APUS History

Impressment
It is the *act of forcing an English-speaking man into the British navy*. As many as half of America’s sailors in the early 1800s were defectors from the British navy. The American government gave the sailors papers stating that they were American, but the British ignored the papers. Sometimes the British even impressed sailors who were actually American. The British practice of *impressment greatly angered Americans and led to the War of 1812*.
Chesapeake
A sailing *frigate belonging to the US Navy*, it was *one of the six original frigates to be constructed under the Naval Act of 1794*. Chesapeake fought in the Quasi-War and a little bit of the First Barbary War. In 1807, the British ship *HMS Leopard hailed and requested to search the Chesapeake to look for deserters. The Chesapeake refused and the Leopard opened fire, killing 3 and wounding 18*. The *Chesapeake was then boarded and 4 sailors were taken off the ship*. This action *created quite a stir in America, but Jefferson turned to diplomacy instead of war* (at first). The event is considered to be *one of the major causes of the War of 1812*.
Non-Importation Act of 1806
It was an act passed Congress which *forbade the importation of certain British goods in an attempt to convince Britain to suspend its impressment of American sailors and to respect American sovereignty and neutrality on the high seas*. This was the *first attempt Jefferson’s administration to respond economically*, instead of militarily, to British actions. *The Act failed and was replaced by the Embargo Act of 1807*.
Embargo Act (1807)
When *Britain and France* were both trying to gain control over Europe, *each country tried to use America to their advantage*. Thomas Jefferson signed this bill to *help the US remain neutral*. It *stopped American trade with all foreign countries*. The idea was that we would not get drawn into a war if we didn’t trade with anyone. It worked, but it *destroyed the American economy, as ships rotten at the wharves and industry and agriculture lost almost all of their markets*. It was *repealed in 1809 and replaced with the Non-Intercourse Act of 1809*.
Election of 1808
A *contest between James Madison (Democratic-Republican) and Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (Federalist)*, it was the second attempt- and failure- at becoming President by Pinckney. Madison replaced Jefferson and became the 4th President.
Non-Intercourse Act (1809)
It *replaced the Embargo Act* and was *put into place just four days before the end of President Thomas Jefferson’s second term as president*. It was virtually impossible to enforce this act. The *act lifted trade restrictions between America and every country except Britain and France*. The *goal was to hurt or damage each of the two country’s economies*. Like the act it replaced, it was *largely ineffective*.
Macon’s Bill #2 (1810)
It *replaced the Non-Intercourse Act and lifted the ban on American ships trading with Britain and France*. It *allowed trading as long as each country stopped attacking American ships*. *If one country attacked, they would lose their trade privileges until they recognized America’s neutrality rights*. France treated our shipping with more respect than Britain, so *we ended up banning trade with Britain*, a big *reason why we went to war against them* and not France.
Five Civilized Tribes
*Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole* (know these five!) – these were five Indian nations that were “civilized,” according to Americans. These tribes were *able and willing to incorporate their lifestyles with those of the Europeans*. Despite their being “civilized,” they were still *relocated from their homes to an area west of the Mississippi River*. They were *promised land forever free of settlers, yet settlers intruded almost immediately*.
Treaty of Fort Wayne
This treaty, signed in *1809*, *gave the US control over most of Indiana*. The treaty was *between the US and many tribes, but not the Shawnee*. The *Shawnee were angry, leading to Tecumseh’s War*, including *battles at Thames and Tippecanoe*.
Tecumseh
He was a *leader of the Indian tribe called the Shawnees*. He *grew up in Ohio and constantly saw war*. His *brother was Tenskwatawa*. Tecumseh is known for *confronting General William Henry Harrison about repealing land purchase treaties*. He is also known for *traveling across America to unite the tribes against fighting*. Before he left, he *warned his brother to avoid violence. This warning was ignored*. The *Battle of Tippecanoe was the cause of his brother’s death and mass destruction for the Shawnees*. It *made Harrison famous, and he ended up becoming President in 1841*.
William Henry Harrison
He was a *military official, politician, and the first president to die in office (in 1841)*. Before his presidency, Harrison *fought in the Battle of Thames and the Battle of Tippecanoe*. So, like Andrew Jackson who also became President later on, *Harrison gained fame for slaughtering Indians*. (Tippecanoe and Tyler Too)
Tenskwatawa
He was a *father of twenty and a husband of three*, he was the *religious leader of his tribe, the Shawnee*. he stayed home when his brother, Tecumseh, traveled across America to unite the Indian tribes. *he ignored his brother’s warnings and was defeated in the Battle of Tippecanoe*.
War Hawks
They were a *young generation of political leaders who were elected to Congress in 1810*. They didn’t like that *Britain was interfering in American affairs by keeping forts in the Northwest and arming the Indians*. Famous ones included future leaders *Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina*.
General William Hull
He *tried to invade Canada during the War of 1812, but faced superior forces and retreated to Detroit*. He became infamous for *surrendering Fort Detroit in 1812 and was court-martialed for it*.
Captain Oliver Perry
He was a *naval captain who beat a British navy squadron on Lake Erie*. He sent out the *famous message, “We have met the enemy and they are ours.”* Without the lake, the *British could no longer keep control over Detroit*. He also *assisted General William Henry Harrison in the Battle of Thames*.
Andrew Jackson
He was a *Congressman from Tennessee who strongly supported the War of 1812*. During the war, he served as a *general of the US Army*, and *won the most famous battle of the war, the Battle of New Orleans*. At New Orleans in 1815, Jackson *defeated a much larger British force, marking the last major battle of the war*. In fact, the Battle of New Orleans, America’s greatest victory in the entire war, *took place one month after the war was over* (the combatants hadn’t heard that it was over)! This win *gave the United States a stronger bargaining position at the peace settlement*. He was also *famous for killing Indians, including defeating the Creeks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814, and invading Florida to attack the Seminoles in 1817*.
Burning of the Capitol
The British had a *strong navy and were harassing coastal shipping and attacking settlements at will*. In the summer of 1814, the most humiliating attack happened. The *British burned the Capitol*, *forcing President Madison and Congress to flee*. *Dolley Madison, the president’s wife, famously saved a portrait of George Washington as she fled*.
Fort McHenry
In September 1814, *Americans beat back a British attack on Baltimore and Fort McHenry*, which somewhat made them feel better about the burning of the Capitol. An *onlooker named Francis Scott Key watching the “rockets’ red glare” was motivated to write the Star Spangled Banner*.
Hartford Convention
*Federalists from five New England states sent representatives to meet at Hartford to talk about their grievances*. *New England had been especially hurt by the Embargo Act*, and *some representatives threatened to get their states to leave the Union*. The Convention’s *final document contained all their grievances but no threat to leave the Union*. Still, the simple fact that *Federalists talked about breaking away from the Union just as the US was winning the war made them look like traitors*. *The Federalists died as a major party after this*.
Treaty of Ghent
*Britain decided to end the War of 1812 with America*. The treaty was signed on *Christmas Eve 1814 in Ghent, Belgium*. It is important in the sense that it changed Britain’s view of America *Britain now took America seriously as an independent nation*, which is *why many historians refer to the War of 1812 as the Second War of Independence*.
