APUSH PERIOD 4 1800-1848

Embargo Act
Act put into law by Thomas Jefferson in 1807 that was the lowpoint of his presidency. Outlawed the sailing of American ships to foreign ports. This law was intended to protect American ships from the impressment of foreign forces, but ended up simply decimating the economies of port cities and reminded many Americans of the British Navigation Acts.
War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Enhanced nationalism of Americans.
Hartford Convention
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it’s complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence
Market Revolution
Connected small farmers and traders to larger markets through the use of newly developed infrastructure. For example, the development of the Illinois Central Railroad shaped Chicago as a train-city and helped open areas of Illinois to commercial farming. Also shaped the way we work and labor today; affecting how we work for a wage and “around a clock”
Steamboats
Boats that could easily paddle upstream, became vital part of America’s transportation system. Robert Fulton sailed his steamboat, the Clermont, up the Hudson River.
toll roads
created on highways built by private companies to generate profit but were heavily avoided by Americans. Before 1830 they were owned by corporations chartered by state governments. Enforced state power.
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Erie Canal
A 363 mile canal that connected the Great Lakes region to New York City; creating a dominant port of the city. Brought about the creation of new towns along the waterway (Buffalo, Rochester) Inspired the building of many other canals across the US and sparked an interest in major waterway transportation.
telegraph
An apparatus that used electric signals to transmit a message via a wire; use of Morse Code (a series of dots and dashes representing letters of the alphabet). Allowed people to communicate ideas and the price of goods across the country.
Baltimore & Ohio
First major railroad of the US
Railroads
Connected the Western frontier to the other cities in the US; influenced trade, and stimulated the mining of coal for fuel and manufacturing of iron for materials to build trains.
Adams-Onis Treaty
remainder of Florida sold by Spain to US, boundary of Mexico defined
Cajun
culture of the Southeast in Louisiana developed as a result of French/Spanish influence from trade and colonization, Caribbean influence from slave trade, and American values.
Southern Cities
developed as plantation-style layouts that are spread out instead of crunched together due to late colonization once transportation was made easier.
Northern Cities
Created in resemblance to European cities; small, crowded streets with apartment buildings and narrow walkways.
squatters
settlers who claimed unoccupied lands and created farms for themselves.
Cotton Kingdom
Nickname given to the American South after Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin allowed it to produce massive amounts of cotton (and become wholly reliant on slave labor)
Outlaw of the Atlantic Slave Trade
influenced more domestic slave trade. Slaves moved from Northern cities into Southern ones to support the Cotton Kingdom. Resulted in the disruption of families
Slave coffles
groups of slaves chained together and forced to march into the South to the Cotton Kingdom
factory system
Intensification of all of the processes of production at a single site during the Industrial Revolution; involved greater organization of labor and increased discipline. Introduced the idea of “wages” and “working around the clock”
Samuel Slater
Opens first American factory in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
Steel Plow
invented by John Deere during the Industrial Revolution making it easier for farmers to till the land
Printing Press
made the distribution and creation of literary works much easier; also makes the spread of political ideas easier and more practical.
Mill Girls
Unmarried women from New England cities who went to work in mills where they lived in boarding houses and were supervised very closely. Families were reluctant to allow their girls to leave for the first time into stranger’s supervision, so much leisure time spent at these houses was centered around faith and God, and there were strict behavioral rules. Many of them left to get married and were soon widely replaced by immigrants (mostly Irish). Still, leaving to work in the mill gave women a sense of independence and allowed them to notice their responsibilities outside the home.
Irish immigration
Caused largely by the potato famine in Ireland. Irish immigrants came and received much discrimination due to their Catholic faith as well as exploitation in factories due to their limited skills. Archbishop John Hughes urges them to maintain their identity, which leads to the development of Catholic schools.
German immigration
Germans came America and were seen as mostly skilled craftsmen and settled in tightly knit communities (German triangle of St. Louis, Milwaukee, and Cincinnati) Vibrant German culture emerges in America (Kleindeutschland in NYC)
Nativism
Inspired in part by the rapid influx of immigrants, Americans began to feel close ties to their country, therefore displaying xenophobic traits towards foreigners who entered.
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
1819 New Hampshire had attempted to take over Dartmouth College by revising its colonial charter. The Court ruled that the charter was protected under the contract clause of the U. S. Constitution; upholds the sanctity of contracts.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Supreme Court case that stated how regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government
Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842 Landmark ruling of the Massachusetts supreme court establishing the legality of labor unions.
