Christopher Columbus
Discovered the New World in 1492. Believed he had found the Indies until his death.
Marco Polo
Italian explorer who supposedly stayed in China for 20 years. His book prompted Europeans to find a cheaper route to the East.
Juan Ponce de León
Spanish explorer who explored Florida in 1513 and 1521, thinking it was an island. Sought the Fountain of Youth, later died from an Indian’s arrow.
Hernando de Soto
Spaniard who embarked on a gold-seeking expedition during 1539-1542. Discovered and crossed the Mississippi River and brutally mistreated the Indians until he died due to a fever and wounds.
A highly superstitious Aztec chieftain who believed that Hernán Cortés was the god Quetzalcoatl.
Robert de la Salle
Sent on an expedition by the French down the Mississippi River in the 1680s.
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Jacques Cartier
French explorer who journeyed hundreds of miles up the St. Lawrence River in 1534.
Giovanni da Verrazano
An Italian mariner who was sent by the French king to probe the eastern seaboard in 1524.
Isabella of Castile
The queen of Spain. Her marriage with Ferdinand of Aragon united the kingdom of Spain.
An Aztec god. Legend states that he would return to the Aztecs from the eastern sea.
A legendary leader of the Iroquois who inspired the creation of the Iroquois Confederacy.
Vasco de Gama
Portuguese sailor who finally reached India in 1498. Returned home with a small cargo of jewels and spices.
Ferdinand Magellan
Left Spain in 1519 and was killed by inhabitants of the Phillipines after passing the tip of South America. One of five vessels managed to return home in 1522, completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
Hernán Cortés
In 1519, this Spaniard landed on the Yucatán Peninsula. After being taken to Tenochtitlan, the Aztecs attacked his party and he fled. He then laid siege to the city and it fell through both conquest and disease.
Francisco Pizarro
Spaniard who conquered the Incas of Peru in 1532, adding their treasure to Spain’s treasury.
Henry Hudson
Employed by the Dutch East India Company to sail northeast. Instead ventured into Delaware Bay and up the Hudson River looking for a water route through the continent and filing a Dutch claim to the area which eventually became New Netherland (1623-1624).
Francisco Coronado
In 1540-1542, this Spaniard wandered through Arizona and New Mexico, going as far as Kansas in search of fabled golden cities. Discovered the Grand Canyon and herds of bison.
Part of an effort of French Catholic missionaries who labored to save the Indians for Christ and from the fur-trappers. Some of them suffered unspeakable tortures at the hands of the Indians.
The farming communities of the Southwest provided converts; by 1580, Franciscan missionaries were sent to the Southwest and the monarchy established Sante Fe as a missionary colony where Franciscan missionaries penetrated the surrounding area. Unlike the Spanish Jesuits who insisted on the natives learning Spanish customs, the French Franciscans adopted local customs and melded Christianity to it.
Vasco Nuñez Balboa
Hailed as the discoverer of the Pacific Ocean. Waded into the ocean off Panama in 1513 and claimed all the land touching the sea for his king.
People of mixed Indian and European heritage.
Spanish for “conqueror.” Soldiers or explorers of the Spanish/Portuguese Empire.
Spain became the dominant exploring and colonizing power in the 16th century. Conquistadores fanned through the Caribbean, exploring the mainland of the two continents.
Native Americans living around the Mexico region. The capital was Tenochtitlán. They practiced human sacrifice and worshiped many gods, one of them being Quetzalcoatl. Were eventually conquered by Hernán Cortés.
Spice Islands
An alternate name for Indonesia.
Allowed the government to “commend” or give Indians to certain colonists, in exchange for the promise to try to Christianize them. It was basically slavery, however. Bartolomé de Las Casas called it “a moral pestilence invented by Satan.”
Native Americans
Tribal peoples who lived in the New World prior to the Europeans’ arrival.
John Smith
A young adventurer who took over the Jamestown colony in 1608 with the rule, “He who shall not work shall not eat.”
John Rolfe
The father of the tobacco industry and the husband of Pocahontas. Was later killed in a series of Indian attacks.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Attempted to start a colony on Roanoke Island in 1585 after his half-brother Sir Humphrey Gilbert died at sea while trying to start a colony in Newfoundland. The Roanoke colony mysteriously vanished one day.