Mohawk and Genesee Turnpike
It was *one of the four main migration routes to the West*. It was in *up-state New York, and led the people of New England to Lake Erie*, where they then took a boat to Ohio. *MGTP=NYNE*
National Road
It was another migration route, only it was in the middle states. It began in *Baltimore and led to Wheeling, West Virginia*. *Nat’l=DC (near Virginia)*
Wilderness Road
It was one of four major migration routes used by Americans to travel west. The road connected *Virginia to Kentucky*. The route was blazed by Daniel Boone in 1775. *Kentucky=hickville wilderness*
Federal Road
Originally the *Georgia Road*, it became the Federal Road after the *federal government pumped money in to improve it*. It was the southernmost of the four major trails; it allowed farmers from *South Carolina and eastern Georgia to Alabama and Mississippi.*
Election of 1816
*James Monroe (Secretary of State for Madison) defeated Rufus King in the election for president with 183 to 34 electoral votes*. It *marked the end of the Federalist Party*; they never entered another candidate. This was due in part that *Federalists lost ground by not supporting the War of 1812*. The DRs had also adopted Federalist polices of a national bank and protective tariffs, which *left the Federalists without much to argue*. In 1820, James Monroe ran for reelection without a Federalist opponent. He was *reelected in 1820, 231 votes to only 1 opposing vote* (The 1 vote was ceremonial – they wanted to keep it so that GW was the only unanimously-elected President).
Era of Good Feelings
*Monroe made a goodwill tour after his Inauguration*, the first president since GW to do so. When he visited Boston, the Federalist newspaper *Columbian Centinel proclaimed an era of good feelings*. Monroe wanted *national and political unity*. He *placed both Federalists and Democratic-Republicans in office instead of just DRs*. The phrase *Era of Good Feelings has become attached to Monroe’s presidency. It ended with the Panic of 1819.*
John Quincy Adams
He was the *son of the second president, John Adams*. John Quincy Adams was *Secretary of State under Monroe*, and like his father he *became president (in 1825)*. He was a bitter *enemy of slavery and predicted the Civil War*. He also *negotiated the Rush-Bagot Treaty and the Adams-Onis Treaty*. He was the *author of the Monroe Doctrine*.
American System
A system unlike TJ’s plan for a country of self sufficient farmers, it was *based on Hamilton’s financial plans*. It included: *1. national bank 2. protective tariffs to encourage manufacturing 3. national system of roads and canals*. The *main supporters of the A.S. were Henry Clay and JQ Adams*. The *South was eventually opposed to the AS, while the North and West generally supported it*.
Tariff of 1816
*British manufacturers had been excluded from the American marketplace with the Embargo Act of 1807*. When it was lifted, *British companies flooded America with inexpensive products that hurt American manufacturing*. *Congress sought to protect American manufacturing with this*. It mainly placed a *tax on imported textiles* (woolens and cottons, iron leather, hats, paper, and sugar). The *change was welcomed both by southerners and northerners*.
Rush-Bagot Treaty
This *treaty between the US and Britain* was organized by JQ Adams to *demilitarize the Great Lakes*. In other words, the *border between the US and Canada would not be armed.*
Convention of 1818
This treaty between the *US and Britain* established the *border between Canada and the US at the 49th parallel from Minnesota to Montana*.
Adams-Onis Treaty
(*Transcontinental Treaty of 1819*). General Andrew *Jackson attacked Spanish Florida even though he was not instructed to do so*. His offensive *showed Spain that Americans could take Florida by force*. *Secretary of State JQA convinced Spain to cede (give) Florida to the US and to give up its claim to Louisiana Territory and Oregon*. In return, the *US canceled their claim to Texas and released Spain from 5 million dollars of debts* to Americans. The treaty is *one of JQA’s great accomplishments and pushed American expansion forward*.
Monroe Doctrine
Devised by JQA, it was a U.S policy that *said that any European attempt to colonize land or “interfere with states (other countries)” in the Americas would be seen as an act of aggression, which the U.S would respond to*. It *told the Europeans that they were not allowed to come back over here and retake their former colonies* (nearly all of Central and South America had become free while Europe was distracted by the Napoleonic Wars). The Doctrine was *set in place to make sure the U.S would be dominant in the Americas* by preserving the independence of the other former European colonies. *In return, the US agreed not to interfere with European affairs*.
Panic of 1819
It was the *first major financial crisis in America*. Unlike the other panics of the time, the it was *caused because of failings in the U.S’s economy* (not external factors). This panic was the *end of the economic expansion that had followed the War of 1812 and the end of the Era of Good Feelings*.
Missouri Compromise
This was an *agreement between the pro and anti-slavery supporters in the U.S.* *Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state, and this would create one more slave states than there were free states*. The compromise *decreed that no one could own slaves north of 36 degrees and 30 minutes North latitude* – the southern border of Missouri, except Missouri). This agreement *made Missouri a slave state and Maine a free state*, and made it so *no future state north of the Missouri Compromise Line could be a slave state*.
James Tallmadge
A *Democratic-Republican lawyer who was elected to the House of Representatives*. He *helped write the Missouri State Constitution*. He *tried to amend the Missouri Compromise so that it would guarantee gradual emancipation to all slaves in Louisiana Territory* (*Tallmadge Amendment*), but the amendment failed. *It only succeeded in causing trouble between the North and South*, since they argued about it in Congress.
Henry Clay
He was the *8th, 10th, and 13th Speaker of the House of Representatives*, and the *Secretary of State from 1825 to 1829*. He *wanted to go to war with England* (“War Hawk”), and *largely contributed to America fighting in the War of 1812*. He also *supported the American System* to try to help business. He was *known as the “Great Compromiser” for his ability to work out difficult issues*, and he *worked on the Missouri Compromise*. In 1957, he was voted one of the five greatest Senators of all time.
Russian America
It was in what today is *Alaska*, but *Russian settlements extended as far south as California*. Russian America brought *sea otter furs and a new trading port*. Russian traders often *intermarried with Natives*. Settlers over-hunted, so often had to move. They eventually set up *forts on the Pacific coast, all the way down to Fort Ross (near the middle of today’s California)*. The presence of *Russian settlements worried the Spanish, who claimed land all the way up to the southern border of Alaska*.
Northern New Spain
Spain sent people to *colonize the Pacific coast in fear of the British and Russians*. The *British claimed the region north of California to the southern border of Alaska. So, Russia, Britain, and Spain all claimed the same territory*. Spain explored Vancouver Island, Columbia River, and the southeastern Alaska coast. *Spain tried to get a foothold in the fur trade but failed*. In an extra effort *to protect against the British and Russians, a series of twenty missions was set up, including Los Angeles. LA was the biggest (about 300 people in 1800)*.
New Orleans
It came *under Spanish rule in 1763 due to the French loss in the Seven Years’ War*, and in 1800, the population had about *half blacks, half whites*. Most of the blacks were slaves, but the remaining 1/3 were “persons of a free color” and because of French law, had equal rights to white people. The whites were a mix of cultures such as Irish, Spanish, Germans, Americans, English and the French exiles of Acadia. *All these people were here because of New Orleans becoming a thriving port city*. In 1801, the city shipped more than $3 million worth of goods to Europe!
