APUSH chapter 11 Study Guide

Revolution of 1800
Electoral victory of Democratic Republicans over the Federalists, who lost their Congressional majority and the presidency; the peaceful transfer of power between rival parties solidified faith in the America’s political system
Patronage
Patronage is like the “spoils system.” When an elected official fills appointed positions with friends that helped
him or her get elected, it is considered patronage. Thomas Jefferson did not change many of the appointed positions in the government when he was elected in 1801
Judiciary Act of 1801
This was a law passed by the Federalist Congress. This law allowed the president, then President
Adams, to stay up until midnight signing in new federal judges across the nation. These midnight appointments allowed the
Federalists to still maintain power in the nation after they were a minority party in Congress. This act brought bitterness
between the two parties
Midnight judges
This was a nickname given to a group of judges that was appointed by John Adams the night before he
left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts so there would be a long term Federalist influence in the government,
since judges serve for life instead of limited terms
Marbury v. Madison
Sec. of State James Madison held up one of John Adams’ “Midnight Judges” appointments. The
appointment was for a Justice of the Peace position for William Marbury. Marbury sued. Fellow Hamiltonian and Chief Justice
John Marshall dismissed Marbury’s suit, avoiding a political showdown and magnifying the power of the Court. This case
cleared up controversy over who had final say in interpreting the Constitution: the states did not, the Supreme Court did. This
case established “judicial review,” the right of the Supreme Court to declare laws unconstitutional.
Tripolitan War
1801-1805Four-year conflict between the American Navy and the North-African nation of Tripoli over piracy in the mediterranean. Jefferson, a staunch noninterventionist, reluctantly deployed the American forces, eventually securing a peace treaty with Tripoli
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Haitian Revolution
1791-1804- War incited by a slave uprising in French-controlled Saint Domingue, resulting in the creation of the first independent black republic in the Americas
Louisiana Puchase
In 1803 Thomas Jefferson purchased 828,000 square miles of land for 15 million dollars from
Napoleon, the leader of France. The land mass stretched from the Gulf of Mexico all the way to the Rocky Mountains and
Canada. The purchase of this land sprouted national pride and ensured expansion.
Corps of Discovery
1804-1806- Team of adventurers, led by Lewis and Clark, sent by Jefferson to explore the LA Territory and find a water route ot the Pacific; Louis and Clark brought back detailed accounts of the West’s flora, fauna, and native populations, and their voyage demonstrated the viability of overland travel to the West
Orders in Council
1806-1807; Edicts issued by the British Crown closing French-owned European ports to foreign shipping; The French responded by ordering the seizure of all vessels entering British ports, thereby cutting off American merchants from trade with both parties
Impressment
This is the forcible enlistment of sailors or soldiers. This was a crude form of conscription that the British had
employed for over four hundred years. At this time, the London authorities claimed the right to impress only British subjects on
their own soil, harbor, or merchant ships. However, many Americans were mistaken for Englishmen and between 1808 and
1811 alone some 6,000 United States citizens were impressed by the “piratical man-stealers” of England. This was one of the
major causes of the War of 1812.
Chesapeake affair
The Chesapeake, a U.S. frigate, was boarded by a British ship, the Leopard. The Chesapeake was
not fully armed. The British seized four alleged deserters (the commander of the Chesapeake was later court-martialed for not
taking any action). This is the most famous example of impressment, in which the British seized American sailors and forced
them to serve on British ships. Impressment was one of the major factors leading to the War of 1812.
Embargo Act
This was a law passed by Congress forbidding all exportation of goods from the United States. Britain and
France had been continuously harassing the U.S. and seizing U.S. ships and men. And now, Britain and France were at war
which stood to figure that their harassment of Americans would only increase. The U.S. was not prepared to fight in a war on
either side, so President Jefferson hoped to weaken Britain and France by stopping trade and avoiding conflicts such as the
Chesapeake incident. The Embargo Act ended up hurting our economy more than theirs. It was repealed in 1809. The Embargo
Act helped to revive the Federalists and it caused New England’s industry to grow. Its failure eventually led to the War of 1812.
Non-Intercourse Act
Replacing the Embargo Act, this law formally reopened trade with all nations except England and
France on March 1, 1809. It was made by the Republican Congress in an attempt to make England and France stop harassing
the American ships and recognize American neutrality. Was ineffective because, though trade with other nations was okay,
England and France were America’s top trade partners
Macon’s Bill No.2
Aimed at resuming peaceful trade with Britain and France, the act stipulated that if either Britain or France repealed its trade restrictions, the US would reinstate the embargo against the non repealing nation; when Napoleon offered to lift his restrictions on British ports, the US was forced to declare an embargo on Britain, thereby pushing the two nations closer towards war
War hawks
1811-1812- Democratic-Republican Congressmen who pressed James Madison to declare war on Britain; largely drawn from the South and West, the war hawks resented British constraints on American trade and accused the British of supporting Indian attacks against American settlements on the frontier
Battle of Tippecanoe
1811- Resulted in the defeat of Shawnee chief Tenskwatawa, ‘the Prophet” at the hands of William Henry Harrison in the Indians wilderness; After the battle, the Prophet’s brother, Tecumseh, forged an alliance with the British against the US
Thomas Jefferson
Jefferson was a Republican who believed that the future of the U.S. would lie in the hands of farmers.
“Long Tom” Jefferson was inaugurated to the presidency in the swampy village of Washington on March 4, 1801. While
Jefferson was president, the Louisiana Purchase was made, Lewis and Clark were sent to explore the newly acquired land, the
Barbary Pirate threat was silenced, and the Embargo Act was passed. While all of Jefferson’s presidential acts were not always
successful, he always put the country ahead of himself. His patriotism and loyalty to the U.S. helped make it into the great
country that it is today.
Sally Hemings
A slave who was owned by Thomas Jefferson. Based on recent evidence from DNA and from the timing of Jefferson’s visits to Monticello, most scholars now think it probable that Jefferson, a widower, was the father of one and possibly more of her four surviving children.
Albert Gallatin
Gallatin was the Secretary of the Treasury under Thomas Jefferson. He was called the “Watchdog of the
Treasury,” and proved to be as able as Alexander Hamilton. He agreed with Jefferson that a national debt was a bane rather than
a blessing. Using strict controls of the economy, he succeeded in reducing the debt, and he balanced the budget
John Marshall
Marshall was appointed by President John Adams in 1801 to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. Being a
strong advocate of national power, he was a Virginia Federalist who was disliked by the states’ rights Jeffersonians. Although
the Federalists died out, Marshall continued to hand down Federalist decisions. Although he dismissed the Marbury suit to
avoid a direct political showdown, he said that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789, on which Marbury tried to base his appeal was
unconstitutional. Marshall greatly magnified the authority of the court in the Marbury v. Madison case where Marshall inserted
the keystone into the arch that supports the tremendous power of the Supreme Court (the right to declare a law unconstitutional,
AKA “judicial review”). Marshall’s decision regarding the Marbury case caused the Jeffersonians to lay rough hands on the
Supreme Court through impeachment. Jefferson’s ill-advised attempt of “Judge Breaking” was a reassuring victory for the
independence of the judiciary and the separation of powers among the three branches
Samuel Chase
Chase was a strong supporter of the American Revolution, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, an
ardent Federalist, and the only Supreme Court Justice ever to be impeached. A lawyer by profession, in 1796 he was appointed
to the U.S. Supreme Court by President Washington. This was after he served as Chief Justice of the General Court of
Maryland in 1791. In 1804, he was impeached for alleged prejudice against the Jeffersonians in treason and sedition trials. The
Senate, however, in a decision that indicated reluctance to remove judges for purely political reasons, did not convict him, and
he remained on the court until his death
Napoleon Bonaparte
A French general, political leader, and emperor of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Bonaparte rose swiftly through the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution and crowned himself emperor in 1804. He conquered much of Europe but lost two-thirds of his army in a disastrous invasion of Russia. After his final loss to Britain and Prussia at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean.
Robert R. Livingston
Livingston, along with James Monroe, bought New Orleans and all the French territory west of the
Mississippi River from Napoleon for 15 million dollars
Toussaint L’Ouverture
L’Overture was a Haitian who skillfully led a group of angry ex-slaves against French troops in
Santo Domingo. The French were unable to reconquer this valuable island and hence, had no use for Louisiana to serve as a granary for Santo Domingo. The inability of the French to regain possession of the island caused Napoleon to cede the
Louisiana territory to the United States for 15 million dollars. Thus, Toussaint L’ Overture’s military vigor indirectly provoked
Napoleon’s decision to sell Louisiana to the Americans
Meriwether Lewis
Military ruler who explored with William Clark; sent out to explore the LA Territory; traveled up the Missouri River, through Rockies and to the mouth of the Columbia River at the Pacific Ocean; bolstered America’s claim to western lands as well as opening the west to Indian trade and exploration
William Clark
They were explorers sent out to explore the recently purchased Louisiana Territory.
He served as the artist and cartographer. Explored from from 1804-1806. He traveled up the Missouri River, through the Rockies, and to the mouth of the Columbia River at the Pacific Ocean. This
exploration bolstered America’s claim to western lands as well as opening the west to Indian trade and further exploration
Sacajawea
Shoshone guide and interpreter: accompanied Lewis and Clark expedition 1804-05.
Aaron Burr
Chase was a strong supporter of the American Revolution, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, an
ardent Federalist, and the only Supreme Court Justice ever to be impeached. A lawyer by profession, in 1796 he was appointed
to the U.S. Supreme Court by President Washington. This was after he served as Chief Justice of the General Court of
Maryland in 1791. In 1804, he was impeached for alleged prejudice against the Jeffersonians in treason and sedition trials. The
Senate, however, in a decision that indicated reluctance to remove judges for purely political reasons, did not convict him, and
he remained on the court until his death
James Wilkinson
the corrupt military governor of Louisiana Territory; made an allegiance with Burr to separate the western part of the United States from the East and expand their new confederacy with invasions of Spanish-controlled Mexico and Florida; betrayed Burr when he learned that Jefferson knew of the plot; Burr was acquitted of the charges of treason by James Madison and he fled to Europe.
James Madison
The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
Tecumseh
Shawnee; Brother of Tenskwatawa; welded a far-flung confederacy of all tribes east of the Mississippi; Was killed in the Battle of Thames; actions were in response to the flood of western-bound settlers, and resulted in Indian unity and cultural revival; his death ended the Indian confederacy
Tenskwatawa (The Prophet)
Shawnee; welded a far-flung confederacy of all the tribes east of the Mississippi. Died by attacking a much larger American army; Their actions were in response to the flood of western-bound settlers, and resulted in Indian unity and cultural revival.