APUSH EOCT

STOCK MARKET CRASH
is a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices across a significant cross-section of a stock market, resulting in a significant loss of paper wealth. Crashes are driven by panic as much as by underlying economic factors. They often follow speculative stock market bubbles.
COURT PACKING
attempt by Roosevelt to appoint one new Supreme Court justice for every sitting justice over the age of 70 who had been there for at least 10 years. Wanted to prevent justices from dismantling the new deal. Plan died in congress and made opponents of New Deal inflamed.
VIRGINIA COMPANY
Joint-Stock Company in London that received a charter for land in the new world. Charter guarantees new colonists same rights as people back in England.
HOUSE OF BURGESSES
the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.
POWHATAN
Indian chief and founder of the Powhatan confederacy of tribes in eastern Virginia
BACON’S REBELLION
an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.
MASSACHUSETTS SETTLEMENT
The first New England colonies were established by the Puritans in present-day Massachusetts. Most of the colonists came with their whole family for a better life and to practice religion as they saw fit. As a result of strict religious beliefs, the Puritans werenot tolerant of religious beliefs that differed from their own.
RHODE ISLAND
– Founded by Roger Williams in 1636. Part of the 1644 and 1663 Charter. It was proclaimed self- governed. It was the most liberal English settlement and in 1664 was allowed to establish land.
HALFWAY CONVENT
It provided limited (halfway) membership for any applicant not known to be a sinner who was willing to accept the provisions of the church covenant; they and their children could be baptized; the sacrament of communion and a voice in the church descion making was limited to full members
KING PHILIPS WAR
1675 – A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
SALEM WITCH TRIALS
Several accusations of witchcraft led to sensational trials in Salem, Massachusetts at which Cotton Mather presided as the chief judge. 18 people were hanged as witches. Afterwards, most of the people involved admitted that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake.
MID ATLANTIC COLONIES
Pennsylvania was in the territory between New England and Virginia. It was a colony founded by the religiously tolerant Quakers, led by William Penn. Further north, New York was settled by the Dutch, who called it New Amsterdam. In 1664,
the British conquered the colony and renamed it New York. A diverse population kept alive this center of trade and commerce founded by the Dutch, whom the British invited to remain there. With members of various British and Dutch
churches, New York tolerated different religions.
PENNSYLVANIA
in 1681, Charles II awarded the land of PA to William Penn, in order to pay off a debt to his father. He established Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers
NEW AMSTERDAM
a settlement established by the Dutch near the mouth of Hudson River and the southern end of Manhattan Island
QUEBEC
the largest province of Canada
MERCANTILISM
European government policies of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland country
TRANS-ATLANTIC TRADE
the trading of African people to the colonies of the New World in and around the Atlantic ocean
MIDDLE PASSAGE
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
AFRICAN AMERICAN CULTURE
preserved african customs, songs, and dances; composed sprituals
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN
American patriot, writer, printer, and inventor. During the Revolutionary War he persuaded the French to help the colonists.
INDIVIDUALISM
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
SOCIAL MOBILITY
The ability of individuals to move from one social standing to another. Social standing is based on degrees of wealth, prestige, education and power.
THE GREAT AWAKENING
This was a major religious revival in the colonies, which began in the 1730’s with its leader being Jonathan Edwards.
FRENCH & INDIAN WAR
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley– English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
1763 TREATY OF PARIS
Ended the french and Indian War
PROCLAMATION OF 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
STAMP ACT
an act passed by the British parliment in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
INTOLERABLE ACTS
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop’s in barns and empty houses
SONS OF LIBERTY
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
DAUGHTERS OF LIBERTY
An organization formed by women prior to the American Revolution They got together to protest treatment of the colonies by their British Rulers
COMMITTEES OF CORRESPONDENCE
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies
THOMAS PAINE
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist’s fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)
COMMON SENSE
a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
JOHN LOCKE
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
CHARLES DE MONTESQUIEU
Spirit of Law, advocated separation of powers with the three branches of legislative, judicial, and executive
GEORGE WASHINGTON
1st President of the United States, Commander of the Continental Army, Commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War
CROSSING THE DELAWARE
In December 1776 Washington secretly led his troops across the Delaware River to launch a surprise attack on the Hessian troops guarding Trenton and took most of them prisoner.