Lord Baltimore
Belonged to a prominent English Catholic family and the founder of Maryland (1634), partly for financial gain and partly to create a refuge for fellow Catholics due to persecution in Protestant England. Later briefly lost his proprietary rights.
John Wesley
Came to Savannah, Georgia. Later returned to England and founded the Methodist Church.
Sir Francis Drake
English pirate who plundered his way around the planet. He returned in 1580 with profits of about 4,600% to his financial backers, one of whom was Queen Elizabeth. Despite the protests of the Spanish, she later knighted him.
Henry VIII
King who broke England’s ties with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, forming the Church of England.
Elizabeth I
Queen of England from 1533-1603. Accused of being vain, fickle, prejudiced, and miserly but proved to be an unusually successful ruler. She was called the “Virgin Queen” because she never married.
Virginia Company
A joint-stock company: based in Virginia in 1607: founded to find gold and a water way to the Indies: confirmed all Englishmen that they would have the same life in the New World, as they had in England, with the same rights: 3 of their ships transported the people that would found Jamestown in 1607.
William Penn
Became a Quaker in 1660. Sought to establish an asylum for his people and acquired a grant to Pennsylvania in 1681 due to a monetary debt owed to his deceased father by the crown. Welcomed forward-looking spirits and substantial citizens and his liberal land policy encouraged substantial holdings, encouraging a heavy inflow of immigrants.
London Company
Established Jamestown, in Virginia. Authorized the settlers to summon an assembly, known as the House of Burgesses.
The father of Pocahontas and leader of his own Confederacy. Dominated the Jamestown area. Maintained shaky peace relations with the colonists but eventually attacked them when they started raiding food supplies, causing two wars.
Iroquois Confederacy
The closest to the nation-states of Mexico and Peru and sustained a robust military alliance using its political and organizational skills for over a century. Composed of six Indian tribes. Allied with the British during the Seven Years’ War but was split on which side to support during the Revolutionary War.
Mayflower Compact
Simple agreement forming a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon. Signed by 41 adult males and was not signed by the servants or two seamen.
Proprietary colonies were territories granted by the English Crown to one or more proprietors who had full governing rights. A proprietor was a person granted governmental powers over a tract of land. Proprietary Colonies were run under a colonial charter agreement, which was reviewed by the ruling Monarch. Just before the American Revolutionary War, there were three propriety colonies: Delaware, Maryland, and Pennsylvania
The process of buying people (generally Africans) who come under the complete authority of their owners for life, and intended to be worked heavily; became prominent in Colonial times around the mid to late 1600’s ( but also to a lesser degree, concerning natives during the early 1500’s) because of the labor intensive nature of the crops being grown, and the desire for a profit; mainly used on southern plantations, but also a little bit in the north; brought Africans to America, who have now become an integral part of our culture.
Plantation System
Based on large-scale commercial agriculture and the wholesale exploitation of slave labor.
King Philip’s War
In 1675, the son of Massasoit, Metacom, otherwise known as King Philip, forged a pan-Indian alliance against the spreading English settlements. They mounted a series of coordinated assaults on English villages throughout England. When it ended in 1676, it had slowed the westward march of English settlement but inflicted a lasting defeat on New England’s Indians.
Indentured Servants
Young people who worked for an employer for a certain number of years in order to pay for their passage.
James Oglethorpe
Founder of Georgia in 1733; soldier, statesman , philanthropist. Started Georgia as a haven for people in debt because of his interest in prison reform. Almost single-handedly kept Georgia afloat.
Believed that only the “visible saints” (those who felt the stirrings of grace in their souls and could demonstrate its presence to their fellow Puritans) should be admitted to the Church. Vowed to break away entirely from the Church of England.
Pilgrims that started out in Holland in the 1620’s who traveled over the Atlantic Ocean on the Mayflower. These were the purest, most extreme Pilgrims existing, claiming that they were too strong to be discouraged by minor problems as others were.
A unified country under a ruler which share common goals and pride in a nation. Its rise began after England’s defeat of the Spanish Armada. This event sparked nationalistic goals in exploration which were not thought possible with the commanding influence of the Spanish who may have crushed their chances of building new colonies.
