APUSH College Board Exam

Land Ordinance of 1784
Called for the land west of the Appalachian Mountains, north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River to be divided into separate states
Under the Articles of Confederation
Principal author was Thomas Jefferson
Land Ordinance of 1785
Providing a mechanism for selling and settling the land
Stamp Act
Imposed a tax on the colonies that required that many printed materials (magazines, newspapers, legal documents) in the colonies be produced on stamped paper
Was imposed to help pay for troops during the French-Indian War
Affected the most verbal and influential of the colonists
Townshend Duties
Imposed duties on glass, lead, paints, paper and tea imported into the colonies
Treaty of Tordesillas
Divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and Spanish Empire
Edited the Line of Demarcation to give Portugal more land
Line of Demarcation
Between Spanish and Portuguese territory
Defined by Pope Alexander VI Spain won control of lands discovered west of the line, while Portugal gained rights to new lands to the east.
Favored Spain
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Navigation Acts
A series of laws that restricted the use of foreign ships for trade between Britain and its colonies
Required that all ships stop at Britain before going to other ports
Half-Way Covenant
First-generation settlers were beginning to die out, while their children and grandchildren often expressed less religious piety, and more desire for material wealth
Provided a partial church membership for the children and grandchildren of church members
Treaty of Ryswick
Settled the Nine Years’ War, which pitted France against the England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the United Provinces.
Treaty of Utrecht
A series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession
Writs of Assistance
Court orders that authorized customs officers to conduct general (non-specific) searches of premises for contraband
Tried to stop smuggling
Declaratory Act
Britain reserved the right to tax the colonies
Intolerable Acts
Boston Port Act (closed the port of Boston until lost tea was paid for)
Massachusetts Government Act (increased the power of the Massachusetts’ royal government)
Administration of Justice Act (royal officials could be tried anywhere, where the chances of acquittal were greater)
Quartering Act (soldiers could be housed in civilian homes)
These made of the coercive acts
Quebec Act (extended the province of Quebec, set up religion and government)
Tea Act
Designed to prop up the East India Company which was floundering financially, tea was to be shipped directly to the colonies, and sold at a bargain price
Colonists were angered and did not want to buy cheap tea
Outline of the US Constitution
Preamble
Article I- Legislature
Article II- Executive
Article III- Judiciary
Article IV- Interstate Relations
Article V- Amendment Process
Article VI- Supremacy Clause
Article VII- Ratification
Amendment 1
Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition
Amendment 2
Right to bear arms
Amendment 3
No one may be forced to house soldiers
Amendment 4
Protects against unreasonable search and seizure
Amendment 5
Rights of the criminally accused (indictment by grand jury, no double jeopardy,
no self incrimination, due process of the law, eminent domain)
Amendment 6
Rights to a speedy trial by jury (speedy trial, impartial jury, informed of
charges, right to an attorney)
Amendment 7
Rights to a jury trial in CIVIL CASES, more than $20- people sue over
money/property
Amendment 8
No excessive bail, no cruel and unusual punishment
Amendment 9
People have other basic rights not listed in Constitution
Amendment 10
All powers not given to the federal government are left for the states to take
care of/decide
Amendment 11
Federal courts do not have jurisdiction in cases against a state
Amendment 12
Provides for separate elections for president and vice president
Amendment 13
Abolished slavery
Amendment 14
Provides equality for all citizens; state governments must follow previously
passed amendments
Amendment 15
All males have the right to vote
Amendment 16
Congress has the power to pass direct taxes, such as income tax
Amendment 17
Senators are to be elected by the voters in their state; governor fills state
senator positions if position opens during a term
Amendment 18
Selling and drinking of alcoholic beverages is made illegal (prohibited)
Amendment 19
Gives women the right to vote
Amendment 20
Beginning of President, VP and Congress terms in office begins in January;
presidential succession can take place before Presidential inauguration
Amendment 21
Selling and drinking of alcoholic beverages is made legal (allowed again, #18
was repealed or cancelled by this amendment)
Amendment 22
Presidents may serve no more than 2 terms or a total of 10 years
Amendment 23
District of Columbia is allowed presidential Electoral College votes
Amendment 24
Eliminates poll tax (no required payment needed to vote)
Amendment 25
Provides for presidential succession and filling a vacant office of vice president,
if VP dies or his removed from office
Amendment 26
Lowers voting age from 21 to 18
Amendment 27
Congressional compensation increases may not take effect until after that
congressional term is over (their pay raise doesn’t go into effect until new term)
House of Representatives
Impeachment
Money
No debate
2 year terms
No limit on terms
Must be 25 years or older
Speaker of the House resides
Senate
Approves/rejects presidential nominees and treaties
Court and jury during impeachment
Vice president presides
6 year terms
No limit on terms
30 years or older
Article I
Legislature
Article II
Executive
President
Chief of State
Chief Executive
Chief Diplomat
Chief Legislature
Commander in Chief
Article III
Describes the Supreme Court
Not much detail
Article IV
Court decisions and citizenships valid in one state are valid in another
Provides for the admission of new states
Article V
Amendment process
Must be ratified by 2/3 of each house of congress and 3/4 of the state legislatures
Article VI
Supremacy Clause
Hierarchy of Laws
1. Constitution
2. Treaties
3. Federal laws
4. State laws
5. Local laws
Article VII
Ratification
Outlines the ratification process for the Constitution to take effect
Powers Reserved for the Federal Government Only
Regulate foreign commerce regulations
Regulate interstate commerce regulations
Mint money
Create and establish post offices
Grant copyrights and patents
Declare and wage war, declare peace
Admit new states
Fix standards for weights and measurements
Raise and maintain an army and navy
Govern the capitol city
Conduct relations with foreign powers
Universalize bankruptcy laws
Powers Reserved for the State Governments Only
Conduct and monitor elections
Establish voter qualifications
Provide for local governments
Ratify proposed amendments to the Constitution
Regulate contracts and wills
Regulate interstate commerce
Provide education for its citizens
Levy direct taxes
Maintain police power over public health and safety
Maintain integrity of state borders`
Shared Powers
Taxing, borrowing and spending money
Controlling the militia
Acting directly on individuals
Restrictions on the Federal Government
No ex post facto laws
No bills of attainder
Two-year limit on appropriation of the military
No suspension of habeas corpus (except in a crisis)
One port may not be favored over another
All guarantees are stated in the Bill of Rights
Restrictions on State Governments
Treaties, alliances, or confederations mat not be entered into
Letters of mark and reprisal may not be granted
Contracts mat no be impaired
Money may not be printed or bills of credit emitted
No import of export taxes
May not wage war
Required Percentages of Voting
Simple majority: war, debt, taxes, drafts, and impeachment
2/3 majority: overriding veto, amendments to Constitution, treaties, presidential appointments
3/4 majority: approving a constitutional amendment in state governments
Encomiendas
a grant by the Spanish Crown to a colonist in America giving the right to demand tribute and forced labor from the Indians
Jamestown
King James I granted a charter to the Virginia Company to establish an English settlement in the Chesapeake region of North America
Many gentlemen, servants, felt too good to work.
Communism-style society (everything was shared) failed.
Bad relations with Indians
Disease
Settlement of Virginia
After almost failure of Jamestown, indenture system was used to get more workers and people in the colony.
Dictatorial Governors ruled.
House of Burgesses was the representative assembly, created to appease residents
Charter was eventually revoked from the Company and Virginia became a royal colony
New France
Began in Quebec, spread to Great Lakes region
Maintained good relations with the Indians
Inadequate population and lack of support from mother country
New Netherlands
Sent Henry Hudson, discovered the Hudson River
Weak and unstable government
Patroon system, land estates were given land if they promised to transport families
Pilgrims at Plymouth
Puritans came from Holland to America in search of religious freedom
Established the Mayflower Compact, a foundation for orderly government
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Massachusetts Bay Company to get Puritans out of mother country
Under leadership of John Winthrop, became the example for a Christian colony
Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire
Created for dissenters of the Puritan Religion
Maryland
Crown granting individual charters to proprietors who would own the colony and directly responsible.
Granted to George Calvert, Lord Baltimore
Act of Religious Toleration, created to protect Catholic minority
The Carolinas
North created from an overflow from Virginia,
South created by English planters, brought African slaves
New York and New Jersey
New Amsterdam became NYC
Agitated for self government
Other was granted to two different proprietors, who gave land to different people, causing conflict
Pennslyvania and Delaware
William Penn, created for Quakers
Delaware separated from Pennslyvania
Georgia
Created as a buffer zone between English colonies and Florida, Spanish colony
Debtors prison
Lexington and Concord