Migration
*5-10% of American households moved each year*. A third of the houses on the Atlantic seaboard had moved westward starting in 1790. By 1800, *500,000 people had found fertile land among the Ohio, Cumberland, and Tennessee Rivers*. Those rivers drained into the Mississippi River, which was the boundary of the western U.S. Soon, there was a *large enough population in the territories for statehood. Kentucky and Tennessee were the first trans-Appalachian states admitted to the Union*.
City of Brotherly Love
*A nickname for Philadelphia.*
Re-exports
These are *goods that have been exported to one country, and then that country re-exports them to a different country*. (Ex. The French people were not allowed to trade with Britain, but they had goods they wanted. So America, being a neutral country, took advantage of this and imported France’s goods. America then exported them to Britain and obtained goods and money.) Foreign governments were not happy with this practice.
Empress of China
It was a *ship that set sail in 1784 from New York for Canton* (in China, not Maine!) with *40 tons of ginseng. It returned in 1785 with teas, chinaware and silks*. Robert Morris and his partners that sponsored the voyage made a 30% percent profit. This *sparked interest for other merchants to follow their example*.
Jefferson’s Inauguration
(1801) Thomas Jefferson’s Inauguration as the third president of the United States was important because it *marked the peaceful transition of two political parties*. Those parties were the Federalists, and their hated rivals, the Democratic Republicans. His presidency *demonstrated that national policy could be changed without dictatorship or revolt*. Unlike Washington and Adams who rode in horse-drawn carriages with liverymen, Jefferson walked down Pennsylvania Avenue like a regular person. *(Gist: Jefferson was normal, previous presidents weren’t.)*
Virginia Dynasty
The *succession of Virginia presidents between 1789 and 1825*. *Four Virginians held the presidency for thirty-two of thirty-six years*: George Washington, who served from 1789 to 1797; Thomas Jefferson, who served from 1801 to 1809; James Madison, who served from 1809 to 1817; and James Monroe, who served from 1817 to 1825. *(Washington, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe.)* The *only interruption in the Virginia Dynasty was when John Adams of Massachusetts, served a single term as president.*
Monticello
The *name of Thomas Jefferson’s house, designed by Jefferson*. It was built upon a *hill near Charlottesville, VA*. The process took nearly *40 years because Jefferson was constantly changing the design*.
Agrarian Republic
Jefferson believed that America provided the true citizenship necessary to a republican from of government. He *envisioned a nation of small family farms clustered together in rural communities*. He also believed that only a nation of *equal farmers who weren’t dependent on someone else for their livelihood*, would be essential for this republic. He also believed that *rural contact with nature was essential to the republican character*. He said, “those who labor in the earth are the chosen people of God.” His ‘farm,’ however, was the *slave-owning plantation known as Monticello*. It seems odd to argue that the people who worked the land were considered the chosen ones, yet were slaves on Jefferson’s farm!
Essay on the Principle of Population
*Written by Thomas Malthus*, this was a very *pessimistic and influential essay warning about population explosion*. Malthus predicted that the *British population would soon deplete the country’s food supply*. Malthus warned that if the population wasn’t checked, then it would spread throughout Europe and even America. Jefferson used the threat that Malthus discussed as a way to *emphasize the importance of remaining agricultural* (can’t starve if everyone’s farming!) and (very importantly) to *stress the importance of expanding the country westward*.
The frugal Thomas Jefferson
Jefferson was *brought into office determined to reverse Federalist policies*. He promised to *cut internal taxes*, *decrease the size of the army and navy*, and *limit the numbers of the government staff to prevent national debt*. He kept those promises, unlike most Presidents.
Barbary Wars
Also known as the *Tripolitan Wars*, they were *two wars the US fought against pirates* (arrr!) in *North Africa from 1801-1805 and 1815*. Under Washington and Adams, the *US paid protection money to the pirates (arrr!) to keep them from attacking our ships and ransoming the crews*. Jefferson ended the practice, believing that paying tribute encouraged pirates (arrr!). So, he *sent the best ships in the Navy, including the USS Enterprise, USS Constitution, USS Chesapeake and USS Constellation to Tripoli*. Though the war has been forgotten by almost everyone, *35 Americans died and Stephen Decatur became a national hero for his bravery* after sneaking onto a pirate-controlled ship and setting fire to it. The victory *enhanced the reputation of the US military, which had not been tested before on foreign soil.*
Judiciary Act of 1801
This act was *passed because of an insufficient number of judges in the circuit courts*. The distance the *judges had to travel was very far*, so *President Adams signed this act on the final night of his presidency to ease the pressure on each judge. He hired more judges and created more circuits, lessening the travel of the judges*. Or at least that was the excuse used by the Federalists. The other reason for hiring the judges was to *guarantee that Federalists would control the judicial branch of government for a really long time*, and therefore be able to guard against the power of the newly-elected Democratic-Republicans. *Judges serve for life*. Democratic-Republicans were angered by this act because they had just won the election, and they felt they should get to appoint the judges, not the party who had just been voted out of power.
Midnight Judges
This refers to the *three judges appointed, and hired at midnight*, in the final minutes of Adams’ presidency. They were *hired as part of the Judiciary Act of 1801*. As soon as he took office, Jefferson set to work to stop the judges from taking their seats, and *Jefferson worked to get rid of the Judiciary Act of 1801*. Congress quickly complied and repealed the act.
Marbury v. Madison, doctrine of judicial review
(1803) This case came up because *William Marbury had been made a Midnight Judge*. When he tried to take his position, he was *blocked by Madison, because Madison hadn’t received his paperwork*. The system of *sending it through a courier was dysfunctional and this problem often occurred*. *The case gave the Supreme Court the power known as the doctrine of judicial review, which gave them final say on any case that they looked into*. According to the doctrine of judicial review, the Court had the *power to strike down any law as unconstitutional if it conflicted with the Constitution. It made the court as powerful as the President and Congress.*
Samuel Chase
He was an *Associate Justice on the US Supreme Court from 1796-1811*. He was a Federalist. *Unlike today, when judges at least pretend to be politically unbiased, Chase was openly hostile toward Democratic-Republicans*. After Jefferson became President, *Chase spoke out against the Democratic-Republican repeal of the Judiciary Act of 1801*. This prompted Jefferson to write a letter to a Congressman asking for Chase’s punishment! *Chase was then formally charged (impeached) by the House of Representatives on the charge that he was biased against defendants who were Democratic-Republicans*. However, when the trial took place in the Senate, *he was acquitted.* The impeachment trial is really important for two reasons – *1. By acquitting him, the Senate reinforced the independence of the judiciary.* In other words, the other branches of government can’t just remove judges they don’t like. *2. Judges became more careful about avoiding the appearance of being politically biased.*
John Marshall
He was a *Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He ruled in favor of Madison, in Marbury v. Madison* and gave the *Supreme Court the power of a doctrine of judicial review*. He is considered the *most important Supreme Court Chief Justice in history because every one of his decisions increased the power of the federal government at the expense of the states*. Any time a state and the federal government went to court against each other, *he ruled in favor of the federal government*.
Treaty of San Ildefonso
This treaty was a secretive plan in which France handed over a territory, Tuscany, over to the Spanish in exchange for six battleships. Spain then gave France control of Louisiana. This turned out to be huge because it allowed Napoleon (French leader) to sell Louisiana to the US in 1803.
Toussaint L’Ouverture
He was the *leader of the Haitian slave rebellion against the French*. He, and his group of slaves, *overthrew Napoleon’s governor, forcing him out of Haiti*. Though L’Ouverture was captured and died in prison, *his efforts freed Haiti from French rule*. He is very important to American history in an indirect way. *Before the rebellion, Haiti was France’s richest possession in America because of sugar*. *Napoleon obtained control over Louisiana in order to use Louisiana as a giant farm to support Haiti’s slaves*. When *Haiti won its independence, Napoleon decided to sell Louisiana to the US.*
Louisiana Purchase
In 1803, the United States *bought the territory of Louisiana from the French for $15 million*. Louisiana Territory was not just the Louisiana that we know of today. *This territory included modern-day states Louisiana, northern Texas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota, South and North Dakota, and Montana*. The *French sold this territory because they were desperate*. They were being *driven out of the Caribbean and were on the verge of another war with Britain*. They needed funds and this was a *great way to gain those funds*. For the US, the *Purchase doubled the size of the US for less than 3 cents per acre*! The *Purchase kicked off a controversy because the Constitution does not contain any provision giving the federal government the power to buy land*. Hypocritically, Thomas Jefferson, one of the staunchest strict constructionists, pushed Congress to approve the Purchase.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
It was an *exploratory trip across the West led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark*. They were the *first to travel all the way to the Pacific Ocean and back*. Their goal was to *explore the land America gained in the Louisiana Purchase*. Thomas Jefferson specifically told them to *explore the Missouri River and follow it back to its source*. Throughout their journey, *Lewis and Clark drafted over a hundred maps, giving people an idea of the Northwest*. They recorded *122 species of animals and 178 species of plants*. They also made *friendships with natives in the area*, specifically Sacajawea.
Sacajawea
As a young girl, she was *captured and married French a fur trader, Toussaint Charbonneau*. *Lewis and Clark hired both of them as interpreters*. She famously *helped them get horses for their voyage across the Rockies*. Many times, she *prevented Indian attacks by being a woman with a child* – when the expedition entered a new territory, *unfamiliar Indians did not attack on sight because of the presence of a woman and her child* (obviously not hostile people).
Mandan Indians
They were a *tribe in northern Missouri*. During the winter of 1804, they *helped Lewis and Clark*. The *two sides formed an alliance*, and during the winter the *Mandan supplied the expedition with food and supplies. The two sides also did a great deal of trading.*
Proclamation of Neutrality
This was an announcement by George Washington that the United States would be *neutral* in the wars between France and England (*not honoring the Franco-American Alliance*).
Mingo Creek Democratic Society
This was a *group* in Pennsylvania modeled after the Sons of Liberty *who supported France*. They used the *French Revolution as an excuse to resist the Washington administration*. They were especially *unhappy with the Washington administration’s tax on distilled spirits, including whiskey, which was a major part of their economic activity.*
Whiskey Rebellion
This was a *tax protest in Pennsylvania* in the 1790s. It began because of the excise (sales) tax on *whiskey*, which was *part of Alexander Hamilton’s plan to pay the national debt*. It was *unpopular because farmers needed to distill their corn to make it to market*, otherwise it would go bad. The US Army smashed the rebellion! The crushing of the Whiskey Rebellion by federal soldiers *showed that the new government was powerful, and willing to end violent resistance to the laws*. This was in stark contrast to the way the Articles of Confederation had dealt with Shays’ Rebellion. Some people criticized George Washington for sending 13,000 soldiers to stop a rebellion of farmers, saying he “killed a flea with a sledgehammer.”
Indian Intercourse Act
(1790) *NOT SEX* It was an act created to regulate *intercourse* (*trade*) between the *Native Americans and the colonists*, and to regulate the travel of non-Natives on Native land. These were designed to try to *stop conflict with the Natives*, but *failed because settlers kept intruding on Native land*.
Little Turtle
He was the *chief of the Miami tribe*, and *one of the most successful Native American military leaders* of his time. He *fought a number of fairly successful battles against the US* during the 1790s, but *became an advocate for peace with the US in the years before the War of 1812*.
Canada Act
In 1791, the British Parliament passed this act. It *created the province of Upper Canada (Ontario)* and *granted Canadians limited self-government*. ***British troops remained at a series of posts within American territory to protect the province, which violated the Peace of Paris (1783)***. The *British settlers provided weapons to Native Americans in Ohio Territory to keep American settlers from encroaching upon Canadian land*.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
It was a decisive battle fought in *Ohio between US forces and the Shawnee tribe*. The *US won and hostilities in the region were ended until the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811*. The **conflict was resolved by the Treaty of Greenville in 1795**.
Treaty of Greenville
(1795). It was the treaty that *established the “Greenville Treaty Line.”* The Greenville Treaty Line was the *boundary between Native American territory and lands open to white settlers* for several years. However, the treaty line was often ignored. The *treaty gave the US control over nearly all of Ohio, which is why it is historically significant.*
Jay’s Treaty
(1795). It was a treaty between the United States and Great Britain *promising that British subjects would leave American lands in the Northwest Territory within one year* (as they had promised in the Treaty of Paris in 1783). The treaty also *allowed Americans to trade with British colonies in India and the Caribbean*, *in return for the US agreeing to limit its exports of cotton to other countries (angering the South)*. Many Americans were upset with this treaty, but the United States still had little negotiating strength because we were so weak. Alexander Hamilton convinced George Washington that it was the best the United States could do. *Disagreement with this treaty played a major role in Thomas Jefferson forming the Democratic-Republican Party.*
Pinckney’s Treaty
(1796) This *treaty established friendship between the United States and Spain*. It: *1. defined the southern boundary of the United States with the Spanish colony of Florida at 31 degrees North latitude; 2. gave the U.S. navigation rights on the Mississippi River and the right to use the port of New Orleans.; and 3. the US and Spain both agreed not to encourage Native Americans to attack settlers*
Washington’s Farewell Address
It was *written to the people of the nation as a closing to his second and final term as president*. He gave advice to the country for the future. He *warned that the nation could only keep its independence through the unity of the states*. He warned *against political parties*, saying that parties cared more about themselves than they do about the country. Most famously, he *warned Americans not to get into “entangling alliances” with foreign nations*. In other words, we shouldn’t make friendships with countries that would force us to go to war to defend them.
Factions
This was the *name that Washington gave to political parties, which he saw as dangerous to American democracy*. Washington saw factions as a threat because *they served themselves, and not necessarily the country*. Today, special interest groups are similar to what Washington was talking about.
Democratic-Republican Party
They believed in *States’ rights with a weaker central government and a strict interpretation of the Constitution*. They were usually *Pro-French*. This party was also pro-agriculture. They were led by Jefferson and Madison.
Federalist Party
They believed in a *strong central government and a loose interpretation of the Constitution*. Generally, they were *Pro-British*. They were also *pro-manufacturing and banking*. They wanted to increase tariffs to promote manufacturing. They were *led by Hamilton and Adams*.
Election of 1796
George *Washington was worn out by criticism and didn’t even think about running for a third term*. Adams won with 71 votes, but was followed by Thomas Jefferson, with 68 votes. Back then, until the passage of the 12th Amendment in 1803, *the person with the most votes became President and the person with the second-most votes became Vice-President*. The President was a Federalist, but the vice president was the leader of the Democratic-Republicans. *This was controversial because the two parties were fighting for two totally different ideas of government*.
XYZ Affair
During the 1790s, the French and the British went to war again. The *US declared its neutrality, which angered France*. France began seizing American ships on the high seas. To try to solve the problem without going to war, *John Adams sent three American diplomats to France to meet with their foreign minister, Talleyrand. Instead, three French agents nicknamed X, Y, and Z demanded a bribe before the American diplomats would be allowed to speak to Talleyrand*. They wanted a $250,000 bribe, and millions in loans. The diplomats told the French that, “We will not give you even a sixpence!” *The XYZ Affair greatly angered Americans, and this was the beginning of the Quasi-war*, an undeclared war with France lasting from 1798-1800. Instead of fighting a full-blown war against France, as Hamilton wanted, Adams chose to seek peace in 1800. *This disagreement split the Federalist Party, allowing Jefferson to win the election of 1800*.
Alien and Sedition Acts… why passed
These acts were bills passed in 1798 by the Federalists during the Quasi-War. They were supposedly *designed to protect the U.S. from foreigners (“aliens”) of enemy countries*. However, they were really an *excuse for the Federalists to go after their political enemies, the Democratic-Republicans, who drew a lot of support from recent immigrants*. The Acts included the *Alien Act, Sedition Act, and Naturalization Act*.
Naturalization Act
This act *lengthened the amount of time required for foreigners to become citizens of the U.S. from five years to fourteen years*. Franco-Americans, for example, had to wait longer before they could become citizens and vote. This *hurt the Democratic-Republicans, who had been pro-France during much of the 1790s*.
Alien Act
This act *gave the President the power to order the imprisonment or deportation of anyone suspected to be an alien enemy during wartime.*
Sedition Act
This act *imposed heavy fines and imprisonment for anyone caught writing, publishing, or speaking anything about the government or any of the officers that was false or negative*. Sadly, this was passed only 7 years after the Bill of Rights was adopted! *The act targeted the newspapers of the Democratic-Republicans*, and several editors went to jail for publishing articles critical of the government.
Matthew Lyon v. Roger Griswold
Lyon was a Democratic-Republican of Vermont, and Griswold was a Connecticut Federalist. *During a debate in the House of Representatives, Lyon spit in Griswold’s eye. Griswold retaliated by hitting Lyon with his cane. Lyon ended up using a pair of fire tongs to defend himself against Griswold.* The two had to be pulled apart. *Lyon went to jail later that year for writing an article that opposed John Adams’ decision to fight France (Quasi-war), and he became the only Congressman in US history to be re-elected while in jail.*
Virginia and Kentucky Resolves
They were political statements written by Jefferson and Madison in 1798 and published anonymously. These statements declared that *Virginia and Kentucky* *did not have to follow federal law because they disagreed with the Alien and Sedition Acts*. The Resolves declared that a state would have the right to nullify (cancel) any federal law with which it disagreed. Later on in the 19th century, people who wanted the South to break away from the Union cited the Virginia and Kentucky Resolves as intellectual justification for their right to do so.
Convention of 1800
This was an *agreement between the United States and France*, where they successfully *settled the hostilities that happened during the Quasi-War*. The Convention is historically important for two reasons – *1. it allowed the purchase of Louisiana from France in 1803, which would not have happened if we were still at war, and; 2. it split the Federalist Party.* Federalist leader Alexander Hamilton wanted to continue the war against France, while President (and Federalist) John Adams negotiated the treaty. *This split allowed Democratic-Republican leader Thomas Jefferson to win the presidential election in 1800.*
Fries’ Rebellion
*Pennsylvania farmers rebelled (again!) against high taxes in 1799*. Federal troops were sent by Adams to restore order. *Fries and two others were tried for treason and sentenced to be hanged*. Against nearly every other Federalist, *Adams pardoned the men. This, along with ending the war against France, split the Federalist Party.*
Aaron Burr
He was the *third vice president of the United States*, and served under Thomas Jefferson. He was the *first vice president who never served as president*. He was an important political figure in the beginning of our early history, but his *political career ended after he was accused of treason*. *Burr is famous for shooting and killing Alexander Hamilton in a duel in 1804*. He was arrested for treason in 1807 after attempting to get the West to secede (break away) from the Union, but not convicted.
Election of 1800
This election was a *rematch of the 1796 election – John Adams versus Thomas Jefferson*. The campaign was incredibly personal. *Jefferson was attacked for being an atheist (he wasn’t), a French radical (he wasn’t), and an adulterer (he was!)*. After the *Federalist Party was split by the Quasi-War and Fries’ Rebellion*, Jefferson and Burr tied because all of the Democratic-Republican electors voted for both of them (back then, electors cast two votes each, but the ballots didn’t specify one for President and one for Vice President). The election went to the House of Representatives, as required by the Constitution. While the debate raged, Alexander Hamilton spoke out in favor of Jefferson (ironically) because of his hatred for Burr. Burr eventually got his revenge!
Sally Hemings
*She was a mixed race slave owned by Jefferson*. Some journalists at the time, and historians later, said he *may have fathered many children with Hemings after his wife’s death*. DNA testing of Hemings’ descendants conclusively proved a link with the Jefferson family.
“Revolution of 1800”
Jefferson referred to the Election of 1800 as this because it was the *first peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another*. In most countries, when power transfers from one group to another, people die.
12th Amendment
This amendment *changed the system by which the Electoral College elected the president and vice-president.* (*Before it was changed, the president and vice president were on the same ballot.* The person who got the most votes was president, the person with the second most became vice-president regardless of their political party.) This made two separate ballots, one for those running for president and one for vice-president. It also says that the *House of Representatives chooses the President if no person wins a majority of electoral votes.*
Benjamin West
One of his most famous paintings, *The Death of General Wolfe*, became the most frequently reproduced painting of the time. He was best known for his historical paintings.
John Singleton Copley
New England-born artist, he painted mostly *portraits that were highly realistic*. He famously painted Sam Adams, Paul Revere, and John Hancock.
John Trumbull
He went to London to study under West. There, he *painted Battle of Bunker Hill. He was known for his high detail and his historical paintings.*
Pierre L’Enfant
He was a French officer during the Revolution. The *French architect was put in charge of designing Washington D.C. *
Noah Webster
*Author of American Spelling Book*. The speller was composed of British and American writings. It also was the *first to timeline the history of America, beginning with Columbus*. He *suggested spelling words as they sounded*, “Ther iz no alternitiv.” He eventually gave up on that, but *got people to drop the “u” out of British-English words such as “colour.”*
Susanna Haswell Rowson
She wrote *poetry, plays and novels*. Rowson was also an actress. More books were being written for women readers; *Rowson wrote an extremely popular book for women, Charlotte Temple, that was in print for over 100 years*. She also had a school for girls.