Anglo-Powhatan Wars
The Virginia Company ordered what was essentially a declaration of war against the Jamestown Indians, and Lord De La Warr introduced “Irish tactics” against the Indians upon his arrival in 1610. The First Anglo-Powhatan War ended in 1614 with the marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas. The Indians made one last effort to dislodge the Virginians in 1644 but were again defeated. The peace treaty of 1646 essentially banished the Chesapeake Indians from their ancestral lands and formally separated them from white settlements (the origin of the later reservation system).
Established 1607. Settlers died by the dozens from disease, malnutrition, and starvation since they insisted on looking for gold rather than food. It was saved from utter collapse largely thanks to John Smith and they made peace with the Indians thanks to Pocahontas. Lord De La Warr’s arrival resulted in a harsh military regime.
Started when Martin Luther nailed the Ninety-Five Theses on the door of Wittenberg’s cathedral in 1517. Declared that the Bible alone was the source of God’s word and denounced the authority of popes and priests. Ignited a fire of religious reform. Inspired John Calvin
Immensely hospitable to tobacco cultivation. Tobacco was planted to sell before corn was planted oftentimes. However, it quickly exhausted the soil and increased the demand for new land.
Maryland Toleration Act
Passed in 1649. Guaranteed toleration to all Christians but also decreed the death penalty for those who denied the divinity of Jesus, such as Jews and atheists.
Joint Stock Company
Perfected by the early 1600s and was the forerunner of the modern corporation. Enabled a considerable number of investors, called “adventurers,” to pool their capital.
Roger Williams
Advocated making a clean break with the Church of England, challenged the legality of the Bay Colony’s charter, and denied the authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior. Was found guilty of disseminating “newe and dangerous opinions” by the Bay Colony in 1635 and ordered banished. Fled to Rhode Island in 1636 and built a Baptist church, establishing complete freedom of religion.
Anne Hutchinson
A religious dissenter whose ideas provoked an intense religious and political crisis in the Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1636 and 1638. She challenged the principles of Massachusetts’s religious and political system. Claimed that holy life was no sure sign of salvation and the truly saved did not need to obey the law of God or man (antinomianism). She was latter expelled, with her family and followers, and went and settled at Pocasset ( now Portsmouth, R.I.)
William Bradford
Chosen as governor 30 times for the Plymouth colony. Self-taught scholar who read Hebrew, Greek, Latin, French, and Dutch. He also conducted experiments of living in the wilderness and wrote about them; well known for “Of Plymouth Plantation.” He feared that independent, non-Puritan settlers “on their particular” might corrupt his godly experiment in the wilderness.
Thomas Hooker
1635; a Boston Puritan, brought a group of fellow Boston Puritans to newly founded Hartford, Connecticut.
Miles Standish
A peppery and stocky soldier of fortune who traveled with the Pilgrims on the Mayflower. Dubbed by one of his critics as, “Captain Shrimp.” He later rendered indispensable service as an Indian fighter and negotiator.
John Winthrop
Immigrated from the Mass. Bay Colony in the 1630’s to become the first governor and to led a religious experiment. He once said, “we shall be a city on a hill.”
Mass. School Law
Ordered that when a township had fifty householders, they should appoint a person to teach all the children. His wages would be paid by either the parents/masters of the children, or by the inhabitants in general.
Puritan congregations, which in time came to be called collectively the Congregational Church. Flourished especially in New England, where the rebels were the most numerous during the Revolutionary War.
Founded by John Wesley. Thanks to the Great Awakening, it grew in leaps and bounds.
Closely associated with Congregationalism. Flourished in New England. Rebels during the Revolutionary War were most numerous where this and Congregationalism flourished.
Free Blacks
A few of the earliest African immigrants gained their freedom, and some even became slaveowners. However, as the number of Africans grew, white colonists reacted remorselessly to the supposed racial threat.
Relied on reason rather than revelation, on science rather than the Bible. Rejected the concept of original sin and denied Christ’s divinity. Believed in a Supreme Being who had created a knowable universe and endowed human beings with a capacity for moral behavior.
Gospel of Work
Puritan work ethic.
William and Mary
Established in 1693 in Virginia. It was their first college, but the second college to be established in the colonies (Harvard College was first).
