APUSH Ch. 4

For most of their early history, the colonies of Maryland and Virginia
contained far more men than women.
The primary beneficiaries of the “headright” system were
landowners who paid the transatlantic passage for indentured servants.
The primary cause of Bacon’s Rebellion was
the poverty and discontent of many single young men unable to acquire land.
African slavery became the prevalent form of labor in the 1680s when
planters were no longer able to rely on white indentured servants as a labor force.
The culture that developed among the slaves in the English colonies of North America was
a combination of several African and American cultures.
Political and economic power in the southern colonies was dominated by
wealthy planters.
Because there were few urban centers in the colonial South,
a professional class f lawyers and financiers was slow to develop.
Puritan lawmakers in New England prevented married women from having property rights because
they feared that separate property rights for women would undercut the unity of married couples.
In New England, elementary education
was mandatory for any town with more than 50 families.
The Congregational Church of the Puritans contributed to
the development of basic democracy in the New England town meeting.
In contrast to the Chesapeake Bay colonists, those in New England
enjoyed longer lives and more stable families.
The focus of much of New England’s politics, religion, and education was the institution of
the town.
The “Half-Way Covenant” provided
baptism but not “full communion” to people who had not had a conversion experience.
Those people accused of being witches in Salem were generally
from families associated with Salem’s burgeoning market economy.
English settlers greatly altered the character of the New England environment by
their extensive introduction of livestock.
Early Maryland and Virginia settlers had difficulty creating them and even more making them last.
Disease
Primary cause of death among tobacco-growing settlers.
Indentured Servants
Immigrants who received passage to America in exchange for a fixed term of labor.
Headright
Maryland and Virginia’s system of granting land to anyone who would pay transatlantic passage for laborers.
Hanging
Fate of many of Nathaniel Bacon’s followers, though not of Bacon himself
Rhode Island
American colony that was home to the Newport slave market and many slave traders
Royal African Company
English company that lost its monopoly on the slave trade in 1698.
Gullah
African American dialect that blended English with Yoruba, Ibo, and Hausa.
Slave Revolts
Uprisings that occurred in NYC in 1712 and in South Carolina in 1739.
First Families
Wealthy extended clans like the Fitzhughs, Lees, and Washingtons that dominated politics in the most populous colony.
Early 20s
Approximate marriage age of most New England women.
Town Meetings
The basic local political institution of New England, in which all freemen gathered to elect officials and debate local affairs.
Half-Way Covenant
Formula devised by Puritan ministers in 1662 to offer partial church membership to people who had not experienced conversion.
Witch Trials
Late 17th century judicial event that inflamed popular feelings, led to the deaths of 20 people, an weakened the Puritan clergy’s prestige.
Farming
Primary occupation of most 17th-century Americans.
Chesapeake
Virginia-Maryland bay area, site of the earliest colonial settlements.
Indentured Servants
Primary laborers in early southern colonies until the 1680s
Nathaniel Bacon
Agitator who led poor former indentured servants and frontiersmen on a rampage against Indians and colonial government.
Governor Berkeley
Colonial Virginia official who crushed rebels and wreaked cruel revenge.
Royal African Company
Organization whose loss of the slave trade monopoly in 1698 led to free-enterprise expansion of the business.
Middle Passage
Experience for which human beings were branded and chained, and which only 80 percent survived.
Ringshout
West African religious rite, retained by African Americans, in which participants responded to the shouts of a preacher.
NYC Slave Revolt of 1712
Major middle-colonies rebellion that caused 33 deaths.
Nathanael Hawthorne
Author of a novel about the early New England practice of requiring adulterers to wear the letter “A”
“New England conscience”
The legacy of Puritan religion that inspired idealism and reform among later generations of Americans
The oldest college in America, originally based on the Puritan commitment to an educated ministry.
William and Mary
The oldest college in the South, founded in 1793
Half-Way Covenant
Helped erase the earlier Puritan distinction between the converted “elect” and other members of society.
Salem witch trials
Phenomena started by adolescent girls’ accusations that ended with the deaths of 20 people.
Leisler’s Rebellion
Small NY revolt of 1689-1691 that reflected class antagonism between landlords and merchants.
The severe shortage of females in southern colonies
Produced large number of unattached males and weak family structure.
Poor white males’ anger at their inability to acquire land or start families
Sparked Bacon’s rebellion.
Planters’ fears of indentured servants’ rebellion, coupled with rising wages in England
Caused southern planters to switch from indentured-servant labor to African slavery.
The dramatic increase in colonial slave population after 1680s
Inspired passage of strict “slave codes.”
The growing proportion of female slaves in the Chesapeake region after 1720
Fostered stronger slave families and growth of slave population through natural reproduction of children.
New Englanders’ introduction of livestock and intensive agriculture
Reduced forests and damaged the soil.
The healthier climate and more equal male-female ratio in New England
Produced high birthrates and a very stable family structure.
The decline of religious devotion and in number of conversions in New England
Inspired the Half-Way Covenant and jeremiad preaching.
Unsettled New England social conditions and anxieties about the decline of the Puritan religious heritage
Underlay the Salem witchcraft persecutions.
The rocky soil and harsh climate of New England
Thwarted success in agriculture but helped create the tough New England character.

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