APUSH Chapter 23

Progressivism’s characteristics
Concerns of effects of industrialization—regulate big bsn; Optimism of human nature—people could be informed and then solve problem; Willingness to intervene in people’s lives—sometimes used authority from gov. to; Drew from Protestant beliefs= duty to purge world of sin; Environment big effect on individual= change would change both;Touched the whole nation—lots of people caught up in it
Rise of Professions
Rise of professions (= progressive leaders too)/ professionals; Societies made to govern who entered professions—ex: docs= American Medical Association
Dr. Alice Hamilton
traced typhoid to flies, pioneered research into lead poisoning, survey of industrial diseases/poisons= laws; example of progressive using education and skills
Social-justice movement
During the 1890’s and after, this important movement attracted people who sought to free people from the often devastating impact of urban life. It focused on the need for tenement house laws, more stringent child labor regulations, and better working conditions for women. These reformers also brought pressure on municipal agencies for better community services and facilities; wanted to cure society
Lawrence Veiller
collected a TON of info on poverty and poor= public outcry, NY state Tenant House Commission and numerous books with more studies
Women’s Christian Temperance Union and Anti-Saloon League
Got Prohibition (18th amendment) signed in Jan. of 1920
Mann Act
no transportation of women for sex
General Federation of Women’s Club
child/women labor rights, suffrage; divided over male opposition, action at state or national level and Catholic Church, etc.
National American Women Suffrage Association
formed from two smaller ones) with Alice Paul, CONNIE CATT and others said women being allowed to vote= create better, purer society (temperance, clean gov., labor rights)
19th amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Pragmatism
(William James) didn’t like abstract truth; truth should work for individual, people shaped by environment AND shaped it; ideas that worked= truth
John Dewey
education= important for creativity, free inquiry and personal growth
Branders brief
evidence of negative effects of long work days on women’s health and mothers in Muller v. Oregon (expanded definition of legal evidence)
Muller v. Oregon
1908 – Supreme Court upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women in factories to 10 hrs as justified by the special state interest in protecting women’s health
Judge Ben Lindsey
known as “Kid’s Judge” sentenced young offenders “education and good care”
Socialist Party of America
Eugene V. Debs; Increased more (said progressive not gonna overthrow) members like farmers, intellectuals; had governors, etc.
National Municipal League
League formed leading to every city having organizations to improve city life; Recorded gov., regulated and restricted city franchises, tightening controls on cooperate activity, etc.
Mayor Tom L. Johnson
Johnson (Cleveland, Ohio)= reformed and cut down on corruption, held outdoor meetings, cut off special privilege= best governed city
Even Hues
NY
Johnson
CA (against railroads)
Wilson
NJ
State govs. at this time
regulated women and child labor, regulated railroads and utilities, improved mental and penal institutions and funded state universities
ROBERT M. LAFOLLETTE
“Wisconsin Idea”—regulated factory safety and sanitation with industrial commission, improved public utility controls and education, workers’ compensation, decreased railroad rates and increased its taxes, 1st state to have income tax and direct primary
bully pulpit
Teddy; forum of ideas and leadership of nation; should do all he could for the people; the ability to use the office of the presidency to promote a particular program and/or to influence Congress to accept legislative proposals
Teddy’s views on trusts
Large bsn needed to be controlled and “bad trusts” too while protecting “good trusts”
Suit against Northern Securities Company and result
Brought suits against Northern Securities Company (effected J.P Morgan, Rockefeller= Northern Securities Union) for violating Sherman Antitrust= trust dissolved; Dissolved many companies (not as many as Taft) but not CONSISTANT—used antitrust threats to regulate business
“square deal”
Economic policy by Roosevelt that favored fair relationships between companies and workers; settled United miners strike
Teddy’s plan
conservation, controlling cooperation, and consumer protection
ELKINS ACT
(1903) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads from giving preferences to certain customers
HEPBURN ACT
increased ICC’s rate-making power, fix max railroad rates, broadened jurisdiction to oil pipeline, express and sleeping cars
Meat Inspection Act of 1906
result of Sinclair’s The Jungle; sanitary meatpacking rules and gov. inspection of meat products
Pure Food and Drug Act
required manufacturers to list certain ingredients on label
Paige Aldrich law
higher rates than the House originally proposed but lower than Dingy Tariff; Showed party division and tensions and discredited Taft
The Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
Richard A. Ballinger tried to sell land that was supposed to be conserved & had given them to syndicate (Morgan); Pinchot mad that it hurt conservation efforts—Pinchot asked Taft to intervene, Taft support Ballinger, fired Pinchot= Taft lost support, newspapers attacked, Teddy mad
Mann-Elkins Act of 1910
ICC set rates and placed telephones/telegraphs under ICC jurisdiction (progressives), Commerce court (conservatives), Arizona and New Mexico Dem states so Court supported them (Dems)—for everyone! But raised issue of party division
16th amendment
income tax
17th amendment
direct election of senators
Teddy vs. Taft
when Taft sued U.S. Steel for something Teddy had already ok’d =Teddy in race for 1912 election
Teddy’s party
Progressive or Bull Moose Party
New Nationalism
Theodore Roosevelt’s program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Nationalism called for a national approach to the country’s affairs and a strong president to deal with them. It also called for efficiency in government and society; it urged protection of children, women, and workers; accepted “good” trusts; and exalted the expert and the executive. Additionally, it encouraged large concentrations of capital and labor.
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson’s program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one.
Underwood Tariff Act
decreased tariff 15%, removed duties from sugar, wool and other consumer goods, levied a modest income tax to make up revenue—united Dem party
Federal Reserve Act
central banking system with 12 regional banks governed by Federal Reserve Board= flexible currency
Clayton Antitrust Act
forbade policies that made monopolies, interlocked directorates (people director of companies) and made them responsible for antitrust violations; outlawed injunction and pro union
Adamson Act
8 hr/day on railways and commission to study problems of railroad