Adult males who belonged to the Puritan congregations, which in time came to be called collectively the Congregational Church.
“City upon a Hill”
A beacon to humanity, as declared by Governor Winthrop. The Puritan bay colonists believed that they had a covenant with God, an agreement to build a holy society that would be a model for mankind.
They were a group of religious reformists who wanted to “purify” the Anglican Church. Their ideas started with John Calvin in the 16th century and they first began to leave England in 1608. Later voyages came in 1620 with the Pilgrims and in 1629, which was the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
A group of Separatists who negotiated with the Virginia Company to allow them to settle. Fewer than half of the entire party were Separatists, however. Established the Plymouth Colony and were essentially squatters.
Officially known as the Religious Society of Friends. Refused to support the Church of England with taxes, built simple meetinghouses, congregated without a paid clergy, and “spoke up” when moved. Believed they were all children in the sight of God, keeping their hats on in the presence of superiors and used a lack of conventional titles, as well as take no oaths. Abhorred strife and advocated passive resistance. They believe in equality of all peoples and resist the military. They also believe that the religious authority is the decision of the individual (no outside influence.) Settled in Pennsylvania.
Set of beliefs that the Puritans followed. In the 1500’s John Calvin, the founder of this religion, preached virtues of simple worship, strict morals, pre-destination and hard work. This resulted in followers wanting to practice religion, and it brought about wars between Huguenots (French thisreligion) and Catholics, that tore the French kingdom apart.
Mass. Bay Company
Founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony, one of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of Massachusetts, originally where Boston is located. It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community.
Plymouth Bay
A colony established by a group of Separatists, though less than half of the group who traveled there was actually Separatist. It became a laboratory of sorts for liberty. Eventually merged with the Mass. Bay Colony.
Great Migration
The period of time (c. 1630-1642) when many Englanders migrated to either New England or the West Indies. There was a larger exodus to the West Indies, who were dissuaded by the British navy from helping the mainland colonists when they declared independence in 1776.
William Berkeley
Governor of Virginia. Implemented friendly policies towards Indians and monopolized the thriving fur trade. Was chased out of Jamestown by Nathaniel Bacon’s group. After Bacon’s death, he brutally put down the uprising, hanging more than 20 rebels.
Nathaniel Bacon
A planter who led a rebellion in 1676. Most of the rebels were frontiersmen forced into the backcountry. Murdered Indians, friendly or not, chased Berkeley from Jamestown, and burned the capital down before he suddenly died of disease.
Matthew Hopkins
A 17th century witch-hunter whose techniques included watching suspects to see if diabolical creatures, in the form of common animals, fed on the alleged witch’s blood. Also urged that suspected witches be bound hand and foot and thrown into a pond. The innocent would sink (and often drown) while the guilty would float to the surface. His methods killed hundreds of women, men, and children in eastern England in the 1640s.
Slave codes
Made blacks and their children the property (chattels) for life of their white masters. Some colonies made it a crime to teach a slave to read or write. Not even conversions to Christianity could qualify them for freedom.
Middle Passage
The transatlantic sea voyage that brought slaves to the New World. Began with a forced march to the African coast and ended with a trek into the American interior.
Yankee ingenuity
Scratched a living from the protesting earth. Back-bending toil put a premium on industry and penny-pinching frugality, for which New Englanders became famous. Traditionally sharp Yankee traders, some of them palming off wooden nutmegs, made their mark.
Headright System
Employed by Virginia and Maryland. Under its terms, whoever paid the passage of a laborer received the right to acquire fifty acres of land. Thus, masters reaped the benefits of landownership. Chesapeake planters brought some 100,000 indentured servants to the region by 1700.
Bacon’s Rebellion
A rebellion led by Nathaniel Bacon in 1676. Most of the rebels were frontiersmen forced into the backcountry. Murdered Indians, friendly or not, chased Berkeley from Jamestown, and burned the capital down before Bacon suddenly died of disease. The rebellion was quelled after his death.
Salem Witch Trials
A group of adolescent girls in Salem, Massachusetts, claimed to have been bewitched by certain older women, resulting in a hysterical witch hunt and the legal lynching of twenty individuals in 1692. Eventually ended in 1693 when the governor’s wife was accused and he prohibited any further trials as well as pardoning those convicted.
