culture of consumption
prevalent in american society during the industrial age, a culture based on consumption, materialism and money
Thorstein Veblen
economist, wrote Theory of the Leisure Class, condemned and criticized conspicuous consumerism, where status is displayed and conveyed through consumption.
name for rural farmers. came about because the farmers place in the economy is declining, as is the percentage of people who live in rural areas
upward mobility
a form of vertical mobility in which a person moves up in economic/social status, possible in America through individual effort
new immigration
a change from northern/western european immigrants to southern/eastern european immigrants. They settled in urban areas and were significantly different from native americans (poor and Catholic)
an employer who exploits Italian immigrants in the U.S., they pay for italians to come over in return for work
a person who favors those born in his country and is opposed to immigrants, specifically, a native born American who wants to limit immigration (and outside influence). They hated minorities, immigrants and Catholics
poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
settlement house
community center organized in the late 1800s to offer services (educational, housing, food, sanitation) to the poor
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies – particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion and racism
Immigration Restriction League
A nativist group who wanted to restrict immigration into the U.S. to certain groups they deemed desirable. Because of them congress passed a bill in 1897 requiring a literacy test for immigrants.
American Protective Association
An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration
How the other Half Lives
Book written by Jacob Riis documenting the poverty of the immigrants in the cities (has photographs)
Social Gospel
Movement led by Washington Gladden – taught religion and human dignity would help the poor over come problems of industrialization. Didn’t focus on religion, but on the fact that improved living conditions begot improved morality
Hull House
Chicago settlement house founded by progressive reformer Jane Adams in Chicago in 1889
Jane Addams
an American social worker, sociologist, philosopher and reformer. She was also the first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize, and a founder of the U.S. Settlement House Movement (founded the Hull House).
Lillian Wald
founded the Henry Street Settlement and Visiting Nurse Service which provided nursing and social services and organized educational and cultural activities. She is considered the founder of public health nursing and believed that the best way to help poor immigrants is to live and work among them
Louis Sullivan
architect known for his steel framed skyscrapers (he’s considered the father of skyscrapers) and for coining the phrase ‘form follows function’
John L. Sullivan
Jacob Riis
an immigrant, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s and the general ills of American society. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
Washington Gladden
Congregationalist minister who followed the social gospel and supported social reform. A prolific writer whose newspaper cloumns and many books made him a national leader of the Social gospel movement.