Transcendentalism
A philosophical and literary movement of the 1800s which emphasized living a simple life while celebrating the truth in nature, emotion, and imagination. (Think Thoreau and Emerson). Believed freedom was not a set of defined rights or privileges, but rather an open-ended process of self realization
Henry Thoreau
Heavily influential transcendentalist who critiques American market society in his novel Walden, where he declares that the economic drive of America leads to moral tyranny and inability to appreciate the true beauty of nature.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
Alexis De Tocqueville
French liberal politician who observed the evolution of American political thought, customs and social interaction in the 1830’s. His book Democracy in America is still considered one the most accurate primary sources on American culture.
Cult of Domesticity
the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house. Creates field for domestic servants as middle class women have more leisure time due to creation of time-saving technologies that lessened their workloads.
cyrus mccormick reaper
A horse-drawn machine that greatly increased the amount of wheat a farmer could harvest. It lead to more large-scale farming.
camp meetings
a tool of the Second Great Awakening where people would gather to hear hellfire speeches
Charles River Bridge case
Court case in 1837 that stated the interest of the community are above corporate rights.
American system of manufactures
-Large scale manufacture of standardized products with interchangeable parts in order to reduce manufacturing cost
Dorr War
Rhode Island was the only state the had not gotten rid of property requirements to vote; Thomas Dorr elected as RI governor led to him being imprisoned for treason; war demonstrated passions aroused by the continuing exclusion of any group of white men from voting.
American Dictionary
novel written by Noah Webster (arch rival of Jackson) that stated Democracy was an American right. “Freedom is synonymous with the right to vote.”
American System
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law-“THE POWER TO TAX IS THE POWER TO DESTROY”.
Marbury v. Madison
establishes the right to Judicial Review by the Supreme Court; right to declare laws unconstitutional.
Monroe Doctrine
A declaration by the President in 1823 that warned European powers to keep out of the Western Hemisphere and pledged that the United States would not intervene in the internal affairs of Europe.
John Quincy Adams
Son of John Adams. Expansionist who authored the Monroe Doctrine on the grounds that the entire North America should be the US’s to claim (manifest destiny). Electoral opponent of Jackson that was made fun of for his intellectual ability compared to Jackson’s “rough and tough” posterior. He worked very hard on internal improvements, such as a naval academy and astronomical observatory through funds gained by steep tariffs.
Election of 1828
The Election year that began the “Age of Jackson” where it was encouraged for men of all standings to participate in political affairs. Jackson ran his campaign around the idea of a “common man” party.
Age of Jackson
period marked by the belief that ordinary people should vote in elections, hold office, and do anything they had the ability to do
Whigs
A party that emerged that largely represented many of the interests of the old Federalist party. Andrew Jackson initiated its creation.
Missouri Compromise
“Compromise of 1820” over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
3/5th Compromise
slaves count three fifths of a person for population representation and taxation
Tariff of Abominations
1828 – Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state’s rights.
John Calhoun
South Carolina Senator/ VP to Jackson – advocate for state’s rights, limited government, and nullification
Force Bill
1833 – The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina’s ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
Martin Van Buren
“founder of the Democratic Party”. Friend of Andrew Jackson. Became president in 1836. In the Panic of 1837, he put $37 million to the states but it didn’t help. He spent his 4 years with bank failures, bankruptcies and massive unemployment. (“Little Magician”)
Indian Removal Act of 1830
Passed by Congress under the Jackson administration, this act removed all Indians east of the Mississippi to an “Indian Territory” where they would be “permanently” housed.
Trail of Tears
(1838-39) an 800-mile forced march made by the Cherokee from their homeland in Georgia to Indian Territory; resulted in the deaths of almost one-fourth of the Cherokee people
Johnson vs. M’Intosh
Supreme Court case of 1832 that stated Indians were not owners of their land but they were just the occupiers since they are nomads so they didn’t need to own land.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831 – Supreme Court refused to hear a suit filed by the Cherokee Nation against a Georgia law abolishing tribal legislature. Court said Indians were not foreign nations, and U.S. had broad powers over tribes but a responsibility for their welfare.
Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court Decision – Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe’s sovereignty – Jackson ignored it
Second Seminole War
Seminoles in Florida resisted the pressures to relocate. Cheif Osceola staged an uprising in 1835 to defend their land. Jackson kept sending troops into Florida but the indians were masters of guerrilla warfare. .Osceola was captured by white troops. The government gave up on the war by 1842. By then the Seminoles had either been killed or forced westward
Bank War
Political battle between Jackson, Clay and Nicolas Biddle over the renewal of the U.S. Bank; Jackson vetoed the recharter, put funds in pet banks.
Pet banks
A term used by Jackson’s opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.
Biddle’s Bank
Nickname of the Bank of the United States after Nicholas Biddle who was the head of the 2nd Bank of the United States. During Andrew Jacksons first term as President, Biddle wanted a 20 year extension of the banks charter. Jackson felt that he was being blackmailed because if he didn’t approve the extension, Biddle would use his resources to see that Jackson was not re-elected. Pres. Jackson vetoed the extension and killed the 2nd Bank of the US.
Panic of 1837
An economic uproar when Jackson was president. Many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Election of 1840
Displayed two major shifts in American politics: triumph of populist democratic style and the formation of the two-party system. Race between Martin Van Buren, second term, and William Henry Harrison. Harrison won due to how Van Buren handled the Panic of 1837.
infant industries
In Alexander Hamilton’s Financial Program, these newly developing businesses needed to be protected from foreign competition in the form of tariffs on imported goods
panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of European demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
exposition and protest
Anonymous essay published by John C. Calhoun in 1828 which advocated two doctrines–that of Interposition (or the right of a state to nullify a federal law) and that of the Concurrent Majority as a means by which the people in the minority (as slave-holding southerners) could protect themselves from harmful federal action. These ideas would contribute to the coming of the secession crisis of 1832-1833 and ultimately to the Civil War in 1861.
spoils system
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
Utopian communities
Idealistic and impractical communities. Who, Rather than seeking to create an ideal government or reform the world, withdrew from the sinful, corrupt world.
Owenites
Robert Owen, who was a British Factory owner In 1824, purchased and created New Harmony in Indiana, which was to be a new moral world. Members of the community followed the same laws and acted under the same social standards as other Utopian communities, however, they were able to purchase land; an idea refuted by communities like them. Owen’s community didn’t work because of disputes over the community’s constitution and the distribution of property. But he had a profound impact on labor movements, education reformers, and women’s rights. Owen’s vision resonated with the widely held American belief that a community of equals could be created in the New World.
perfectionism
social reform movement influenced by the idea that Americans must “perfect” society and cure us all of our social ills. Inspired the building of orphanages, poor houses, jails, and asylums.
temperance movement
A social reform effort begun in the mid-1800s to encourage people to drink less alcohol. Angered many Catholics and working men who enjoyed drinking after a hard day of work.
common school
a social reform effort, started by Horace Mann in the mid-1800s, that promoted the idea of having all children educated in a common place regardless of social class or background
American Colonization Society
A Society that thought slavery was bad. They would buy land in Africa and get free blacks to move there. One of these such colonies was made into what now is Liberia. Most sponsors just wanted to get blacks out of their country.
American Anti-Slavery Society
Founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Garrison burned the Constitution as a proslavery document. Argued for “no Union with slaveholders” until they repented for their sins by freeing their slaves.
moral suasion
The effort to move others to a particular course of action through appeals to moral values and beliefs, without the use of enticements or force.
“Am I Not A Man and a Brother?”
An image of a slave on his knees, raising up chained hands as if begging or pleading; the most common abolitionist depiction of a slave.
“gentlemen of property and standing”
Northern men, often merchants, who led mobs to disrupt abolitionist meetings in Northern cities.
gag rule
1835 law passed by Southern congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in Congress
Dorothea Dix
Activist who helped improve conditions of mental patients
woman suffrage
movement to get people (regardless of sex) the right to vote
Woman in the Nineteenth Century
Book by Margaret Fuller, published in 1845, that defined freedom for women as a quest for personal development.
Liberty Party
A former political party in the United States; formed in 1839 to oppose the practice of slavery; merged with the Free Soil Party in 1848
The Shakers
This group, led by “Mother” Ann Lee, was known for their “shaking” as they felt the spirit of God pulse through them during church services. They eventually died out due to their forbidding sexual relations. Become renowned for their furniture production
Oneida
A group of socio-religious perfectionists founded by John Noyes who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children. Were very exclusive; members were monitored closely for mistakes. Had a committee to elect which members could have children (eugenics)
Mormons
Church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT. Believed that Americans were descendants of Hebrew peoples who migrated here and became ancestors of the Native Americans.
Critics of Reform
An example of these would be Catholics, who were heavy critics of the reform movement because they saw it as a way to enforce Protestant morality upon the masses.
The Liberator
Most influential abolitionist literary work by William Garrison
abolitionism and race
many black abolitionists remained less successful and less renowned than their white constituents, which incited jealousy and resentment between the two.
Grimke sisters
were 19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women’s rights.