Half-Way Covenant
Modified the covenant (agreement between church and its adherents) to admit to baptism (not full communion) the unconverted children of existing members. Conferred partial membership rights in the once-exclusive Puritan congregations.
New England Primer
Early education reader.
Leisler’s Rebellion
Caused by animosity between lordly landholders and aspiring merchants in New York. Was an ill-starred and bloody insurgence rocking New York City from 1689 to 1691.
Colonial Differences
The South relied more on the plantation system and slave labor. Their plantations were farther apart than in the North and they ended up not being as democratic as the North, which had meetinghouses and the such. The North was composed of many religious dissenters such as the Puritans and Separatists but because the soil was unfit for farming it relied more on industries such as shipping, fishing, and logging. The South had more widows than the North because plantation work was hard and men lived to younger ages in the South while the average life expectancy grew by 10 years in the North.
An owner and cultivator of a small farm, although some had a few slaves. They were self sufficient and usually grew small amounts of cotton to supplement their living, but other than slavery these farms were like the farms in the North. Only in the upcountry communities did yeomen feel truly independent.
Women’s Rights
Southern men often died young, so the southern colonies allowed married women to retain separate title to property and widows gained the right to inherit their husband’s estates. In New England, married women gave up their property rights when they married but also made secure provision for the property rights of widows.
Jonathan Edwards
New English pastor was considered to be the deepest theological mind ever nurtured in America. His style of preaching led to a more sympathetic reaction from his parishioners
Benjamin Franklin
Founded the University of Pennsylvania. Was important to the culture because he is known as the first “Civilized American”
George Whitefield
Used a different style of evangelical preaching and revolutionized the spiritual life of the colonies.
His magnificent voice boomed across the audience.
He even impressed Ben Franklin
John Copley
A famous Revolutionary era painter, traveled to England to finish his study of the arts. Only in the Old World could he find subjects with the leisure time required to be painted, and the money needed to pay him for it. was loyal to England during The Revolution.
John Trumbull
From Connecticut. Was discouraged since youth by his father; he was forced to travel to London to pursue his ambitions as an artist. Many of his contemporaries in America had to do that as well
Andrew Hamilton
Philadelphia lawyer; best known for his legal victory on behalf of the printer and newspaper publisher John Peter Zenger
Paxton Boys
Armed march led on Philadelphia in 1764; Scots-Irish protested the Quaker oligarchy’s lenient Indian policy
Great Awakening
This was a religious revival held in the 1730’s and 1740’s to motivate the colonial America. Motivational speakers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield helped to bring Americans together.
The Enlightenment
Many of the greatest minds of this period helped these colonists break free from patriarchal rule under England by emphasizing the equality of all men and natural rights. Our constitution paralleled many Enlightenment philosophies with it’s insistence on equality (for white men only of course) and with a system of checks and balances to keep corruption to a minimum.
Members of the Church of England, less fierce than Puritan worshippers and usually loyal to the king
Regulator Movement
Scots-Irish movement in North Carolina against eastern domination of the colony’s affairs.
Triangular Trade
Trade in which slaves from Africa were brought to the West Indies, where they were traded for sugar and molasses, which was traded for rum in the colonies, which would be traded for slaves again.
Molasses Act
A British law passed in 1773 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade by bribing and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws led to revolution.
Places in which public opinion crystallized and were clearinghouses of information, misinformation, and rumor – hot beds of agitation
Old Lights
Orthodox clergymen skeptical of emotionalism (Great Awakening)
New Lights
Ministers who supported revitalizing American religion (Great Awakening)
High quantities of “kill devil” were produced in Rhode Island and Massachusetts; it was traded for slaves in Africa.
Ethnic Diversity
Colonial America in the 18th century had a high amount of this. It was a melting pot from the outset.
About 7 percent of America’s population in 1775; the English placed economic restrictions against them. They tended to be feisty and quarreled with Indians, were not loyal to the British government and led a few rebellions.
This industry took a second place in America, which focused mainly on agriculture, but there were a number of such industries mainly in New England.
Naval Store
Sold tar, pitch, rosin and turpentine in the colonies, and were highly valued. Britain demanded control of American trade over this.
