APUSH Periods 3+4

How did war and rivalries on the North American continent impact the lives of Native Americans?
Natives lost most of their land as result of French and Indian War and revolution
Divided Iroquois, leads to demise of powerful Iroquois confederacy
During revolution, sided with the British (Proclamation of 1763)
Colonists began attacking Natives
War of 1812: one reason we fought- British encouraged Natives to attack us in Great Lakes
Natives continued to lose land and chose wrong side to support
How did different social group identities evolve during the revolutionary struggle?
Race, gender, ethnicity, religion
Difference between patriots and loyalists (loyal to crown)
Relationship between VA and Massachusetts as rebel colonies
Women: Daughters of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
People begin to think differently about themselves and their role in society
Religion: people who stay Anglican and everybody else
After the war, Federalist and Antifederalist, states rights vs federal supremacy
How did the newly independent United States attempt to formulate a national economy?
Hamilton
Wanted economy to be based on industry, developing their own economy
National Bank
Wanted to take over state debt because national debt was good, small permanent national debt keeps money flowing through economy, good for government to have business relationships
Wanted to reestablish relationship with British
Supported tariff, not super high but enough to protect domestic manufacturing
Articles of Confederation- issue with economics
How did the revolutionary struggle and its aftermath reorient white-American Indians relations and affect subsequent population movements?
Native Americans lost out, attacked all the time, colonists took out anger on them
After revolution, no one to stop Americans from westward expansion
Puts an end to Native American attempt to fight back
How did the ideology behind the revolution affect power relationships between different ethnic, racial, and social groups?
Locke- life, liberty, pursuit of happiness, right of revolution (if govt is not protecting your natural rights, you have right to overthrow them)
Theories of representation
After revolution, push for women and African Americans
Brings up question of slavery- how is that protecting life and liberty?
States in North begin to abolish slavery, South disagrees
Women begin to question their rights and role in society
Republican Motherhood- role created for women to raise good citizens
Loyalists to the crown lose power and have land confiscated
Catholics gain power because French are Catholic, Anglicans lose power
More power for Scotch-Irish in back country (they had hated British)
republicanism
Where did the American colonists acquire their ideas about a “right of revolution”?
Right of revolution= idea that if the govt is not protecting your rights, you have the right to overthrow them
The Enlightenment, Locke
Why was the federalist/antifederalist rift so great? What did it lead to?
Debate over whether the Constitution should be ratified
Split great because many think that Federalists are acting illegally, not protecting the rights of the people, and centralizing power like the British
Led to split early in the United States between those who wanted state’s power and federal supremacy→ immediately led to the Bill of Rights, formation of political parties over interpretation of Constitution
How did the revolution become an international conflict involving competing European and American powers?
France and Spain involved
We exploited the French and British rivalry, they supported us because they hated the British
Spain was allied with France because of their religious background
Why did the patriot cause spread so quickly among the colonists after 1763?
What did the British do to make people hate them even more?
Taxation
Proclamation line
Stamp Act
Sugar Act
Tea Act
Townshend Duties
British reasserting control after leaving them under salutary neglect for so long
How did the republican ideals of the revolutionary cause affect the nation’s political culture after independence?
Political Culture- who’s in charge, how politics are run
Articles of Confederation
Made articles really weak so they wouldn’t go back to anything like the British rule
Very loose government in reaction to the oppression of the British
What was significant about the post war (war of 1812) period of nationalism? What forms did it take?
War of 1812 first time we defeated someone else
Huge lopsided victory at Battle of New Orleans
Start celebrating America in literature and art, less copying Europeans
People more convinced that we are here to stay as a country
Took form in art, literature, and symbolism- star spangled banner, celebration of things uniquely American
How did debates over American democratic culture and proximity of many different cultures living in close contact affect changing definitions national identity?
Immigration
Questions of expansion of voting
Celebrating America but who is American and who should participate in American politics
Most of the states get rid of voting requirements and taxing on voting
Nativism- very very anti Catholic- fear that Catholics are loyal to Pope, not a country
Era of Reform- mild push for women’s rights and suffrage, what is the role of women in this democracy?
How much did Jackson represent the common man and the rise of the common man?
Sets himself up to be the hero of the common man
Westerner who’s not “Washington elite”
Built reputation on fact that he was outsider and not elite
Rise of common man tied to him but not because of him
Economically not a common man- rich, slave owner, Congressman
Before, JQ Adams was president- rich, son of president
Jackson appealed because he was so different from JQ Adams
Voting opened up to so many people- new ways of campaigning
How did the continuing dominance of agriculture and the slave system affect southern social, political, and economic life?
Cotton Gin
Southern cotton economy explodes
Develop relationship where they have cotton to sell to everyone, very connected to the North (they have the factories for cotton) and England who buy their cotton
Re intenses slavery
Plantation elite still dominated Southern politics and social life
Huge transformation with cotton economy
It is always dangerous whenever you have a place that relies on one thing for their economy
Southerners getting an overconfident sense of their importance- thought North and England depended on them
How were technology and transportation advances critical to the emergence of early industrialization and expansion?
Turnpikes
Canals- connected agriculture in West with industry in the North
Trains- start in 1830s and blow up in 1850s, made places more connected, easier to transport stuff and people, corrupt industry (govt gave money to companies to produce trains and they would pocket the money), beginnings of industrial regulations (govt regulated them after the Civil War), enemy of the farmers (screw over small farmers and support big farms)
Telegraph
Towns popped up near trains and telegraphs
new inventions encouraged a huge boom in industry and relationship between West and East
How did the continued movement of individuals and groups into, out of, and within the United States shape the development of new communities and the evolution of old communities?
Immigration
Immigrants coming in- huge labor force helping with industrialization
Catholics coming over, huge anti-Catholic force
Irish have bad reputation for taking jobs, being drunks, and having too many kids
Germans more respected but Catholic Germans less than Protestant Germans (pretty excepted compared to Irish)
Movements of Native Americans- Trail of Tears and indian wars in Ohio Valley- issues with the Natives
After War of 1812, Natives try to fight back- Tecumseh
Seminole War in the South
Indian removal in SouthEast
5 major groups: Seminole, Cherokee, Chawksaw, etc
Whites found gold on Indian land, wanted it
People moving West for land and opportunity and it was becoming less isolated from the East
Slavery had been pretty much abolished throughout the North
SECTIONALISM
North and West have more connections
South on its own
North abolished slavery, West didn’t need slaves because the types of things they were farming weren’t conducive and they had new technology that allowed them to produce a lot of stuff without slaves, South still needed slaves
Technology in some ways helped prevent the movement of slavery in the MidWest
What was the character and promise of Jackson’s “new” democracy? Was it realized for all? Did it foster or impede continued nationalism?
Common Man, mass politics, getting the common man more involved in politics, growing influence of the West on politics
Indians, slaves, and women left out of Jacksonian democracy
Jackson was a slave owner and slavery retrenched in the South during his presidency
nothing good happened for women during his time in politics
Jackson divided the nation
the changes he made only benefited white males
West was mad at him because he didn’t pass internal improvements
South was mad at him because of the high tariff and he didn’t support them in the nullification issue
increasing sectionalism- the South starts to realize they are not being paid attention to in national politics
How did environmental and geographic factors affect the development of sectional economics and identities?
the South had cotton
West and North ended up very connected after transportation improvements
South left out and not connected
South doesn’t have roads, canals, or railroads that the North and West do
political isolation: rapid growth in North and West, they dominate in House of Representatives
needed to preserve balance in the Senate for the South
What is significant about Jefferson’s election in 1800 and the ideas of Jeffersonian democracy? How/why did Jefferson’s presidential actions stray so far from his stated political ideals? Was he a hypocrite?
First time election thrown to House of Representatives
Political process under Constitution proved to work
Peaceful transition from Federalists to Jeffersonian Democrats
Jefferson believed on country based on farming, more state power than federal power, opposed the National Bank and national debt
Opposed the National Bank because he believed it wasn’t constitutional, nto given to the govt as a power under the constitution
Viewed constitution very strictly
10th amendment- states rights amendment (not given to govt or states in constitution, it should be given to the states)
When Jefferson strayed from his ideals
was a slave owner but saw slavery as immoral
had to compromise on internal improvements- believed they were important enough to do despite the lack of constitutional amendment
Louisiana Purchase (1803)- best thing under his presidency, nothing in the constitution allowed him to buy the land west between Appalachian mnts and Mississippi River from the French, but he did it because it was beneficial for the people, specifically the farmers
has to develop a small navy
under Jefferson, they did not renew the Bank Bill
hypocrite or realist?
Why did the U.S. go to war with Great Britain in 1812? Who led the opposition to war? Why?
We said we went to war because of impressment- they were stealing our ships and taking our people to fight for them
Britain supported Native America in their attempt to take land back in the Great Lakes
We tried to take Canada from Britain
Growing power of the West encouraged us
Violation of neutral shipping- we were trying to sell to Britain and France, but they were highjacking our ships so we could not sell to anyone
British had better Navy (made us more mad than French)