VALLEY FORGE
Place where Washington’s army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
GENERAL CHARLES CORNWALLIS
British general who fought the Patriots in the south; surrounded at Yorktown and surrendered to George Washington
BATTLE OF YORKTOWN
final battle of the war, in which French and American forces led by George Washington defeated British General Cornwallis
1783 TREATY OF PARIS
Treaty which ended the American Revolutionary War. The United States won its independence from Great Britain and gained control of land strtching to the Mississippi River.
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
U.S CONSTITUTION
document of basic principles that determines the powers and duties of the US government- based on federalism
SHAYS REBELLION
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
GREAT COMPROMISE
the agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).
SLAVERY
the condition of being owned by another person and being made to work without wages
SEPARATION OF POWERS
Principle by which the powers of government are divided among separate branches
LIMITED GOVERNMENT
basic principle of American government which states that government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has rights that government cannot take away
EXECUTIVE BRANCH
the branch of the United States government that is responsible for carrying out the laws
CHECKS & BALANCES
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
FEDERALISTS
supporters of the constitution
ANTI FEDERALISTS
people who opposed the Constitution
THE FEDERALIST
series of essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788
JAMES MADISON
Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812
NORTHWEST ORDINANCE
defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the union
LOUISIANA PURCHASE
jefferson bought from france under rule of napolean in 1803 $15 million from mississippi river to rocky mountains & gulf of mexico to canada
LEWIS AND CLARK
sent to gather info about louisiana purchase
WAR OF 1812
us v britain lasted until 1814 treaty of ghent ended it
ERIE CANAL
canal between albany new york and buffalo new york completed in 1825
NEW YORK CITY
originally dutch capital city of new netherlands originally named new amsterdam
MONROE DOCTRINE
american foreign policy opposing interference in the western hemisphere from outside powers
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
change from agriculture to industrial society 1750-1850
ELI WHITNEY
inventor of the cotton gin in 1793 and contributed to interchangeable parts
COTTON GIN
cleans seeds from cotton fibers invented by eli whitney in 1793
INTERCHANGEABLE PARTS
identical components that can be used in place of another in manufacturing
MANIFEST DESTINY
spread as far as possible own every piece of land
TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT
campaign to ban or limit alcohol
ABOLITIONISM
doctorine that calls for abolition of slavery
PUBLIC SCHOOL REFORM
wanted to give middle class children education , teaching them about honesty, sobriety and patriotism
WOMANS SUFFERAGE
womans struggle to gain right to vote
ELIZABETH CADY STANTON
organized Seneca falls conference in 1848 Issued declaration of sediments declared woman and men equal
SENECA FALLS CONFERENCE
womans right convention july 1848 wrote declaration of sediments
JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY
(andrew jackson) Idea of spreading political power to people and ensuring “common man” theme majority rules
AMERICAN NATIONALISM
WILLIAM LLYOD GARRISON
abolitionist launched “the liberator” opposed slavery founded american anti-slavery society
FREDERICK DOUGLASS
U.S abolitionist escaped from slavery and published anti slavery newspaper in 1845
GRIMKE SISTERS
19th century american quakers advocates of abolitionism and womans rights
MISSOURI COMPROMISE OF 1820
an act of Congress (1820) by which Missouri was admitted as a slave state, Maine as a free state, and slavery was prohibited in the Louisiana Purchase north of latitude 36°30′N, except for Missouri.
COMPROMISE OF 1850
california free state

new mexico and Utah were each allowed to use popular sovereignty to decide the issue of slavery.

The Republic of Texas gave up lands that it claimed in present day New Mexico and received $10 million to pay its debt to Mexico.

The slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia.

The Fugitive Slave Act made any federal official who did not arrest a runaway slave liable to pay a fine.

NAT TURNERS REBELLION
(also known as the Southampton Insurrection) was a slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County, Virginia during August 1831. Led by Nat Turner
NULLIFICATION CRISIS
a sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to null& void a federal law passed by the United States Congress.ariff of 1828 (also called the “Tariff of Abominations”) was enacted into law in 1828 during the presidency of John Quincy Adams.
JOHN C CALHOUN
vice president under john quincy adams 1824 & 1828 under andrew jackson spoke out against slavery and state’s rights
SECTIONALISM
exaggerated devotion to the interests of one section; regional prejudice
STATE’S RIGHTS
the right of states to limit the power of the federal government
MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR
after Mexican refusal to sell California-New Mexico region, Polk sent troops and it ended w/ Treat of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
WILMOT PROVISO
stated any territory acquired from mexico would be free
KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT
1854 repealed missouri compromise and introduced popular sovereignty
POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY
popular choice of the people
DRED SCOTT DECISION
slave who sued for freedom because he lived in a “free” territory and thought he should be free
HABEAS CORPUS
requires a person to be brought before a judge or court , the civil right to obtain a writ of habeas corpus as protection against illegal imprisonment
JOHN BROWN
led pottawatomie massaacre during bleeding kansas
abolitionist
ABRAHAM LINCOLN
16 president
saved union during the civil war
wrote emancipation proclamation
IRVING BERLIN
United States songwriter (born in Russia) who wrote more than 1500 songs and several musical comedies (1888-1989)
WATERGATE SCANDAL
A scandal involving an illegal break-in at the Democratic National Committee offices in 1972 by members of President Nixon’s reelection campaign staff. Before Congress could vote to impeach Nixon for his participation in covering up the break-in, Nixon resigned from the presidency.
MASS PRODUCTION
the production of large quantities of a standardized article (often using assembly line techniques)
WILLAM T. SHERMAN
american union commander during the civil war led famous march to sea through georgia
JOHN D ROCKEFELLA
Became one of the nations richest and most powerful businessmen.Establsihed the company Standard Oil which was one of the nations first trust.
13TH AMENDMENT
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
RADICAL REPUBLICAN RECONSTRUCTION
punish south, protect former slaves; US military occupation of South, Confederate military leaders needed pardon to hold office, protect Blacks right to vote
PRESIDENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION
was the President’s idea of reconstruction : all states had to end slavery, states had to declare that their secession was illegal, and men had to pledge their loyalty to the U.S.
LINCOLN’S 2ND INAUGURAL ADDRESS
speech meant to help heal and restore the country after four years of War,”with malice toward none and charity for all,
GETTYSBURG ADDRESS
a 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
BATTLE FOR ATLANTA
Union forces defeated Confederate forces in the city of Atlanta, shermans march
SEIGE OF VICKSBURG
Name That Battle! Grant surrounded the city of Vicksburg, Mississippi and had it under seige for about 6 weeks. Pemberton surrendered Vicksburg on July 4, 1863 giving the Union control of the Mississippi River. The Union won.
THOMAS “STONEWALL” JACKSON
he was a confederate general who was known for his fearlessness in leading rapid marches bold flanking movements and furious assaults. he earned his nickname at the battle of first bull run for standing courageously against union fire. During the battle of chancellorsville his own men accidently mortally wounded him.
BATTLE OF ANTIETAM
Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee’s Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
ROBERT E LEE
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
ULYSSES S GRANT
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
SIT-INS
to protest at lunch counters that served only whites, African Americans students began staging this
FREEDOM RIDES
a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
CAMP DAVID ACCORDS
A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel
SOUTHERN CHRISTIAN LEADERSHIP CONFERENCE
An organization founded by MLK Jr., to direct the crusade against segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation.
UNITED FARM WORKERS MOVEMENT
organization of migrant workers formed to win better wages and working conditions led by Cesar Chevez
NIXON’S VISIT TO CHINA
Feb 1972, visited Beijing, help with triangular diplomacy playing USSR and China off on each other
EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
JEFFERSON DAVIS
an American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865
ANTI-VIETNAM WAR MOVEMENT
Cause of the sixties credited for spawning rise in interest groups
NATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF WOMEN
(1966) org. formed to work for economic and legal rights of women. acted from the liberal tenet that women and men are alike in important respects and, therefore, entitled to equal rights and opportunities. extremely effective in enacting rhetorical strategies that have brought about concrete changes in laws and policies that enlarge women’s opportunities and protect their rights
WOMENS MOVEMENT
giving women the right to vote-seneca falls ny, the movement fr womens right began in the US in 1848. women activists joined to found the int. council for women
SILENT SPRING
A book written to voice the concerns of environmentalists. Launched the environmentalist movement by pointing out the effects of civilization development.
RACHEAL CARSON
wrote “Silent Spring” , Wrote Silent Spring, started the modern enviromental movement
EARTH DAY
a holiday conceived of by environmental activist and Senator Gaylord Nelson to encourage support for and increase awareness of environmental concerns; first celebrated on March 22, 1970
CONSERVATIVE MOVEMENT
seeks to uphold the values and institutions of society and generally resist attempts to alter them
BARRY GOLDWATER
1964; Republican contender against LBJ for presidency; platform included lessening federal involvement, therefore opposing Civil Rights Act of 1964; lost by largest margin in history
RICHARD M. NIXON
He was selected to be the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party nominee, in the 1952 Presidential election, becoming one of the youngest Vice Presidents in history. Allegedly campaign donors were buying influence with Nixon by providing him with a secret cash fund for his personal expenses. Nixon appeared on television on September 23, 1952, to defend himself against the allegations.
ROE V WADE
(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman’s right to privacy
REGENTS OF UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA V BAKKE
1978 state university couldn’t admit less qualified individuals solely based on race; no quotas
14 POINTS
Woodrow Wilson’s peace plan, set out before war ended, helped bring it to and end because it helped Germans look forward to peace and be willing to surrender, was easy on the germans punishment for war. Points included: poeple all over the world are to determine their own fate, (self-determination)no colonial powers grabbing nations, free trade, no secret pacts, freedom of the seas, arms reduction, creation of world orginization/League of Nations.
GEORGE W BUSH
43rd president of the US who began a campaign toward energy self-sufficiency and against terrorism in 2001
BILL CLINTON
42nd President of the United States (1946-)
OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM
an invasion led by the United States in 2003 to stop the development of nuclear waepons by Iraq
ELECTORAL COLLEGE
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
LEAUGE OF NATIONS
an international organazation up after World War I to prevent futer wars
COMMUNISM
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION
Communism collapsed in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe during 1989 – 1991; the Cold War also ended during
SOCIALISM
a political theory advocating state ownership of industry
RED SCARE
Most instense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20’s. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. “Those anarchists bastards”. Sentenced to death and executed.
OPERATION ENDURING FREEDOM
US invades afghanistan to eliminate taliban to destroy Al Qaeda
JIMMY CARTER
The 39th President who created the Department of Energy and the Depatment of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.
IRAN CONTRA SCANDAL
Although Congress had prohibited aid to the Nicaraguan contras, individuals in Reagan’s administration continued to illegally support the rebels. These officials secretly sold weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of American hostages being held in the Middle East. Profits from these sales were then sent to the contras.
IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS
Chinese Exclusion act of 1882, Literacy Tests in native language for 16 and older (if they were illiterate they may not have been able to read and write in native language), 1921 emergency quota act, gentlemen’s agreement of 1907, national origins act of 1924
RONALD REGAN
the president of the US at the end of the cold war who encouraged Americans to mistrust communists
RADIO
emerged during the 1920s and contained stations such as church services, news, music and sports
MOVIES
industry grew from 1920 on–First talkie movie in 1927
JAZZ
a genre of popular music that originated in New Orleans around 1900 and developed through increasingly complex styles
HARLEM RENAISSANCE
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
LANGSTON HUGHES
A leading poet of the Harlem Renaissance. He wrote “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” and “My People”
LOUIS ARMSTRONG
Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance; he was a talented trumpeter whose style influenced many later musicians.
TIN PAN ALLEY
is the name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s.
TRUSTS
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly). There are anti-trust laws to prevent these monopolies.
WAR ON TERRORISM
U.S. launched an attack on Afghanistan that drove the Taliban from power
THOMAS EDISON
United States inventor
ELECTRIC LIGHTBULB
Thomas Edison used carbon wrapped cardboard to act as a filament to sustain a source of light without fire.
PHONOGRAPH
machine in which rotating records cause a stylus to vibrate and the vibrations are amplified acoustically or electronically
IMPEACHMENT OF BILL CLINTON
was impeached by the House of Representatives on charges of perjury(lying under oath) and obstruction of justice on December 19, 1998, but acquitted(freed) by the Senate on February 12, 1999. Two other impeachment articles, a second perjury charge and a charge of abuse of power, failed in the House.
IRANIAN REVOLUTION
leader was khomeini. people were upset because their leader (the shah) was not chosen by them and back up by europe and the US. they believed their resources were being abused and wanted change. revolution was intended to turn iran into aw purely islamic state. new government followed the sharia and all western culture was banned.
REAGANOMICS
The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.
MOTION PICTURES
a series of filmed images projected on a screen so rapidly the illusion of motion is created.
SITTING BULL
American Indian chief, he lead the victory of Little Bighorn
WOUNDED KNEE
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
ELLIS ISLAND
an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR
a federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955
GERALD FORD
president 1974-77, Nixon’s Vice president, only person not voted into the White House, appointed vice president by Nixon: became president after Nixon resigned
SAMUEL GOMPERS
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
PULLMAN STRIKE
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the “company town”, Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
MUCKRAKERS
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
CHINESE LABORERS
worked for lower wages than most other workers would work for
STEEL INDUSTRY
An example of big buisness that was made possiable by Captain of Indusry Andrew Carnegie. It helped fuel industrialism in America amd the manufacturing center was Pittsburgh.
STANDARD OIL COMPANY
Founded by John D. Rockefeller. Largest unit in the American oil industry in 1881. Known as A.D. Trust, it was outlawed by the Supreme Court of Ohio in 1899. Replaced by the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
KU KLUX KLAN
a secret society of white Southerners in the United States
RAILROAD INDUSTRIES
Transcontinental Railroad
TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California’s railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
14TH AMENDMENT
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
PHILIPPINE-AMERICAN WAR
fought to quell Filipino resistance to American control of the Philippine Islands. Filipino guerrilla soldiers finally gave up when their leader, Emilio Aguinaldo, was captured.
ENVIORNMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
EPA; created by Nixon to enforce standars on pollution levels and monitor enviornmental quality.
HENRY FORD
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947)
15TH AMENDMENT
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
MOREHOUSE COLLEGE
founded in Atlanta to educate freedmen, MLK was a graduate
FREEDMANS BUREAU
The bureau’s focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.
ANDREW JOHNSONS IMPEACHMENT
Congress passed tenure of office act to fire his seceratry stantion but then the house representives decide to impeach Johnson charging him with high crimes of misdemenors because he refused to hold up tenure office act and he removed 4 commanders of miliarty
BLACK CODES
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
BIG BUSINESSES
Standard oil company , carnigee steel corp.,jpmorgan banking , rockefella
U.S NEUTRALITY
The outbreak of war surprised most Americans. They tended to view the war as a strictly European matter. President Woodrow Wilson received strong support when he announced a policy of neutrality. This was held until the Lusitania incident.
18TH AMENDMENT
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
ESPIONAGE ACT
This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
AMERICAN EXPANSION
SPANISH AMERICAN WAR
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans’ fight for independence
CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
ANTI IMMIGRATION SENTIMENT
government act against immigration,, The dislike of New Immigrants caused the government to place quotas on immigration, which limited the number of new immigrants coming into the United States, but allowed more Old Immigrants to make their way into the U.S.
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People,, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to work for racial equality
PLESSY V FERGUSON
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
UPTON SINCLAIR
United States writer whose novels argued for social reform (1878-1968)
TENNESSEE VALLY AUTHORITY
established in 1933 to build dams and power plants along the Tennessee
River and its tributaries.
SECOND NEW DEAL
rograms President Roosevelt instituted after his
original New Deal failed to completely fix the American economy.
WAGNER ACT
his law established collective bargaining rights for
workers and prohibited such unfair labor practices as intimidating workers, attempting to
keep workers from organizing unions, and firing union members.
INDUSTRIAL UNIONISM
committed to craft-based workers such as carpenters and railroad engineers.
SOCIAL SECURITY ACT
1. Old-age insurance for retirees aged 65 or older and their spouses, paid half by the
employee and half by the employer

2. Unemployment compensation paid by a federal tax on employers and
administered by the states

3. Aid for the disabled and for families with dependent children paid by the federal
government and administered by the states

ELANOR ROOSEVELT
As a supporter of women’s activism, she was also instrumental in convincing
Roosevelt to appoint more women to government positions.
HUEY LONG
sights on replacing Roosevelt as president. Long proposed for every American a home,
food, clothes, and an education, among other things.
NEUTRALITY ACTS
to make
it illegal to sell arms or make loans to nations at war.
The fourth of these acts, passed in 1939 in
recognition of the Nazi threat to Western Europe’s
democracies, permitted the sale of arms to nations at
war on a “cash and carry” basis.
COURT PACKING BILL
FDR tried to appoint supreme court officials to make the supreme court more democratic in order to pass more bills, unconstitutional
ALLIED POWERS
France, Britain, USSR, United States, and China as well as 45 other countries that opposed the Axis powers in World War II
AXIS POWERS
in World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.
A PHILIP RANDOLPH
America’s leading black labor leader who called for a march on Washington D.C. to protest factories’ refusals to hire African Americans, which eventually led to President Roosevelt issuing an order to end all discrimination in the defense industries.
PEARL HARBOR
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
INTERMENT
Confinement under guard, especially during wartime
MOBILIZATION
act of assembling and putting into readiness for war or other emergency: “mobilization of the troops”
WARTIME CONSERVATION
Workers would carpool to
work or ride bicycles to save gasoline and rubber. People participated in nationwide
drives to collect scrap iron, tin cans, newspaper, rags, and even cooking grease to recycle
and use in war production. Another way Americans conserved on the home front was
through the mandatory government rationing system.
RATIONING
a limited portion or allowance of food or goods; limitation of use
LEND LEASE
A program under which the United States supplied U.K, USSR, China, France, and other allied nations with vast amounts of war meterial between 1941 and 1945 in return for, in the case of Britain, Military bases in New Foundland, Bermuda, and the British West Indies. It began in March 1941, nine months before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. It was abruptly stopped by the Americans immediately after V-J day.
BATTLE OF MIDWAY
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
D DAY
June 6, 1944 – Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
BATTLE OF BERLIN
one of the final battles[3] of the European Theatre of World War II. Two massive Soviet army groups attacked Berlin from the east and south. The battle lasted from late April 1945 until early May. Before it was over, Adolf Hitler committed suicide. The city’s defenders surrendered on May 2, 1945, although some fighting continued until the end of the war in Europe on May 8th (May 9th to the USSR) 1945
ATOM BOMB
a nuclear weapon in which enormous energy is released by nuclear fission (splitting the nuclei of a heavy element like uranium 235 or plutonium 239)
LOS ALAMOS
New Mexico where A-bomb detonated for first time July 1945; now we have 2 left
THE MANHATTAN PROJECT
a secret research and development project of the US to develop the atomic bomb. Its success granted the US the bombs that ended the war with Japan as well as ushering the country into the atomic era
MARSHAL PLAN
George Marshal the US secretary of state saw Europe as very important to the USA, he saw the best way to keep them out of communism is to help restore their countries in 1947, June, and he proposed a plan to provide massive economic aid to Europe
CONTAINMENT
(military) the act of containing something or someone
TRUMAN DOCTRINE
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
KOREAN WAR
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
McCARTHYISM
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
CUBAN REVOLUTION
(1958) A political revolution that removed the United States supported Fugencio Batista from power. The revolution was led by Fidel Castro who became the new leader of Cuba as a communist dictator.
BAY OF PIGS
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
CUBAN MISSEL CRISIS
Soviet Union builds nuclear installation inside Cuba, U.S. saw this as threat, Soviets pulled missels back with threat of war
VIETNAM WAR
The Vietnam War was a struggle for control of Vietnam. While the conflict originally
began during the French colonial rule in the region, the United States became involved inthe 1950s by providing economic and limited military aid. Following French withdrawal
in 1954, Vietnam was divided, with communist forces in the North and a pro-Western
regime in control of the South.
TET OFFENSIVE
In 1968, the Vietcong and
North Vietnamese army started the eight-month-long Tet Offensive. It was the
Vietcong’s largest and most damaging campaign of the entire war.
BABY BOOM
. From the mid-1940s to the mid-1960s, the birthrate quickly increased, reaching its
high point in 1957, a year when over 4 million babies were born.
LEVITTOWN
The first master-planned community in America was William Levitt’s Levittown,
located on New York’s Long Island.
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY ACT
uthorizing the construction of a national network of highways to connect every
major city in America.
KENNEDY/NIXON PRESIDENTIAL DEBATES
he first ones ever shown on TV. Seventy million people tuned in. Although Nixon was
more knowledgeable about foreign policy and other topics,
TV NEWS COVERAGE OF CVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
helped many Americans
turn their sympathies toward ending racial
segregation and persuaded Kennedy that new
laws were the only ways to end the racial
violence and to give African Americans the
civil rights they were demanding.
AIR CONDITIONING
permitted more tolerable working conditions in skyscrapers and
other buildings used for conducting business, thereby encouraging urban development
and stimulating economic growth in hot and humid climates.
PERSONAL COMPUTER
a small digital computer based on a microprocessor and designed to be used by one person at a time
SPUTNIK I
In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite—Sputnik I—a feat that
caused many Americans to believe the United States had “fallen behind” the Soviet
Union in terms of understanding science and the uses of technology.
JACKIE ROBINSON
1947–Jackie Robinson was the first African American to play for a major
league baseball team in the United States, the Brooklyn Dodgers.
HARRY TRUMAN
1948–President Harry Truman issued an executive order to integrate the U.S.
armed forces and to end discrimination in the hiring of U.S. government
employees. In turn, this led to the civil rights laws enacted in the 1960s.
BROWN V BOARD OF EDU
the case that ruled the seprate but equal was NOT equal
, segregation based upon race, violates the equal protection clause of the 14th amend.
MLK LETTER FROM BIRMIINGHAM JAIL
address fears white religiousleaders had that he was moving too fast toward desegregation. In his letter, King
explained why victims of segregation, violent attacks, and murder found it
difficult to wait for those injustices to end.
I HAVE A DREAM SPEECH
o over 250,000 people at the Lincoln
Memorial in Washington, D.C. In this speech, King asked for peace and racial
harmony.
VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965
outlawed the requirement for would-be
voters in the United States to take literacy tests to register to vote, because this
requirement was judged as unfair to minorities.
MIRANDA V ARIZONA
Police must inform suspects of their constitutional rights at the time
of arrest. The case involved a man named Ernesto Miranda, who was convicted and
imprisoned after signing a confession although, at the time of his arrest, the police
questioned him without telling him he had the right to speak with an attorney and the
right to stay silent. The Miranda decision strengthened Americans’ individual rights.
ASSASINATION OF PRESIDENT KENNEDY
GREAT SOCIETY
During a 1964 speech, President Johnson summed up his vision for America in the phrase
“the Great Society.” His programs to make the United States a great society would give
all Americans a better standard of living and greater opportunities regardless of their
background.
TET OFFENSIVE
…, 1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
ASSASSINATION OF MARTIN LUTHER KING JR
April 4th, 1968, he was shot while standing on the balcony of his room in Memphis, TN. The assassination led to riots in more than 100 cities. MLK Jr. was seen as a threat by those who opposed civil rights and the gains he was helping to orchestrate. James Earl Ray was arrested for the assassination of Dr. King. The reason has never clearly been established. Some beleive it was because he didn’t like what he was doing, he was a racist, he was payed to do it, or some accomadations like these given.
MEDICARE
program is an important legacy of the Great Society, as are
policies and programs that sought to improve elementary and secondary education, to
protect the environment, and to reform immigration policies.
1968 DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION
Chicago is remembered as a
scene where police armed with clubs and tear gas violently beat antiwar protesters
on live TV.
WARREN COURT
was known, became famous for issuing
landmark decisions, such as declaring that segregation in public schools was
unconstitutional in Brown v. Board of Education, that the Constitution includes the right
to privacy, that the right of free speech protects students who wear armbands as an
antiwar protest on school grounds, and that all states must obey all decisions of the
Supreme Court.
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964
was signed into law by President Lyndon
Johnson. This law prohibited discrimination based on race, religion, national
origin, and gender. It allowed all citizens the right to enter any park, restroom,
library, theater, and public building in the United States.
UPTON SINCLAIR
muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.
CESAR CHAVEZ
1927-1993. Farm worker, labor leader, and civil-rights activist who helped form the National Farm Workers Association, later the United Farm Workers.
INITIATIVE
allowed all citizens to introduce a bill into the legislative and required members to take a vote on it
DIRECT ELECTION OF SENATORS
part of the 17th amendment which states that each state should have 2 senators in the House of Senate and they can be changed or re-elected every 6 years. The house of Senate is divided up in a way so that 1/3 of the house is up for re-election every 2 years. At first, it was the state legislature who elected the senators, but after reform, it changed to the people electing the senators for their state.
TREATY OF GUADELUPE HILDALGO
1848- The treaty that ended the Mexican American War, USA gains present day CA, NM, AZ, NV, CO, UT, and disputed TX
IDA TARBELL
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
REFERENDUM
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
STUDENT NON VIOLENT COORDINATING COMMITTEE
Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.
JIM CROW
Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government
GREAT MIGRATION
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
RECALL
the act of removing an official by petition
UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE
A policy that the Germans announced on January 1917 which stated that their submarines would sink any ship in the British waters
PANAMA CANAL
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000 (746)
ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT
Efforts by citizens at the grassroots level to demand that political leaders enact laws and develop policies to curtail pollution, clean up polluted environments, and protect pristine areas and species from environmental degradation.
ROOSEVELT CORROLLARY
With the addition of the Roosevelt Corrollary to the Monroe Doctrine in 1904, it installed the use of naval power for foreign policy in Latin America and the Carribean
HULL HOUSE
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
IRANIAN HOSTAGE CRISIS
In 1979, Iranian fundamentalists seized the American embassy in Tehran and held fifty-three American diplomats hostage for over a year. The Iranian hostage crisis weaked the Carter presidency; the hostages were finally released on January 20, 1981, the day Ronald Reagan became president.
NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT
Agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the United States in December 1992 and which took effect on January 1, 1994 to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries.