chi Minh). France appealed for US intervention, president was unwilling to commit US troops to a jungle war against a popular liberation movement. Geneva settlement arranged a ceasefire and divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel pending elections in 1956 to choose the gov. of a unified nation. Eisenhower ignored the settlement, CIA installed Diem (anticommunist Catholic) as president of South Vietnam, also worked with him to train armed forces and secret police, to eliminate political opposition, and to block the election to reunify Vietnam that the Geneva agreements had specified.
Suez Crisis and Eisenhower Doctrine
France, Britain, and Israel attacked Egypt (Nasser took over and wanted to modernize his country : nationalized Suez Canal, threatened their interests). Soviets threatened intervention, Eisenhower condemned invasion and ordered Strategic Air Command on alert. Swelled antiwestern sentiment in the Third World, and the US replaced Britain and France as the protector of Western interests in the Middle East. Eisenhower Doctrine : the US would send military aid and troops to any Middle Eastern nation that asked for help against international communism.
U-2 Spy Plane Incident
Soviets shot down high-altitude US spy plane 1200 miles inside Soviet borders. Exposed U-2 recon missions that the US had been flying over the Soviet Union since 1956 to spy on military installations.
Ike’s Farewell Address
Health of the nation’s economy was dependent on military expenditures and defense contracts. Intertwined combination of interests exerted enormous leverage in the councils of government and threatened traditional subordination of the military in American life. Warned against acquisition of unwarranted influence by the military-industrial complex, stated that he had avoided war but could not affirm lasting peace.
Health of the Economy
1950s were a period of economic abundance, many owned homes, cars, and TVs. GNP increased 50% due to heavy gov. spending, upsurge in productivity, and an increasing demand for consumer goods and services. 3 brief recessions (unemployment rate up to 7.6% at one time), rising national debt of $290 billion, but brought highest standard of living yet. Average American worker’s income was 35% higher than it had been in 1945.
New Industries
Scientific and technological research and development : nuclear power plant, fertilizers, pesticides, plastics; chemicals went from 50th-largest industry to 4th. Federal expenditures were 17% of the GNP. Electronics became 5th largest : electrical appliances and equipment (freezers, washers/dryers, blenders, TVs, stereos, electric blankets, garage-door openers, pencil sharpeners). Petroleum replaced coal as the nation’s main energy source. Aircraft and automobile industries expanded (lots of gasoline). Auto industry halved number of hours and workers required to produce a car, aviation industry switched to jet propulsion by commercial aviation.
ENIAC and New Computers
First electronic computer, operated to improve artillery trajectory. Programs were developed that could be stored inside computer memory, printed circuits substituted with wired ones, transistors ended reliance on radio tubes. Government relied on them heavily; automation transformed the nature of work by producing greater quantities of products in less time with fewer workers.
AFL-CIO and Blue Collar Workers
AFL and CIO merged, brought 85% of all union members into a single unit, promised aggressive unionism, but couldn’t regain old militancy. Most unionized Americans had decent wages and pensions, worked fewer than 40 hours a week, and received paid vacations and sickness/hospitalization benefits. United Automobile Workers/General Motors agreed to automatic wage hikes whenever productivity/cost of living rose, also won a guaranteed annual wage and provision that laid-off workers would be paid 2/3rd of their normal earnings in addition to gov. unemployment benefits from Ford. Decreased number of blue-collar workers due to automation, most new jobs were white-collar and in public employment. Organized labor dropped.
Rise of the Suburbs
Supported by desire for automobiles. Many moved in search of affordable single-family dwellings, to escape crime/grime of central cities, and to distance themselves from urbanized minorities. Looking for residence oriented towards children and education. Suburban population nearly doubled, 18 million moved to suburbs. The majority of Americans lived in their own homes instead of rented places. Many moved from North to South and from East to West for right-to-work laws (outlawed union shop), low taxes, and low energy costs.
Critics of the 1950s
Attacked conformity and consumerism, American religion, the young, identical houses and monotony, shallow quality of life in mass housing, markets, corporations, government, media, and boredom.
Levittown, USA
Revolutionized home construction : pioneered mass-production techniques to construct a large, inexpensive housing development. Reflected shift in population to suburbia.
Dr. Benjamin Spock
Wrote “Baby and Child Care”, urged mothers to create an atmosphere of warmth and intimacy for their children so they could mature into well-adjusted adults. Led to less scolding and spanking and more democratic family discussions. “Filiarchy” : children’s wants dominated. Mothers should be fully devoted to child care, wanted government to pay them so they wouldn’t have to work outside the home.
Evangelical Fundamentalism
Church attendance increased, turned to religion for reassurance in an anxious age for peace of mind and a sense of belonging. Intensity of religion decreased : many churches preached fellowship and Americanism.
Significance of 1950s Culture in Movies
Concentrated on westerns, musicals, and costume spectacles. Portrayed Americans as a big, happy, white, middle-class family. Glorified material success and romantic love, represented women as subordinated child-women, helpmates, or dumb blondes.
Rise of Television in the Homes
Number of households with TVs increased to 5 million and increased by that much every year. TV Guide outsold all other periodicals, TV dinner changed eating habits, and producers showcased talent and creativity (opera, documentaries, comedies, dramas). Transformed into conformity and consumerism, added commercials, appealed to the lowest common denominator of taste to compete for the largest audiences. Reinforced consumerism and conformity, spawned nationwide fads. Strengthened gender/race stereotypes and encouraged passivity, impacted American politics.
Characteristics of the Poor During 1950s
A family of four earning less than $3000 a year, victims of malnutrition, disease, and squalor. Lived in depressed rural areas, average hourly wage of 50 cents, most children didn’t drink milk, most adults didn’t eat meat, and many slept on the ground, in a cave, under a tree, or in a chicken house. Most lived in slums, strained inadequate schools and housing. Those in need of services migrated to cities, low-cost housing did not exist for the most part. Landlords excluded non-whites from decent housing.
Results of Civil Rights Movement during 1950s
Rosa Parks refused to get up so a white man could sit, she was arrested. Montgomery’s black leaders boycotted the buses, Martin Luther King, Jr. gave speeches. Whites intimidated and harassed blacks and firebombed homes of black leaders, but they stayed off the buses and gained self-respect. Supreme Court outlawed segregation on buses. Affirmed possibility of social change, King and ministers formed Southern Christian Leadership Conference.
Life for Hispanics and Native Americans
Didn’t make much progress in ending their discrimination. Puerto Ricans suffered from inadequate schools, sanitation services, and police protection and were denied middle-class jobs and political influence. Congress enacted temporary worker program that brought in seasonal laborers (braceros) to stem illegal immigration, but it didn’t work. Mexicans were arrested/detained when walking the streets and asked to prove their legal right to be there : made them mistrust the government. Some states passed anti-discrimination laws, but conditions didn’t improve : depressed wages for workers. Native Americans were the poorest and most ignored minority : lost more than half the land they possessed, Congress adopted House Concurrent Resolution 108 to end Indians’ status as wards of the US and called for liquidation of the reservation system and the termination of special fed. services to tribes. Further impoverished Indians.
Sputnik and NASA
Soviets launched Sputnik – first artificial earth satellite, circled the earth at 18000 miles an hour. Sputnik II carried a dog and went into a more distant orbit, dashed American myth of unquestioned technological superiority. Eisenhower established Science Advisory Committee, led to the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration : launched several space probes and successfully tested the Atlas intercontinental ballistic missile system. Led to an attempt to raise educational standards and remove educational establishment’s resistance to curriculum reform. National Defense Education Act : provided loans to undergrad and grad students, funds for teacher training and the development of new instructional materials in sciences, math, and foreign languages. Depended on higher education to ensure national security.
Youth Rebellion
Cultural restiveness and search for self-definition. Adults didn’t consider the results of their affluence on the young, or having a generation of teenagers in school instead of working. 10% of teenagers were delinquents, many wore motorcycle jackets, slicked back their hair, used slang, and embraced rock and roll, to the dismay of adults. Elvis Presley, Marlon Brando, James Dean were loved, enjoyed ridicule of phony/pretentious middle-class America, customized cars to make personal statements.
The Beat Writers
Scorned competition and materialism of the fifties corporate world. Romanticized society’s outcasts, glorified uninhibited sexuality, spontaneity, and spirituality. Fans rejected complacency and cautiousness of the era, decried nuclear arms race.
Greensboro sit-ins
Students from N. Caro. Agricult. And Technical College sat at a restaurant, and said they would not leave until they were served. After 6 months of sit-ins and other peaceful protests, the restaurant served them. Encouraged this behavior all over the country.
JFK and the New Frontier
JFK’s theme of reform in the US, victory abroad, and more sacrifice instead of ore security.
1960 election
VP Richard Nixon was running, and popular, however liberals disliked him for his McCarthyism work, he became unpopular after the U-2 incident, but most of all he and JFK had 4 televised debates. The attractive Kennedy was more popular than the nervous Nixon. People were nervous that JFK was catholic though. JFK won with 0.2% more votes than Nixon.
Positives and negatives of JFK’s domestic policies
Although very popular, he didn’t do a ton. His main goal was economic growth through defense spending. He spent a ton on preparing a nuclear stockpile, and on getting a man on the moon. He had lower business taxes using investment credits and depreciation allowances.
Good-He did successfully double economic growth, lower unemployment, and limit inflation.
Bad- Fought with businesses, after he tried to stop wage and price increases, but US Steel then raised it prices a lot. JFK was mad, made big threats, then did nothign. Liberals complained he didn’t do anything to stop huge tax loopholes for the rich, and big business. He didn’t do much for social welfare, the public sector, or the environment.
JFK’s record on Civil Rights
Didn’t really want to deal with the issue, fearing it would split democrats. He appointed many blacks to high gov’t jobs, yet also white racists to courts. JFK wanted desegregation with court cases, but didn’t do much with congress liberals trying to pass civil-rights legislation. JFK was slow to respond to a number of devastating and horrible attacks. Eventually JFK had enough, gave a speech saying how this was horrible, and wrote a civil rights bill. It failed.
“flexible response”
To try and avoid “humiliation of all-out nuclear action”, JFK tried to create a number of military options. Including: nuclear power, regular military forces, and the “Green Berets” to fight 3rd world guerilla revolutionaries.
Alliance for Progress and Peace Corps
Programs designed to help in the 3rd world so that communism would be less appealing. Alliance for Progress was a $100 bil. effort of public and private to try and give social reform and economic development in Latin America. The peace corps let volunteers work for two years in certain jobs.
Positives and Negatives of JFK’s foreign policy
The creation of the Berlin wall did however prevent War. JFk also started a $3.5 bil program to build fallout shelters for all Americans. He handled the Cuban missile crisis well. Missile crisis handling led to the détente phase of the cold war, a bit calmer.
He tried to eliminate the communist outpost in Cuba w/ 1500 anti-Castro exiles. This failed horribly. In peace talks with USSR’s Khrushchev, Khrushchev made threats on westward invasion of Germany. JFK had the US start preparing for war. This caused the Berlin wall to be built, preventing Berliners from escaping communism.
Martin Luther King (A Place in Time)
A leader in the civil rights movement. Best known for a speech he gave on August 28th 1963 in DC as part of a protest for equality. It didn’t end segregation, or speed Congress on equality, but it did show need of racial equality as part of the American Dream.
Cuban Missile Crisis
A US spy plane saw the construction of nuclear launch sites in Cuba aimed for the US. We had a naval blockade to stop any more weapons from coming. His advisors wanted an invasion, but JFK refused to attack. Eventually Khrushchev sent a letter saying they would remove the missiles if we never invade Cuba. We then got a second letter saying we also have to remove our missiles in Turkey. We ignored letter 2 and agreed to the first one. A “hot line” was created to US could contact USSR easily in times of crisis like this.
Expanding role in Southeast Asia
Fearing a communist N. Vietnam attack upon S. Vietnam, we started messing with S. Vietnam. We put in lots of troops, and tried to change who was in power many times. The National Liberation Front or Vietcong attacked against most of these gov’ts. JFK was then shot in 1963, so that kinda slowed his plans.
Historians assessment of JFK
With the lack of a liberal majority in Congress, JFK was restrained on much of his agenda. He let with a mostly mixed record. He both built up an unnecessary nuclear arsenal, but also made the first nuclear test ban. He saw the need for social reform, but didn’t fun the Alliance for Progress in Latin America very well.
LBJ’s personality
Experienced politician, very persuasive when dealing w/ allies or enemies, and when creating legislation. His southern roots and protestant religion also appealed to many.
Election of 1964
Conservatives weren’t so sure about the grand Great Society plan of LBJ. Many also feared his plans of civil rights. Republicans ran super conservative people that went against everything Johnson wanted. This let Johnson appear both liberal and moderate. Johnson won by far.
Great Society Record- significance and examples
A significant liberal effort. Displayed increasing role of government in dealing with poverty and the environment. The programs were flawed, and there as Vietnam, so it failed. Some programs include, the 1964 Civil Rights Act, ending discrimination in public accommodations, the 1965 Medical Care Act, created Medicare and Medicaid, the Immigration Act ended the 1924 quotas, 1964 Economic Opportunity Act gave money for a war on poverty, and created many programs to give the poor jobs.
The Warren Court
The court at this point was super liberal. Warren had given the Brown v BOE decision, and it was only getting more liberal. In the 60s the court banned bible reading in public schools, affirmed representation in elections is based off people not property, limited censorship ability, banned state contraceptive banning, and supported the right to an attourney and knowledge of their rights to defendants.
Freedom Summer Project 1964
A Mississippi project to dramatize the need for blacks to get voting rights. The project helped people register to vote and had schools teaching black history and self-worth. They were violently attacked by many whites.
Voting Rights Act
In 1965 the voting rights act expanded black suffrage and changed south politics. The law let fed. examiners register possible voters and suspend literacy tests in places where less than half of minority residents who could vote were registered. Also the 1964 24th amendment and 1966 court case banned poll taxes.
Race riots
In the summers of 1964 : 1968 there were horrible race riots in cities all over. By the end, $200 mil. of property had been destroyed, 40,000 arrests, and 200 dead.
“Black Power”
Blacks wanted power due to riots and slow racial change of a white society that was blocking even small black advances. Less based on ideology and more on fury and frustration, Black Power came from Malcolm X. Malcolm X taught that blacks must control their own destiny, and take action to get it. He encouraged getting freedom immediately w/ any means necessary. Encouraged violent actions, and blacks everywhere switched to it.
How did other minority groups respond?
Similarly. They two had been treated dreadfully, and they fought back a little. Indians pretended to take over Alcatraz prison (already abandoned), and then “sell” it to the US for $24. They complained to the fed. gov’t for equal rights and aid. Mexicans in the US did similar protesting things.
New tactics/attitudes of women’s movement
A new women’s movement encouraged by civil rights wanted equal pay and treatment for their work, right to abortion, and to not be stereotyped. The Nat’l Organization for Women (NOW) called themselves a civil rights group for women. They used the idea of class oppression for Marxist theory, tactics of black liberation, and organization of the student anti-Vietnam movement. Held a “strike” in 1970.
LBJ’s escalation
Fearing that he would look weak, communist, or allow communism’s spread, LBJ expanded the American role in Vietnam, hoping American strength would win. Yet the N. Vietnamese and Nat’l Liberation Front thought it would be best to outlast the US instead of negotiating. The war was terrible for SE Asia, and separated the US incredibly.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
LBJ first prepared plans for air strikes on N. Vietnam. Then he appointed pro-war Maxwell Taylor as an ambassador to Saigon in S. Vietnam. In August 1964, LBJ claimed that N. Vietnam ships attacked some of ours, (even though we really were raiding N. Vietnam). We passed the Gulf on Tonkin Resolution almost 100% to take all measures necessary to stop further actions against the US and stop further aggression.
Operation Rolling Thunder
Sustained bombing of N. Vietnam Using the Tonkin Resolution loosely for justification. Designed to cause negotiations with Hanoi in N. Vietnam, and to support he S. Vietnam morale. Failed at all of them. So LBJ sent troops.
War opposition movement
Much among the young generation, especially colleges, War protests were super common. Many well known people, like Robert Kennedy, spoke out against it. TV coverage weakened support for the war. Yet still, 65% of people, which had lots of college students supported LBJ.
Beliefs of most 1960’s youths- who were the protesters?
The majority of youths were relatively good people who wanted security, not the crazy protesting druggies. Protestors were a liberal minority of college kids, who didn’t want to be silent.
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) and Port Huron Statement
SDS grew from an old socialist group, became big. The P.H. Statement was SDS’s manifesto. It said that the group wanted to replace American materialism and aristocracy with love, reason, and creativity. SDS supported nonviolent protests + democracy where all can participate on issues that affect them.
Kent State Massacre
After Nixon said he was invading Cambodia, many students were unhappy. May 1970, some radical students at Kent State U in OH became slightly violent (breaking windows, throws rocks at popo cars). The OH governor sent 3000 nat’l guardsmen. Students held a peaceful protest the next day, and the nat’l guard attacked with bayonets, teargas, and shots. Killed 4, wounded 9 badly. Resulted in more nat’l students protests.
Drug culture
Many people in the 60/70s had interesting social society ideas. Many did drugs. Somewhat based on the 50’s Beats, the “hippies” were disgusting with their causal sex and drug use. In late 60s, 50%+ of college students had tried pot, others did things like LSD. Rock + Roll was a part of drug culture too. Hippies grew long hair and wore funky clothing to separate themselves from the rest of society.
Roe vs. Wade
1973 Landmark sup. crt. case that stopped any states from banning abortion in the first trimester. Around this time, the court banned laws limiting sexually explicit materials.
Changes in attitudes re-sex
In this era of contraceptives and pre-AIDS, people were often very sexually open. Magazines encouraged women to have recreational sex. These actions resulted in an almost doubled 1970s divorce rate and some growth of early gay rights.
Effects of Vietnam on the election of 1968
At first it looked like LBJ would win easily. Then on “Tet” (Viet. New year), Jan 31 1968 there was a huge attack from the NLF on S. Vietnam. The media emphasized the American deaths, and ferocious fighting. War approval plummeted.
Robert Kennedy
Mar. 16, Robert joined the democratic contest promising to end the war. He had the Kennedy popularity, and promised to help the common people. People either loved or hated him. June 5, he was assassinated too.
Election of 1968
Mar. 31, LBJ said he wanted to try and get the country out of the war, and he wouldn’t run for pres. Republican Richard Nixon won, and promised to return order to Vietnam.
Youth International Party. Had guerilla type stunts and threats, mostly to ridicule the political system. The democratic Chicago mayor and police were BRUTAL to the yippies. Made people think of democrats as party of disarray and dissent.
Silent majority and conservatives
There was a strong conservative resurgence. Nixon stood for the silent majority some. S. majority also supported the independent Wallace.
What was Nixon’s foreign policy focus?
He wanted to make his mark. He thought he could really focus on advancing national interests. He wanted to limit USSR expansion, bring worldwide stability, limit nuclear arms race. He wanted an easing of tensions with communism.
Nixon Doctrine
Redefined US role in 3rd world countries. Says we will provide money and moral support in other Asian countries fighting commies, but the country has to fight.
Nixon’s plan to leave Vietnam by transferring the conflict over to the S. Vietnam gov’t. Replacing American troops with S. Viet troops. Then Nixon had secr. of st. Henry Kissinger secretly negotiate w/ the Viet. Gov’t so they wouldn’t fall to communism.
Invasion of Cambodia and results
To stop the war with “jugular diplomacy”, Nixon bombed supply roots for N. Viet in neutral Cambodia. N. Viet then invaded Cambodia, so the US and S. Viet followed. The S. Viet and US did capture some of the enemy weapons , and buy time for Vietnamization. But, increased protests in US led to the Jackson and Kent St. deaths.
End of war in Vietnam
Oct. 1972, days before election, Nixon makes a deal with N. Viet. Required withdrawal of US troops, return of US P.O.W.s, , and gave into N. Viet’s main want it allowed N. Viet to keep troops in S. Viet. At first S. Viet opposed this, then finally agreed on them called the “Paris Accords”.
The easing of tensions. The first major change in the relation between US, USSR, and China since the start if the Cold War. Nixon went to China and significantly improved relations, and also went to USSR where they made a trade deal with us. US and USSR signed Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I), limiting nuclear arms.
Six Day War
1967 Israel feared an Arab attack, so they launched a preemptive attack. They did well and got control of much land, including the Sinai and Gaza strips, and the West Bank. War exploded again over Yom Kippur in 1973. US pressured for a cease-fire, but none came. So Arabs stopped oil sale to the US.
OPEC and the oil embargo
After selling Israel weapons, Arabs embargoed oil sales to US. Oil prices quadrupled. It was bad. Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries was Arab area. Countries calmed some after we made deals with Arabs and Israel. Improved opinions of Nixon.
Nixon’s relationship with the media
Media portrayed him as a strong man with self-control who watched over everything. In reality he was super insecure, suspicious, and angry. Nixon thought that they wanted to discredit him.
Legislation during Nixon presidency
Being a republican when both houses of Congress were democratic was an issue. At first he allowed a little extension of great society stuff. Again against what Nixon wanted, he passed laws protecting the environment. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration was created. The government became bigger and more obtrusive w/ Nixon.
New Federalism
A political ideology that some powers should be given from the Federal Government back to the States. It would restore some of the autonomy and power the states had before FDR’s New Deal and the Civil Rights Acts of the 1960’s.
State of the economy and stagflation
With rising nat’l debt and the fed raising rates, the economy was slowing down. Unemployment soared. Stagflation is rising prices and economy recession (stagnation).
Role of the Department of Justice in suppressing opposition
Along w/ the CIA, the Just. Dept. worked with police and misinformation groups to stop violent Black Panther groups. Nixon used tons of gov’t resources to bring down his opponents.
Pentagon Papers
A document given to the press in 1971 that documented the US role in Vietnam, including all the shady deals, lies, and usurpations. It was published in the NYT Jun 13 1971. The gov’t tried to censor it, but the sup. crt. said that they couldn’t.
Election of 1972 and CREEP
Nixon’s reelection seemed obvious. He was popular for ending Vietnam and finally calming things w/ China and USSR. He was against Democrat George McGovern. The Committee to Re-Elect the President (CREEP) used campaign funds to do a bunch of dirty tricks, like spying on opposition. Some committee members were arrested, and a big cover-up started.
Watergate cover-up and media investigation
After being elected, the case for the Watergate burglars was held. One arrested person was convinced to admit White House aids had known about the break-in. Senate created Special Committee on Presidential Campaign Activates to investigate the matter. Wash. Post “deep throat” was secret informant.
Watergate trial
It was discovered that Nixon had done these bad things, and impeachment trial started. The trial tried to force him to give secretly recorded tapes as evidence. Nixon edited the tapes, but they insisted for the real ones. Nixon gave in, and that was all the needed evidence. He was about to be impeached when he resigned to avoid impeachment.
Nixon’s resignation
After VP Spiro Agnew had left, house minority leader Gerald Ford was set to replace him. Nixon resigned, and Ford took over the presidency, despite never having been elected to the presidential office at all.
Nuclear power and hazards
Gained some attention in the late 70s. 3 Mile island was ’79. The nation was still in fear of other nations and their nuclear power.
Young Urban Professional. Obsessed with physical appearance and material wealth. Moved from suburbs to the city. Moved to poor areas, and gentrified them expensively.
Changes in entertainment
Average daily TV time went from 6 to 7 hours ’70 to ’90. Theme parks became popular. More people followed pro sports. The VCR and VHR were invented, changing how people watch stuff. Personal computers were growing.
The Feminine Mystique and NOW
The f. Mysitique was by Betty Friedan, and started a new generation of female activism. Friedan started the National Organization for Women (NOW) to support women’s rights in birth control and employment, The NOW had a magazine to spread the word.
Roe vs. Wade
Landmark court case. Banned restrictions on an abortion in the first trimester. Relied on the right to privacy and 14th amendment.
Equal Rights Amendment
An amendment giving everyone equal rights. Was quickly passed in Congress, and was ratified by bunch, then slowed down a ton. Fell 3 states short of the ¾.
Effects of women working outside the home
Many women had to b/c of soaring living costs. Many more women in higher jobs like managers, lawyers, doctors. Sparked another feminist movement. For equal pay mostly.
Reagan’s attitudes re: women and minorities
The Regan administration tried to avoid gov’t role in social issues, and opposed many feminist goals. Budget cuts were harsh on social-welfare, especially for women and children.
New immigration
No longer mostly from Europe. 45% from western hemisph., and 30% from Asia. Hispanics are the fastest growing group. Growth of illegal immigrants. Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 bans hiring illegal immigrants.
AIM and results
American Indian Movement. Tired of horrible treatment, Indians invaded and occupied Wounded Knee, SD (where they were massacred in 1890) and some other places. Nixon took a new approach in 1970 of giving Indians more freedom. They got their reservation land, and they got to control it and their schools. Made Indians happy.
Slowed the loosening of sexual morals and sexual revolution. Started emphasis on safe sex, but gave some haters something to use an excuse for hating gays, as they were the first to have the disease.
New evangelism
In a crazy time, some people wanted assurance and guidance from religion. Some new protestant denominations appeared, and got strong followings. Many also turned to political activity.
Significance of Ford’s term
He was an all-American guy in the White House. Public loved him until he pardoned Nixon to let the nation move on. Then the nation hated him. Biggest things were bad economy, energy issue, and cold war. Did create SALT II.
Results of Oil and economic crises
Fed is increasing rates, but inflation continues. So does inflation, resulting in stagflation. OPEC kept increasing the cost and limiting supply, and this was very bad to a country of 1/3 imported oil. The public started buying small, fuel efficient foreign cars, which hurt Detroit terribly.
Mayagüez incident
After the S. Viet gov’t fell, an effort was made to rescue Americans at the embassy while N. Viet troops closed in. A few weeks later, the new commie Cambodia seized the Mayagüez, a US ship. Mad, Ford sent military to rescue. 41 troops died to save the 39 sailors.
Carter’s difficulties
Lacked a political plan or clear ideology. Had to fight the stagflation (used tax cuts and works programs), he reformed civil service in gov’t, and had a poor relationship w/ Congress. Didn’t do much domestically, but did do both very good and bad abroad.
Pros and Cons of Carter’s foreign policies
Returned the Panama Canal to Panama. Mao died, and the new Chinese leader wanted to improve relations. Carter restored all diplomatic relations Jan 1, 1979. Not happy with the Soviets, and passed many anti-USSR measures.
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty II would have restricted nuclear power even more between USSR and US. Brezhnev agreed to it, but after UUSSR invaded Afganistan, Carter saw it as the USSR’s evil expansion, and withdrew SALT 2.
Arab-Israeli relations and Camp David Accords
Arab-Israeli relations were very bad. Carter invited Egypt’s el-Sadat and Isreal’s Menachem Begin to Camp David. The Camp David accords would end fighting and give eventual freedom to West Bank and Gaza Strip. Arabs felt this made el-Sadat a traitor, and killed him. The accords failed, but it was good for Carter’s policy record.
Iranian hostage crisis
Pro-US leader in Iran fled during rebellions. Angry rebels took 50 Americans at the embassy hostage. A plan to rescue them ended with the rescue planes crashing and killing the crew. Hostages were released day after Regan’s inauguration.
Causes and effects of inflation
High interest rates and very high oil prices continued to cause inflation. Resulted in stagflation of high unemployment, rising cost of living, low business revenue.
Ideology of conservative revolution
The “New Right” was the new Republican movement. It involved cultural conservatism, stressing social and moral issues against new things like the counter culture, women’s rights, etc.
Basically, without taxes and gov’t regulation, business can bloom. Regan first cut taxes a ton, then lowered spending on programs like school lunches or urban transit. Also significant deregulation. Economy under Regan had some issues (trade deficit growing fast).
Reagan and the Cold War
Détente era was fading, and soviet hating was growing again. Regan called them the “evil empire”. Lots of anti-USSR covert things El Salvador and Nicaragua (poor countries), our gov’t got involved and supported brutal oppression of leftist rebels.
Anti-nuclear protests
Based on the research by the government and how they were dealing with the cold war, many felt nuclear war was close. Not supporting the continued nuclear buildups, some protested.
Election of 1984
Lots to criticize, like huge military spending, giant budget and trade deficits, worsening Cold War tensions, cuts in social programs, etc. Yet some liked the toughening up against USSR, generally good economy, etc. of Regan. He won reelection.