Phillis Wheatly
American poet (born in Africa) who was the first recognized Black writer in America (1753-1784). She was a slave girl with no formal education but considered one of the best poets of the time.
Congregational college, founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
University of Pennsylvania
First American college free from denominational control. Launched with the help of Benjamin Franklin.
Congregational college founded in 1701 in New Haven, Connecticut.
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer who sailed to the West Indies, Mexico, and Panama. He wrote many books telling of his trips to Mexico City and Niagara Falls. His greatest accomplishment was his exploration of the St. Lawrence River and his later settlement of Quebec.
William Pitt
Popular British leader who helped turn the tide for the British and win the French and Indian war by focusing down the Quebec-Montreal area
Antoine Cadillac
French explorer who founded Detroit in 1701 to thwart English attempts to push into the Ohio Valley
James Wolfe
British officer chosen by Pitt to lead the expedition against Quebec; his troops scaled the cliff around Quebec during the night. Both commanders were fatally wounded but Quebec was defeated.
Edward Braddock
British general sent to Virginia during the French and Indian War; his cumbersome force was routed by a smaller French and Indian force near Fort Duquesne and opened the way for ruthless Indian raiding of the frontier.
Ottawa chief, in 1763 he led several tribes in a violent campaign to drive the British out of Ohio Country.
Louis XIV
French King during the settlement of New France and for whom Louisiana was named
George Washington
Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
French Protestants who were prosecuted and slaughtered on St. Bartholomew’s Day until the Edict of Nantes was issued. They were not allowed to move to the New World.
Seven Years’ War
Also known as the French and Indian War in America, lasted from 1754-1763
War of Spanish Succession
Known as Queen Anne’s War in America, lasted from 1702-1713.
Albany Congress
Intercolonial congress summoned by the British. It was meant to achieve greater colonial unity and win Indians to their side
New France
Established under the rule of Louis XIV. Samuel de Champlain led the way in Quebec of 1608. Eventually came under direct rule of the King
Proclamation of 1763
Legislation issued by Britain following the Seven Years’ War forbidding colonial movement to the West until further review. It was disregarded by angry colonists
French Acadians who were conquered by the British in 1713 and then uprooted in 1755. They were scattered as far south as Louisiana.
Edict of Nantes
1598 legislation by the French Crown granting toleration to French Protestants; led to national unity
Salutary Neglect
The unofficial British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of rules by Parliament during the 17th and 18th centuries. Allowed for much colonial self-rule
Fort Duquesne
Vital French fort in the Ohio Valley controlling the joining of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers, forming the Ohio River.
Fort Necessity
American fort constructed by George Washington in his attempt at invasion
Center of French power in New France/Canada
New Orleans
Most important of the French fortified posts in the Mississippi-Louisiana area, commanded much of the Mississippi River
Belief that wealth = power; used by Britain to justify control over colonies; led to passage of laws to regulate system & keep colonies dependent on Britain — daughter country only supports the mother country.
Navigation Acts
All goods flowing to and from the colonies could only be transported in British vessels. It was aimed to hurt rival Dutch shippers
George Grenville
Prime minister who, in 1763, ordered the British navy to begin strictly enforcing the Navigation laws. He also secured from parliament the Sugar Act of 1764, The Quartering Act, and the Stamp Act.
Sons of Liberty
Enforced non-importation agreements by tarring & feathering violators; ransacked houses of unpopular officials
Patrick Henry
Passionate revolutionary, “Give me liberty or give me death”
Non-importation Agreements
Large-scale boycotts of British textiles; united colonists in protest
British commentators who feared that arbitrary power of monarchy threatened liberty; warned citizens to be wary of schemes to deprive them of liberties & encouraged citizens to guard their civil rights
Charles Townshend
Persuaded Parliament to pass Townshend Acts in 1767. Townshend Acts placed indirect customs duties on glass, white lead, paper, paint, & tea. Taxes supported British governors in America, threatening colonists’ system of withholding pay to get their way
Boston Massacre
March 5, 1770; taunting of British soldiers by colonists escalated into violence; nervous soldiers fired into crowd — 11 civilians killed/wounded, including mulatto ringleader Crispus Attucks
George III
King during American Revolution (“America’s last king”); was determined to regain arbitrary power for the British crown
East India Company
Powerful British trading company; faced with bankruptcy in 1773. Awarded complete monopoly of American tea business by British ministry.
Sugar Act
Passed in 1764; first act passed by Parliament to raise colonial tax revenue for Britain
Stamp Act
Passed in 1765; taxed bills of sale for ~50 trade items as well as certain types of commercial & legal documents (eg. cards, newspapers, diplomas, etc.). Intended to fund standing British army in America
Currency Act
The British ban on printing colonial money in order to alleviate British creditors’ fears of being payed in the depreciated currency of the colonists
French Indian War
a war in North America between France and Britain (both aided by Indian tribes). Turned into the worldwide Seven Years’ War
Proclamation of 1763
issued of October 7, 1763 and was created to alleviate relations with natives after the French and Indian War and started that Americans were not permitted to passed the Appalachian Mountains.
Actual Representation
Means that a representative is elected by his constituents. The colonies only had virtual representation in the British government.
Virtual Representation
Prime Minister Grenville’s argument that every member of Parliament represented every citizen in the empire, including colonial subjects who could not vote
Committee of Correspondence
First organized in Massachusetts in 1772 by Samuel Adams; allowed colonies to communicate & share ideas; fostered sedition & evolved into first American congresses
Boston Tea Party
British ships carrying tea sailed into Boston Harbor and refused to leave until the colonials took their tea. Boston was boycotting the tea in protest of the Tea Act and would not let the ships bring the tea ashore. Finally, on the night of December 16, 1773, colonials disguised as Indians boarded the ships and threw the tea overboard. They did so because they were afraid that Governor Hutchinson would secretly unload the tea because he owned a share in the cargo.
1st Continental Congress
(1774) Delegates form 12 Colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to decide on action, if any, against Britain should be taken.
Quebec Act
Passed in 1774; allowed French Canadians to maintain old customs, institutions, & religion. Sustained unrepresentative assemblies, denial of jury trials, expanded territory, & domination of Roman Catholicism in Canada worried Americans
Boston Port Act
This was one of the Coercive Acts, which shut down Boston Harbor until Boston repaid the East India Company for the lost tea.
German mercenaries hired by George III. Deal negotiated with six German princes — traded soldiers for money.
John Adams
A Federalist who was Vice President under Washington in 1789, and later became President by three votes in 1796. Known for his quarrel with France, and was involved in the xyz Affair, Quais War, and the Convention of 1800. Later though he was also known for his belated push for peace w/ France in 1800. Regarding his personality he was a “respectful irritation”.
Marquis de Lafayette
A French major general who aided the colonies during the Revolutionary War. He and Baron von Steuben were the two major foreign military experts who helped train the colonial armies.
Americans who backed British rule during the Revolution
Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer
written by Philadelphia lawyer Dickenson who protested British policies because he thought they deprived colonies of their natural rights. In the letters he urged united action on the part of the colonists.
Baron von Steuben
German military officer who effectively trained Continental Army
Samuel Adams
Contributed commentaries and writings to American Revolution; leader in organization of Boston Tea Party. Sent by Massachusetts to First Continental Congress of 1774. Later signed Declaration of Independence & served in Congress until 1781.
John Hancock
King of the Smugglers; Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Mercy Otis Warren
the head of patriot women during the revolution; produced many writings questioning the declining republican values in post-revolutionary America; blamed the “constant state of war”, relaxation of government, sudden fluctuation in money, and new foreign intercourse for the chaos of the 1780s
Galloway Plan
put forward in the First Continental Congress by Joseph Galloway of PA; the idea was to have the colonies stay with Britain and create their own Colonial Parliament, which would act together with British Parliament; due to the already well-established radical wave, the plan was narrowly outvoted by the Congress
Prohibitory Act
Restricted trade and rights of colonists in response to growing rebellion.
Olive Branch Petition
Created by the second continental congress in 1775, it was the last conciliatory appeal to the king approved by the congress before the war for independence ensued.
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
petition to the king urging him to redress colonial grievances and restore colonial rights; recognized Parliament’s authority to regulate commerce
Lord Dunsmore
British royal governor who encouraged runaway slaves to join his army.
Battle of Lexington
where Minutemen assembled to face British; 8 Americans killed
Battle of Breed’s Hill
May 1775
Tiny American force under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold surprised and captured the British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point in Upper New York.
Gunpowder and artillary for the siege at Boston was obtained.
June 1775 Colonists siezed Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill).
Americans numbering 1500 soldiers slaughtered the advancing redcoats. Colonists were short on gunpowder and were foced to abandon the hill.
Thomas Paine
The revolutionary author of Common Sense. His protest called for independence and called for the creation of a democratic republic and that all leaders should derive their power from popular consent.
Common Sense
Appeared around January 1776. written by Thomas Paine, argued that it was common sense for America to break completely with such a corrupt government that inflicted brutality on its own people and dragged Americans into wars they didn’t want to fight. Sold over 100,000 copies in its first few months of availability.
Battle of Trenton
The day after Christmas George Washington surprised a group of Hessians at Trenton and captured them.
Battle of Princeton
George Washington left his campfires burning and then inflicted a sharp defeat on the British forces at Princeton.
Battle of Saratoga
General Burgoyne was bogged down by a host of militiamen and eventually the British army was trapped. General Burgoyne was forced to surrender his forces at Saratoga to the American general Horatio Gates.
General Nathaniel Greene
Was a Quaker born tactician. Used a strategy of delay, and he cleared most of Georgia and South Carolina of troops.
General George R. Clark
frontiersman that conceived idea of seizing British posts (captured from the French in Illinois) by surprise; 1778-1779 floated down Ohio River, seizing the forts and getting British out of Ohio River area
General George Washington
..Virginian planter, held the rank of colonel in a militia before he became general. Excellent leader and strategist and fought many an uneven battle.
Battle of Yorktown
Yorktown was the site where the Cornwallis surrendered after the American siege and the British were blocked at the sea.
Treaty of Paris
It formally ended the revolutionary war between America and Britain.
Franco-American Alliance
-after battle of Saratoga-colonies could win, so France agrees to help
-France recognizes the existence of the US and after trade concessions for US merchants
Battle of Charleston
May 1780 British Henry Clinton (replaced WIlliam Howe) defeated the rebel forces at Charleston after a seige of many months, General Benjamin Lincoln forced to surrender entire southern army of 5,000 men. After many men declare allegence to GB. Admiral George Rodney occupy self with securing defeat, so no pursue French fleet (play major roel at Yorktown)
Admiral Rochambreau
Commander of a powerful French army, arrived in Newport Rhode Island. Came in the Summer of 1780.
General Pulaski
Polish American general known as the “Father of American calvary”. He trained and organized the first American calvary.
Benedict Arnold
one of the leaders in an American force in 1775 that captured British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point in NY, seizing gunpowder; also led battle at Bunker Hill (Boston), first massive British army destruction; kept British from reaching Fort Ticonderoga in 1776, forcing them to stay in Canada for the winter; 1780 turned traitor for monery, greatly hurtin American morale (was going to sell out Hudson River)
John Paul Jones
A young Scotsman who was the most famous officer in America’s infant navy.
Benjamin Franklin
During the Revolutionary War, this person served as an ambassador to France. He was the oldest delegate to the Constitutional Convention and his advice proved crucial in the drafting of the Constitution. He has often been held up as the paradigm of Enlightenment throughout in Colonial America because of his contributions to the fields of science and philosophy
Richard Henry Lee
From Virginia. On June 7, 1776 he moved that the colonies should be independent states and after considerable debate the motion was adopted nearly a month later, on July 2, 1776
Thomas Jefferson
A prominent statesman, this person became George Washington’s first secretary of state. Along with James Madison, he took up the cause of strict constructionists and the Republican Party, advocating limited federal government. As the nation’s third president from 1801 to 1809, he organized the national government by his own Republican ideals, doubled the size of the nation, and struggled to maintain American neutrality
Shay’s Rebellion
A rebellion by former veterans of the revolutionary war who did not receive enough compensation to sustain a life after the war. Tax collectors were not very sympathetic towards the vets and small armies were raised prepared to fight. This rebellion was squashed by Jefferson who feared that it would get out of hand, and therefore prevented any further problems. This showed that there was going to be no deconstruction of the new empire.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers and raise money. Part of the Articles of Confederation.
Northwest Ordinance
1787. Defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. He ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. This was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation