The Warren Court
Court created when Eisenhower appointed the previously conservative Earl Warren as chief justice over William J. Brennan Jr. The court became a vehicle for social change and advocate for individual rights.
Sweatt vs. Painter
1950-Case in which the Supreme Court ruled that a black school in Texas was not equal to the white school, and ordered the state to take remedial action.
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
Case in which the supreme court ruled against segregation in public schools, arguing that separation implied nonequality and deciding that racial integration should proceed “with all deliberate speed.”
Upper and middle class groups which used economic coercion to maintain racial boundaries.
Woman whose refusal to give up her seat to a white man became the catalyst for the Montgomery Bus Boycotts
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Boycott in which African Americans refused to ride the buses, exerting economic pressure so that the supreme court eventually ruled against segregation.
Civil Rights Act of 1957
Act which established the Civil Rights Commission and Civil Rights Division in the Justice Department in an attempt to make voting possible for blacks, but which failed to make a significant difference.
Civil Rights Act of 1960
Act which appointed referees to register black voters where there had been patterns of discrimination but depended heavily upon nonexistent presidential support and therefore was unsuccessful.
High school during whose desegregation governor Orval Faubus called in the national guard but was forced to recall them by federal order. Eisenhower later had to send federal troops to protect the students being integrated.