APUSH Significance Terms Chpt 6

Constitutional Convention
1787 delegates met to address the problems of the weak central government that existed under the Articles of Confederation.
Significance: This meeting led to the creation of the Constitution of the united states.
Framers of Constitution
1787 The Framers of the Constitution were delegates to the Constitutional Convention and helped draft the Constitution of the United States .
Significance: Literally framed the Constitution into what it is today. Making it last for over 200 years
James Madison
(1751-1836)
Significance: James Madison James Madison is known as the “father of the constitution” He had a leading role at the convention
He was a federalist and switched over to a democratic republican once the first political parties were formed
He wrote the bill of rights
From Virginia
Alexander Hamilton
(1755-1804)
a prominent federalist, who took control of the convention with Madison. Was later the first secretary of treasury under the Washington administration. Significance: presented to Congress a comprehensive plan for putting U.S finances on a firm and stable foundation.
John Dickenson
(1732-1808) In the years leading up to the Revolution, his writings were widely read in both America and England and he gained a reputation as the “penman of the Revolution.” Essays like his “Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer” helped to define American grievances. He was a member of the First and Second Continental Congresses
Significance: helped to write the Articles of Confederation.
Checks and Balances
(1787) A system of government where one branch of government has sufficient power to check the others
Significance: Created a system where no branch can outweigh the other.
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Virginia plan
(1787) proposed by James Madison, it favored large states, basing the number of representatives a state was entitled to, on the size of it’s population
Significance: Created the bases of the electoral college and led to the great compromise which created the house and the senate
New Jersey Plan
(1787) the counter to the Virginia plan, favor small states, wanted equal representation for each state in Congress regardless of population size
Significance: Created the bases of the electoral college and led to the great compromise which created the house and the senate
Great Compromise
(Connecticut plan)
(1787) A compromised was created from the conflicting New Jersey and Virginia plans. Two houses arouse from the compromise, the house and the senate.
Significance: Provided equal representation of the 13 states.
House of Representatives
(1787)
the larger of the two houses of congress, it is the lower house, with the number of representatives from each state being based on population.
Significance: created equal representation of the states.
Senate
(1787) The upper house of the United States government. For equal representation of each state in the government, 2 senators are chosen to represent each state and each senator serves in terms of 6 years.
Significance: created a balance and counterpart to the equal representation of states in the senate.
Three Fifths Compromise
(1787) Three-fifths Compromise counted each slave as three-fifths of a person for the purposes of determining a state’s level of taxation and representation
Significance: started the conversation on the treatment of African Americans (abolitionists were coming into the picture.)
Slave trade
(1787) A law was made that made the importation of slaves unlawful after the year 1808 (20 years later) if it was wished so.
Significance: started the conversation on the treatment of African Americans (abolitionists were coming into the picture.)
Electoral College
(1787) A group of people elected by the people of each state to elect the President and Vice-President of the United States each year. After the state votes during the election term, the votes are tallied up. The states with the biggest populations get the most votes in the electoral college. The candidate that wins gets the most votes from that state gets all of the votes in an electoral college.
Significance: Speeds up the process of Presidential elections and is still in affect today.
Federalist
(1788) People who strongly supported the constitution and central government.
Significance: Started to form the democratic party we have today
Anti Federalists
(1788) People who strongly opposed the constitution and the focus on central government
Significance: Started to form the Republican party we have today.
The Federalist papers
(1787) The Federalist Papers 85 essays that were eventually published as a book, which presented cogent reasons for believing in the practicality of each major provision of the Constitution. The highly persuasive essays were originally published in an NY newspaper and were written by Madison, Hamilton and John Jay.
Significance: It helps us understand and original intent of the Constitution.
Bill of Rights
(1791) The collective name for the first 10 amendments of the Constitution. They were written by James Madison.
Significane: Limits governmental power on the people while protecting individual liberties.
Amendment
(1789) A modification to the Constitution. There are 2 steps: a proposal of the amendment and the ratification of the amendment.
Significance: Amendments inmprove the Constitution and make it a living document.
Legislative Branch
(1787) The part of the US government that creates laws. It is composed of both the House and the Senate. The House is made up of 435 members, each state is represented by a certain number of people based on their population. The Seaker of the House is in charge of the House. The Senate has 100 members in it, 2 from each state and the Vice-President is in charge of the Senate.
Significance: Helps the executive branch create and enact laws
Executive Branch
(1787) the executive departments (state, treasury, war, justice) focus on certain aspects of the government that fall under the executive branch, the heads of these departments form the cabinet, which meets with the president and advises him
SIgnificance: A branch that balances and keeps the judiciary and legislative branches in check.
Judiciary Act of 1789
(1789) congress created this act establishing a Supreme Court with one chief justice and five associate justices.
Significance: Organized the Supreme Court and established the Judicary’s role in the national government.
Federal Court
(1789) courts that hear federal cases
Significance: A way of breaking down the process of lawmaking and handling court cases, federal cases being the most important
national debt
The amount of money owed by the US government because of them borrowing money elsewhere. There are 2 components; debt held by the public and debt held by government accounts and intragovernmental debt
national bank
A privately owned bank that allowed the federal govt to to print paper currency and use federal deposits to stimulate business.
significance: introducing early forms of capitalism
tariff
(1789) A tax or duty on a class of specific imported or exported products.
Significance: Tariffs restrict trade and to provide more revenue for domestic producers and the governement because it drives the price of foreign products up.
French Revolution
(1789-1793) Americans supported most of the French’s ideas to become an established republic but they thought the French were a little out of control (mass executions and such). Americans sympathized however they were allied with the Monarchy instead of the people who wanted a republic. Washington eventually decided to stay out of it.
Significance: Established a democratic leadership in France and took the power away from a small group of people.
Proclamation of Neutrality
(1793) Proclamation that Washington created to make the United States neutral to European wars.
Significance: Isolated America from Foreign affairs.
Jay Treaty
(1794-1795) Addressed differences between Great Britain and the US. Within the treaty, the British agreed to remove British troops from American territoryand they also agreed to settle financial concerns between Great Britain and the US.
Significance: The Jay Treaty prevented war between America and Great Britain.
Pickney Treaty
(1795) Was created to establish friendship between Spain and the US. It also defined boundries of the US with Spanish colonies and guaranteed the US navigation rights of the Mississippi River.
Significance: Allowed American settlers to continue Westward expansion.
Whiskey Rebellion
(1794) A rebellion formed from the taxes on whiskey by the federal government. It enraged farmers and caused an uprising in which Washington quickly snuffed out.
Significance: Further fueled the argument against big government
Democratic-Republican
(1790) Considered the first ‘Republican’ party. Also known as Jeffersonian Republicans because it was considered to be the parties of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in the 1790s. It was formed in opposition to the nes Federalist party and its policies.
Significance: It was the first forming of Democratic parties.
XYZ Affair
(1797-1798) Adams sent a delegation to Paris and they bribed off three French ministers which infuriated americans. The federalists wanted to go war with the french but President Adams was against it knowing that their army and navy were not strong enough.
Significance: further put separation between the plitical parties.
Alien and Sedition Acts
(1798) A group of concerning foreigners that was signed into law by President Adams. These laws enabled the government to deport foreigners and it also made it harder for foreigners to vote. These acts were created in response to the French foreign threat and the impending war with France.
Significance: It violated the 1st amendment and it was also the first example of repressive immigration legislation passed out of fear of foreigners.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
(1798-1799) Were created in response Alien and Sedition Acts. Jefferson (Kentucky Resolution) said that the State should have the right to nullify and void congressional acts that they thought were unconstitutional. Madison (Virginia Resolution) said the same thing but more mild.
Significance: The Resolutions became sort of landmark documents for states’ rights, especially during the Nullification Crisis.
First Continental Congress
(1774) Created in response to The Intolerable Acts. 56 delagates from 12 of the 13 colonies came together to protest parlimentary infringments of their rights and to restore their relationship with Great Britain after the 7 Years’ War.
Significance: It was the first union of most of the colonies for one cause.
Patrick Henry
Samuel Adams
John Adams
George Washington
John Jay
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
Paul Revere
William Dawes
Minutemen
Lexington and Concord
(1775) British troops, commanded by General Thomas Gage,
Significance: The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War.
Battle of Bunker Hill
Second Continental Congress
Declaration of the Causes and Necessities for Taking Up Arms
Olive Branch Petition
Thomas Paine
Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson
Patriots
Loyalists
Valley Forge
Battle of Saratoga
Battle of Yorktown
Treaty of Paris
Articles of Confederation
Unicameral legislature
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Shay’s Rebellion
Abigal Adams