Short Staple Cotton
A hardier and coarser strain of cotton that could grow in variety of climates and soils. It was harder to process than long-staple because the seeds were hard to remove from the fiber. The cotton gin quickly solved this problem though.
The lower South, called this because the cotton production boomed.
Crop brokers who marketed the planters and managed the trade between southern planters and their customers
James De Bow
Southern advocate for econmic idependence, from New Orleans, whose magazine, De Bow’s Commercial Review, called for commercial and argricultural expansion and econmic independence from the North. Yet the magazine still feature advertisments from northern manufacturing firms.
An eleborate code adopted by wealthy southern whites, it obligated white men to defend their honor, often through dueling.
The Southern Lady
Their lives were generally centered in the home, and they were to serve as companions to and hostesses for their husbands and nurturing mothers to children. They rarely engage in public activities or find income-producing work.
A social theorist who wrote in the 1850s: “Women, like children, have but one right, and that is the right to protection. The right to protection involves the obligation to obey.”
The typical white farmer was a yeoman farmer, owned a few slaves, with whom they worked and lived more closely than did the larger planters. Most owned their own land, and devoted themselves largely to subsistence farming.
The nonslaveowning whites who opposed the planter elite, they lived in the Appalachian ranges east of the Mississippi, in the Ozarks to the west of the river, and in other “hill country” or “backcountry” areas. Of all southern whites, they were the most isolated from the mainstream southern lifestyle, practiced subsistence farming, owned almost no slaves, and were unconnected with the new commercial economy of the South.
These people were also known as crackers, sand hillers or poor white trash, they took no part in the plantation economy of the south, as many owned no land, and supported themselves by foraging or hunting. Others worked as common laborers for their neighbors. Sometimes they resorted to eating clay and as a result suffered from pellagra, hookworm, and malaria. Planters and small farmers alike held them in contempt.
The Peculiar Institution
What white southerners referred to slavery as, meaning that the institution was odd but that it was distinctive, special. The South was the only place in the Western World, except the Carribeans, where slavery still existed. This isolated the South from the rest of American society.
Forbade slaves to own property, to leave their masters’ premises without permission, to be out after dark, to congegate with other slaves except at church, to carry firearms, or to strike a white person even in self defense. Also prohibited whites from teaching slaves to read or write and denied them the right to testify against whites in court.
A policy of treating subject people as if they were children, providing for their needs but not giving them rights.
Trusted and responsible slaves that were often assisted by several subdrivers, acted under the overseer as foremen.
A slave women who brought freedom for herself and her son with proceeds from sewing. She later became a seamstress, personal servant, and companion to Mary Todd Lincoln in the White House.
The shuffling, grinning, head-scratching, deferential slave who acted out the role that he recognized the white world expected of him.
in 1800, he gathered 1000 rebellious slaves outside of Richmond; but 2 Africans gave the plot away, and the Virginia militia stymied the uprising before it could begin. Prosser and 35 others were executed.
In 1822, a free black who, along with his 9,000 followers, made preparations to revolt; but word leaked out, and suppression and retributions followed.
On a summer night in 1831, this slave preacher led a band of African Americans armed with guns and axes from house to house in Southhampton Country, Virginia. They killed sixty white men, women, and children before being overpowered by state and federal troops. More than a hundred blacks were executed in the aftermath.
A series of escape routes and hiding places to bring slaves out of the South, made by sympathetic whites and free blacks.
Were serious obstacles of the Underground Railroad that stopped wandering blacks on sight throughout the South demanding to see their travel permits.
To overcome communication issues between African Americans, they organized a common language, known as this by linguists.