Population was doubling
about every 25 years, and the first official census of 1790 recorded almost 4 million people.
America’s population was
Many antifederalists hadstill about 90% rural, despite the flourishing cities.
Foreign visitors to American
look down their noses at the roughness and crudity resulting from ax-and-rifle pioneering life.
General Washington, the esteemed war hero
was unanimously drafted as president by the Electoral College in 1789- the only president nominee ever to be honored by unanimity
Who compromised the first Presidential Cabinet?
Many antifederalists had
sharply criticized the Constitution drafted at Philadelphia for its failure to provide guarantees of individual rights such as freedom of religion and trial by jury.
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Who wrote the new amendments? How were they approved?
James Madison, congress
Adopted by/ the necessary number of states in 1791
the first ten amendments to the Constitution, popularly known as the Bill of Rights, safeguard some of the most precious American principles.
Define: Judiciary Act of 1789Hamilton set out immediately to correct the economic vexations that had crippled the Articles of Confederation.
the act organized the Supreme Court, with a chief justice and five associates, as well as federal district and circuit courts, and established the office of attorney general.
Hamilton regarded himself as
a kind of prime minister in Washington’s cabinet and on occasion thrust his hands into the affairs of other departments, including that of his archrival, Thomas Jefferson, who served as secretary of state.
A financial wizard
Hamilton set out immediately to correct the economic vexations that had crippled the Articles of Confederation.
His plan was to shape
the fiscal policies of the administration on such a way as to favor the wealthier groups.
He therefore boldly urged Congress
to “fund” the entire national debt “at par” and to assume completely the debts incurred by the states during the recent war.
Define & SO WHAT—assumption
A thing that is accepted as true or as certain to happen, without proof. the state debts could be regarded as a proper national obligation, for they had been incurred in the war for independence.
The national debt had swelled to
$75 million owning to Hamilton’s insistence on honoring the outstanding federal and state obligations alike.
How could a national debt be a nation’s blessing?
The more creditors to whom the government owed money, the more people there would be with a personal stake in the success of his ambitious enterprise.
Hamilton’s first answer was
customs duties, derived from a tariff.
Tariff revenues, in turn, depended on
a vigorous foreign trade, another crucial link in Hamilton’s overall economic strategy for the new Republic.
The first tariff law
imposing a low tariff of about 8 percent on the value of dutiable imports, was speedily passed by the first Congress in 1789, even before Hamilton was sworn in.
Hamilton, with characteristic vigor
sought additional internal revenue and in 1791 secured from Congress an excise tax on a few domestic items, notably whiskey.
As the capstone for his financial system
Hamilton proposed a bank of the United States.
What was Jefferson’s argument against a national bank?
There was, he insisted, no specific authorization in the Constitution for such a financial octopus.
Believing that the Constitution
should be interpreted “literally” or “strictly,” Jefferson and his states’ rights disciples zealously embraced the theory of “strict constitution.”
Hamilton boldly invoked the clause
of the Constitution that stipulates that Congress may pass any laws “necessary and proper” carry out the powers vested in the various government agencies.
In short, Hamilton contended for a “loose construction” by invoking
the “elastic cause” of the Constitution- a precedent for enormous federal powers.
The Bank of the United States, as created by ________ in ______ was chartered for ______ years.
as created by Congress in 1791, was chartered for twenty years.
The Whiskey Rebellion, which flared up in ________ in _____
in southwestern Pennsylvania in 1794, sharply challenged the new national government.
They regarded the Whiskey Rebellion not as a tax on a frivolous luxury but
as a burden on an economic necessity and a medium of exchange.
With the hearty encouragement of Hamilton
he summoned the militias of several states.
What did the results of the Whiskey Rebellion 1794 prove?
An army of about thirteen thousand rallied to the colors, and widely separated columns marched briskly fourth in a gorgeous, leaf-tinted Indian summer, until knee deep mud slowed their progress.
Now, out of resentment against Hamilton’s revenue-raising and centralizing policies, an organized opposition
began to build
National political parties, in the modern sense, were known in America when
George Washington took his inaugural oath.
The notion of a formal party apparatus was thus a novelty in the 1790s, and when
Jefferson and Madison first organized their opposition to the Hamiltonian program, they confined their activities to Congress and did not anticipate creating a long-lived and popular party.
The party out of power—” the loyal opposition”- traditionally plays the invaluable role of
the balance wheel on the machinery of government, ensuring the politics never drifts too far out of kilter with the wishes of the people.
The French Revolution entered a more ominous phase in
1792, when France declared war on hostile Austria.
The guillotine was set up
the king was beheaded in 1793, the church was attacked, and the head-rolling Reign of Terror was begun.
The earlier battles of the French Revolution had not hurt America directly, but
now Britain was sucked into the contagious conflict.
It (Franco-American alliance) bound the United States to
help the French defend their West Indies against future foes, and the booming British fleets were certain to attack these strategic islands.
America owed France its freedom
they argued, and now was the time to pay the debt of gratitude.
The nation in 1793 was
militarily feeble, economically wobbly, and politically disunited.
Accordingly, Washington boldly issued
his Neutrality Proclamation in 1793, shortly after the outbreak of war between Britain and France.
This epochal document (the Neutrality Proclamation in 1793)
not only proclaimed the government’s official neutrality in the widening conflict but sternly warned American citizens to be impartial toward both armed camps.
Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation clearly
illustrates the truism that self-interest is the basic cement of alliances.
For ten long years, the (Britain) had been retaining the chain of northern frontier posts on U.S. soil, all in defiance of
the peace treaty of 1783.
But in 1794, when a new army under General “Mad Anthony” Wayne routed the Miami’s at the Battle of Fallen Timbers,
the British refused to shelter Indians fleeing from the battle.
They (Britain) seized about
300 American merchant ships in the West Indies, impressed scores of seamen into service on British vessels, and threw hundreds of others into foul dungeons.
War with the world’s mightiest commercial empire
would pierce the heart of the Hamiltonian financial system.
President Washington, in a last desperate gamble to/ avert war
decided to send chief Justice John Jay to London in 1794.
What were the terms of the treaty worked out between Britain and John Jay?
Southern planters would have to pay the major share of the pre-revolutionary debts, while rich federalists shippers were collecting damages for recent British seizures.
Jay’s unpopular pact, more than any other issue
vitalized the newborn Democratic-Republican party of Thomas Jefferson.
Southern planters would have to pay the major share of the pre-Revolutionary debts, while
rich Federalist shippers were collecting damages for recent British seizures.
Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795 with Spain granted
the Americans virtually everything they demanded including free navigation of the Mississippi and the large dispute territory north of Florida.
In his Farewell Address to the nation in 1796 (never delivered orally but printed in the newspaper), Washington strongly advised
the avoidance of “impermanent alliances” like the still vexatious France-American treaty of 1778.
Who did the Federalists choose as their candidate in 1796? The Democratic-Republicans?
Federalists: John Adams Democratic- Republican: Thomas Jefferson.
But the Jeffersonian again assailed/ the too-forceful crushing of
of the Whiskey Rebellion and, above all, the negotiation of Jay’s hated treaty.
John Adams, with most of his support in New England
squeezed through by the narrow margin of 71 votes to 68 in Electoral College.
Adams was hated by Hamilton, who had
resigned from the treasury in 1795 and now headed the war faction of the federalist party, known as the “light federalists”
The French were infuriated by
French warships, in retaliation, began to
seize defenseless American merchant vessels altogether about 300 by mid-1797.
True to Washington’s policy of steering clear of war at all costs, he tried again to
reach an agreement with the French and appointed a diplomatic commission of 3 men, including John Marshall, the future chief justice.
Define: XYZ Affair
The XYZ Affair was a political and diplomatic episode in 1797 and 1798, early in the administration of John Adams, involving a confrontation between the United States and Republican France that led to an undeclared war called the Quasi-War
The slogan of the hour became
“millions of defense, but not one cent for tribute.”
In two and a half years of undeclared hostilities (1798-1800), American privateers and men-of-war of the new navy captured
over eighty armed vessels flying the French colors, though several hundred Yankee merchant ships were lost to the enemy.
An outwitted Talleyrand realized that to fight the United States would merely
add one more foe to his enemy roster.
Talleyrand therefore let it be known, through roundabout channels, that if
The Americans would send a new minister, he would be received with proper respect.
Adams unexpectedly exploded a bombshell when, early in 1799, he submitted to
the Senate the name of a new minister to France.
Why was Napoleon eager to negotiate peace with the U.S.?
so that he might continue to redraw the map of Europe and perhaps create a New World empire in Louisiana.
Define: Convention of 1800
The Convention of 1800, 8 Stat. 178, also known as the Treaty of Mortefontaine, was a treaty between the United States of America and France to settle the hostilities that had erupted during the Quasi-War.
Adams not only avoided the hazards of war, but
also unwittingly smoothed the path for the peaceful purchase of Louisiana three years later.
Exulting Federalists had meanwhile capitalized on the anti-French frenzy to
to drive through Congress in 1798 a sheaf of laws designed to muffle or minimize their Jeffersonian foes.
They raised the residence requirements for aliens who desired to become citizens from
a tolerable five years to an intolerable fourteen.
The president was empowered to
deport dangerous foreigners in time of peace and to deport or imprison them in time of hostilities.
Define: Sedition Act 1798
Signed into law by President John Adams in 1798, the Alien and Sedition Acts consisted of four laws passed by the Federalist-controlled Congress as America prepared for war with France.
Many outspoken Jeffersonian editors were indicated under the
Sedition Act, and ten were brought to trial.
This attempt by the Federalists to crush free speech and silence the opposition party, high-handed as it was, undoubtedly made
many converts for the Jeffersonian.
Fearing prosecution for sedition, Jefferson secretly
penned a series of resolutions, which the Kentucky legislature approved in 1798 and 1799.
His friend and fellow Virginian James Madison drafted a similar but less extreme statement, which was
adopted by the legislature of Virginia in 1798.
Explain compact theory
refers to two theories related to the development of federal constitutions.
The doctrine that states can set aside federal laws.
Many Federalists argued that people, not the states, had
made the original compact, and that it was up to the Supreme Court- not the states- to nullify unconstitutional legislation passed by Congress.
The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions were a brilliant formulation of
the extreme states’ rights view regarding the Union- indeed more sweeping in their implications than their authors had intended.