Republican Motherhood
*Mothers were supposed to know the Republican values*. *Children would be raised with Republican beliefs, therefore making them ideal citizens*. Mothers played an important part in shaping the values of the next generation. So, *women could not vote or hold office, but they were expected to raise their sons to love freedom and liberty!*
Mt. Vernon Conference
A meeting of delegates, in 1785, from Virginia and Maryland at George Washington’s house. It was the first meeting leading to the drafting of the U.S. Constitution. They dealt with issues like commerce, fishing, and navigation around Chesapeake Bay.
Annapolis Convention
a meeting in 1786 at Annapolis, Maryland. It had 12 delegates from five different states that wanted a constitutional convention. Its only real success was agreeing to another meeting in Philadelphia the following year.
Constitutional Convention
AKA the Philadelphia Convention, it took place from May-September 1787. This meeting was called to fix the Articles of Confederation, but ended up writing an entirely different document. It was called in response to fears that the government under the Articles was too weak to govern the country in the wake of the government’s inability to deal with Shays’ Rebellion.
Patrick Henry “smelt a rat”
Although many people lump Henry in with the other supporters of the Constitution, he actually wasn’t present at the meeting, and became one of the biggest critics of the Constitution. He rejected his invitation to the meeting, later saying this quote. In other words, he didn’t trust the meeting because he feared that the meeting would lead to the creation of a powerful central government. It turned out that he was right to be afraid!
Virginia Plan, James Madison
(aka “Large State Plan”). At the CC, James Madison proposed this. He thought that the US should have a bicameral Congress, with the number of representatives elected for each state determined by the population of each state. The Plan also called for a single, powerful executive.
New Jersey Plan, William Patterson
(aka “Small State Plan”) William Paterson proposed this, which thought that the legislature should be unicameral, with the number of representatives equal for each state. This Plan called for multiple executives.
Great Compromise, Roger Sherman
(aka “The Connecticut Compromise”) it was a political compromise brought on by a dispute between how representation in Congress would be determined. Virginia wanted representation to be by population because they had a lot a people. New Jersey, on the other hand, had less people, so they wanted equal representation. Then, Roger Sherman came up with this compromise. This created a bicameral legislature with equal representation in the Senate and representation by population in the House of Representatives. This also determined that the US would have one president, who serves for four years.
Bicameral Legislature
This consists of two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives. It was created because Virginia wanted representation by population and New Jersey wanted equal representation. Then Roger Sherman created the Great Compromise, in which both states partially got their way.
Three-Fifths Compromise
This was created because the South didn’t have as many white, land-owning males as the North, but did have plenty of slaves. They wanted to *count the slaves as population so they could have more say in the House of Representatives* (the number of members in the House was determined by population). The North didn’t want this because it would *cause the South to have more power*. The compromise decided that for every *five slaves, the state’s population increased by three*. Embarrassingly, this is written in the Constitution.
Slave-Trade Compromise
This states that after 20 years Congress could outlaw the international slave trade, which they did in 1808. Of course, slave owners were still able to get slaves through natural increase; they just couldn’t buy them from other countries legally.
Commerce Compromise
This created tariffs (taxes on imported goods) on imported agricultural and manufactured goods. The idea was to be able to create revenue for the new government. It outlawed taxes on exports.
Constitutional Monarchy
A form of government in which a monarch is the head of State, but limited in power by a written constitution. Britain had this; Americans didn’t want this form because it was too much like Britain’s government. Alexander Hamilton famously proposed this during the Constitutional Convention, but obviously did not represent the views of the majority.
Electoral College
*These are men or women who are elected as representatives by their state’s political parties to cast their party’s vote for President of the United States.* The candidate’s party that wins the popular vote of the state gets to cast their votes for president. Whichever candidate gets one more than half of the votes becomes President.
Father of the Constitution
This was a nickname given to James Madison because he was the author of the Constitution.
Federalists
They were in favor of the Constitution and a strong central government.
Anti-Federalists
They were a group of people against the Constitution, and opposed a strong central government.
The Federalist Papers
The papers were a series of 85 essays supporting the passing of the Constitution. The authors were James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay, but the letters were published anonymously (signed “Publius”).
Federalist #10
It was an essay written by James Madison for the Federalist Papers. It addressed the question of how to guard against special interest groups. It is one of the most famous of the Federalist Papers.
The Anti-Federalist Papers
These were also a series of essays written about the Constitution, except these were against the ratification of the Constitution. These were less organized and less effective.
Ratification
For the Constitution to pass, it needed 9 states to agree to it, but to avoid having a divided country, they really needed all thirteen. By agreeing to have a Bill of Rights added to the Constitution, the supporters of the document earned its passage by all the states.
Bill of Rights
It is the first ten amendments to the Constitution. It was adopted during the first session of the new federal Congress, and was first proposed during the debates over ratification. The amendments were made because George Mason and other Antifederalists wouldn’t sign the Constitution without them. They feared that a strong central government created by the Constitution would strip the people of their freedoms, so a it was necessary.
Mr.President
George Washington wanted to be addressed this because he felt like “Your Highness” was too close to a title used for a King. This title is still used today.
George Washington-Man of the people?
He was anything but a man of the people. By nature reserved and solemn, he preferred to ride around town in a horse drawn carriage, escorted by uniformed liverymen. Like the British royal tradition, he delivered his addresses personally to Congress, and received from both houses an official reply.
The First Cabinet
This consisted of Thomas Jefferson as *Secretary of State*, Alexander Hamilton to run the *Treasury*, Henry Knox as *Head of the War Department*, and Edmund Randolph as *Attorney General*. Those four men made up this; today, it is 15 people.
Judiciary Act of 1789
It set up a system of federal courts. It was the most important piece of legislation to emerge from the first session of Congress.
John Jay
He was the 1st Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, serving from 1789 – 1795. The Supreme Court had relatively few cases during its first decade, but it still managed to raise considerable political controversy.
Chisholm v. Georgia (1793)
It was the *first major case to reach the US Supreme Court.* Two South Carolina residents sued the state of Georgia for the recovery of confiscated property. The state of Georgia refused to show up, arguing that they were a *sovereign state and could not be sued unless they agreed to be sued.* The Court ruled in favor of the residents and against Georgia. With this ruling, the *Court overthrew the common law principle that a sovereign state could not be sued without its consent*, and supported the Constitution’s grant of *federal jurisdiction over disputes “between a state and citizens of another state.”* In other words, the Court said that an individual could sue a state government whether the state liked it or not! It alarmed the states so much that it *led to the 11th Amendment.*
11th Amendment
Added to the Constitution in 1795, this amendment was proposed in response to Chisholm v. Georgia in order to overrule Chisholm. It states that the US judicial system has limited power to hear suits against state governments by citizens of another state or country. Basically, *states cannot be sued by private individuals in most cases.*
Ware v. Hylton (1796)
Ware v. Hylton was a Supreme Court case where a *Virginian owed a debt to the British from the Revolution.* It was stated in the Treaty of Paris (1783) that British creditors would find no lawful obstruction to getting their payments from Americans who owed them debts. *(British had to get paid no matter what)* However, under a Virginia law, Hylton did not have to pay the debts. *The Supreme Court overruled the Virginia law.* This case is significant because, like Chisholm, it *placed the power of the federal government above that of the individual states.*
Tariff of 1789
It was a *tax placed on foreign goods in order to raise revenue*. The tariff was placed on things like glass and pottery, and it was meant to *raise money for the new government.* The rate was between 5 and 10 percent, depending on the item. Hamilton was eager to pass the tariff as a main source of revenue for the government and to *encourage home manufacturing in the US*, as we had become dependent on foreign imports.
Report on the Public Credit
It was the *first of the three reports written by Alexander Hamilton on economic policy.* It discussed ways to *diminish the national debt acquired from the Revolution, and explained the country’s current financial situation.* The Congress adopted the report. All the *debts would be paid up front at face value with government bonds paying about 4% interest.* In other words, the government would sell bonds to investors. Investors would buy these bonds to get the interest (4%). The *money that was paid by investors to the government for the bonds would be used to pay off all state and national debts.* The *interest was to be paid by an excise tax on liquor (whiskey) and a new tariff.*
Assumption Plan
In the Report on the Public Credit, Hamilton called for the payment of all of the state debts incurred during the Revolution. This plan was very *controversial because some states had already paid most of their debts, while others still owed a lot of money*. Led by Virginia, the states that had nearly paid their debts protested at the idea of paying the debts of other states. Also, it was *controversial because the plan benefitted rich people who had bought bonds at a fraction of their real value*. Word of *Hamilton’s Assumption Plan had been leaked out to some of his wealthy friends, who then literally ran from community to community buying up as many “worthless” government bonds from unwitting veterans and other ordinary people.* They purchased bonds for as little as 15 cents on the dollar. When it became known that the government was going to pay back all bonds at 100% (“at par”), the *veterans and ordinary people were a tad upset!* Thomas Jefferson and James Madison protested, calling the Assumption Plan “radically immoral.”
National Capitol
James Madison and Thomas Jefferson wanted the new capitol to be somewhere on the Potomac River Washington DC, then Maryland/Virginia), but they did not have enough support in Congress. Hamilton was trying to get Congress to pass the Assumption Plan around the same time. *The three worked together on a compromise.* Hamilton would get supporters of moving the new capitol from New York (his home state), while Madison and Jefferson would get supporters for the Assumption Plan. That’s why the Capitol moved from New York City to Washington D.C. I guess it was not so “radically immoral” after all!
Report on a National Bank
A financial plan written in 1790 by Alexander Hamilton that advocated a national bank called the Bank of the United States. His hopes were to *strengthen the relationship between the government and business classes.* The bank would also provide *financial order, credit for the country, and resolve the inflation issue after the Revolution from the overprinting of Continental dollars.* The Southern members of Congress didn’t particularly like the bank because they believed it *mainly supported the manufacturing interests in the North.* The Bank was very controversial because *nothing in the Constitution expressly granted the federal government the power to create one.*
Strict Constructionist
According to this view, the federal government was *allowed to do only the things specifically written in the Constitution, nothing more.* This would guarantee *more power for the states and less for the federal government.* Democratic-Republicans like *Jefferson and Madison favored this view. Strict constructionists opposed the Bank.*
Loose Constructionist
According to this view, the *federal government could do anything unless it was expressly forbidden to do so by the Constitution.* (reading between the lines) This, obviously, *gave the national government greatly expanded power.* Federalists like Alexander Hamilton favored this view. They *supported the Bank.*
Report on Manufactures
The third economic report by Alexander Hamilton. The plan *discussed the need for a sound policy to stimulate the growth of manufacturing.* He suggested *moderate tariffs would raise the country’s overall revenue.* Hamilton believed the tariff would *protect American industries, raise revenue to support manufacturing, and raise revenue to pay government expenses.* Congress *shot this plan down because of Southern opposition.*
Hamilton v. Jefferson
*Hamilton was a Federalist*, and *Jefferson was an Anti-Federalist*.
*Hamilton wanted a centralized government focused on commerce and industry and allied with the British*, while *Jefferson supported a decentralized agrarian republic focused on strong foreign relations with France.* Their *conflict helped develop political parties.* People who supported Jefferson were mostly artisans, shopkeepers, frontier settlers, or small farm owners. People who supported Hamilton were mostly merchants, bankers, manufacturers, and wealthy farmers. *Hamilton believed that the nation had to industrialize in order to compete with other nations, while Jefferson was convinced that an agrarian (agricultural) republic was absolutely necessary to keep Americans free.*
French Revolution
(1789-99) Due to terrible living conditions and national bankruptcy, the French commoners and middle class wanted to change the government. The starving people of Paris attacked the prison of Bastille on July 14, 1789. That started this and people rose against the monarchy all across the country. During this, many people were beheaded by the guillotine if they were seen as traitors to the revolution (sort of like how Loyalists were treated in America, but much more extreme). Feudalism was abolished and all the people were to have equal rights, rich and poor. King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were beheaded. It is believed that the *American Revolution inspired the French citizens to overthrow the monarch* and set up their own government. *Democratic-Republicans supported the Revolution*, believing that the French people were fighting for their freedom like America did during our own Revolution. *Federalists opposed the Revolution*, appalled by the slaughter of rich aristocrats by the masses of the people. They were afraid that the idea of killing the rich and sharing their property might catch on in America.
Franco-American Alliance of 1778
This was an alliance between France and the United States that began during the American Revolution. France became convinced that Americans stood a chance at gaining their independence when Americans beat the British at the Battle of Saratoga, so they helped the US. The alliance greatly aided the American cause and lasted into the 1790s. Though the French helped the US during our revolution, *Washington’s Cabinet avoided aiding France in their war against the British in the 1790s because they wanted to remain neutral.* As you can imagine, this felt like betrayal to the French people. But, Washington believed we were too weak to get involved in a major European war, and he was probably right.
Edmond Genet
He was also known as *Citizen Genet*. A French diplomat, he was *sent to America to promote France’s wars with Britain and Spain*, and to *ask America to honor the Franco-American Alliance*. He was *welcomed with parties when he arrived in Charleston, SC*; he was very popular with the people. He recruited privateers to steal from the British. *George Washington sent Genet an 8,000-word letter asking Genet to stop, since he did not want the US to be dragged into a war against Britain and Spain.*
Land Ordinance of 1785
Land was divided in *36 sections of one square mile each (640 acres each), known as townships.* This was for the surveying and selling of western lands. Land was sold in one square mile increments for $640 and could not be sold by the government in smaller units. This policy of selling the land in large units, instead of in smaller plots, benefitted speculators. $640 was a lot of money back in the day! *Speculators were wealthy people who bought land, subdivided it, and sold the smaller pieces for profit.*
Section 16
*This was one section out of the 36 in a township*, the income derived from selling parts of it was *reserved for the support and funding of local schools.*
Squatters
*A person who occupies a space that he does not own or rent from anyone.* In this case, it refers to people who moved to Ohio and lived on land that they didn’t own. The government, at the request of the landowners, sent in the military to remove squatters. Of course, as soon as the soldiers left, the squatters returned!
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
One of the *few pieces of legislation of the Articles of Confederation period, it prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territories*, and *provided the model for the incorporation of future territories into the union as co-equal states.* Once a territory reached 60,000 people, that territory could apply for statehood. Upon entry as a State, it became equal in every way to the already-existing states. This is extremely important, since it was the way the US avoided the problems England had with colonies. *The act also was the first time in American history that slavery was prohibited anywhere.*
Northwest Territory
It was the first possession of the United States, comprising the region known as the Old Northwest. It was south and west of the Great Lakes, northwest of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River, including the present states of *Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota.* Ohio was the first of these territories to become a state, in 1803.
These United States
This phrase refers to the idea that Americans thought of themselves as a *union of semi-independent states*, *instead of one nation.* Under the Articles, the US was a confederation of *loosely-allied states who formed a bond of friendship, but not much more.* The national government was very weak, intentionally. They believed that a *strong central government would take the liberties they just won from Britain away*
The People the Best Governors
It was a 1776 pamphlet that indicated the democratic thinking of an anonymous New England author; *power should be vested in a single popularly-elected assembly. The pamphlet was a model for constructing more democratic state constitutions.*
Tyranny of the majority
Some of the wealthy founders were very concerned that the *ignorant masses of people (i.e. us!), if they gained power, would take their property away.* These people *opposed allowing regular people the right to vote*, and they ended up getting their way, since the *only people who were allowed to vote in national elections at the beginning of the country were white males who owned property.* Some individual states did allow more freedom, however.
Pennsylvania constitution
(1776) This was made in Philadelphia in July 1776. The constitution gave the *right to vote to all men, judges could be removed at any time by a vote of the people* (very democratic – protects against abuse of judicial power), and it was the *most democratic constitution in America.*
Maryland Constitution
(1776) This gave *equal voting rights to every citizen regardless of the land they owned.* It also gave the people *freedom of religion and said that all government power came from the people.* So, Maryland is an example of a quite democratic government, but not as democratic as Pennsylvania.
New York Constitution
Unlike Maryland and Pennsylvania, New York adopted a constitution requiring *substantial property ownership for voting.* More than half the men in the state were disenfranchised (*denied the right to vote*). It also had a *very strong executive and a weak legislature.* So, NY is an example of a *very limited republic.*
Virginia Declaration of Rights
It was written by George Mason in June 1776 separately from the Virginia constitution (but later became the first article of it). It set the tone that *all men are by nature equally free and independent*, and was based upon the belief that *when born, everyone acquires the rights to enjoy life and liberty.* This made the *government a servant of the people.* *It granted freedom of speech, religion, and the right to a jury.* This later *led to the creation of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights.*
Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom
Written by Thomas Jefferson, this made it *illegal for the government to charge taxes for the building and upkeep of churches.* Thomas Jefferson believed that people should not be forced by the government to choose a religion, so the government should not fund religion. This document is credited for erecting a wall of *separation between church and state.*
Manumission
This was the *act by an owner to free his slaves, often occurring upon the death of the owner.* This was rare, but could be caused by a slave who devoted years of service, or sexual encounters that would lead to feelings. It also was (rarely) caused by feelings that slavery was wrong, though this was why George Washington freed all of his slaves upon the death of his wife, Martha.
Gradual Emancipation
The *freeing of slaves over a long period of time.* Most people did not think that slaves were ready for freedom, so they shouldn’t be freed until they were ready.
Benjamin Banneker
(1731-1806) An *African-American writer, surveyor, and astronomer who wrote an almanac.* The almanac was respected by people of all colors, and *inspired various African-American writers, such as Jupiter Hammon, one of the founders of African-American literature. Banneker argued for racial equality.*
Phillis Wheatley
(1753-1784) The most notable African American poet. Her writing was so influential that *George Washington praised her work. She was the first African-American female to get published.*
Shays’ Rebellion
(1786) This was an armed uprising in central and western Massachusetts, led by Daniel Shays, a farmer and war veteran. Economic conditions in the young United States under the Articles of Confederation were awful. *County courts had been foreclosing upon farmers’ property*, so *Shays and his men decided to take over the courts.* Since the Articles of Confederation were so weak, the *US Army was not sent to put the rebellion down* (not enough money to pay the soldiers). Instead, the Massachusetts militia was called into action, and *took nearly a year to put the revolt down.* This rebellion is extremely important because it *convinced many that the Articles of Confederation were too weak and needed to be fixed.*
Patriots
The name American supporters of the revolution against Britain gave themselves. Historians estimate that about 25-30% of colonists were Patriots.
Loyalists
They were American people who sided with the British during the American Revolution. They were often called Tories, King’s Men, or Royalists. Their adversaries (opponents) were the Patriots, who fought for American independence. Historians estimate that 15 to 20 percent of colonial America was Loyalist.
Abigail Adams
John Adams’ wife. She is known for the letters she wrote to her husband while he was away. In these letters, she talked a lot about her ideas of politics and government. John sought the advice of Abigail throughout his life, so she was a huge influence on his political and governmental decisions. She was also an advocate of women’s property rights and more opportunities for women, especially education. When the Founding Fathers were putting the country together, she exhorted her husband, “don’t forget the ladies.” He forgot them!
Mercy Otis Warren
She was a political writer at the center of Patriot political activity. Before the war, she wrote poems and plays that attacked royal authorities. She was the daughter of James Otis, who had attacked writs of assistance (search warrants to allow British authorities to search homes for evidence of smuggling without probably cause). In 1805, she published one of the earliest histories of the American war for independence, a three-volume work and the first history of the Revolution authored by a woman.
Martha Washington
George Washington’s wife. She was the first ‘first lady,’ and had stayed by her husband’s side during the war, even in camp.
Mary Ludwig Hays
‘Molly Pitcher’ was a nickname she earned during the war because she had been brave enough to bring water out to the Patriots on the battlefield. At Monmouth, in 1778, she took her husband’s place at the cannon when he was overcome with heat, and was rewarded by Washington, who made her a non-commissioned officer. After that, she was known as “Sergeant Molly.”
Margaret Corbin
Her husband, John Corbin, commanded a cannon while defending Fort Washington (in Manhattan) but died during the battle. She took his place and fired the cannon until she was seriously injured. Margaret was the first woman to receive a pension from Congress for her military service.
Deborah Sampson
She was an American woman who impersonated a man named Robert Shurtliff of Massachusetts for 17 months to serve in the Continental Army. She was wounded and honorably discharged. Because she was a woman, she did not receive a pension for her military service, as all men did.
Grand Tory Ride
A method colonists used to persecute Loyalists, it was called this because the colonists had the poor Loyalist sit between two rails with one leg on each side and two men carried him through town. Another form of the ride was to have the Loyalist ride on a horse with his face on the tail (butt) of the horse with his coat inside out. This form of public humiliation was used to discourage people from being Loyalist.
Benedict Arnold
He fought for the Patriots in the beginning of the war, but then was commissioned to the British side after his plans to forfeit the fort at West Point, New York to the British were discovered. Some of his major victories while a Patriot were at Ticonderoga and the Battle of Saratoga. He showed great leadership and was promoted to general, but was passed over for promotion by the Continental Congress when others took credit for his actions. In 1775, he led an ill-fated expedition through the wilderness of Maine to Quebec, with 500 of his 1100 men dying along the route. The route is on the National Register of Historic Places. He is considered the biggest traitor in American history after defecting to the British.
Hessians
They were German soldiers for hire purchased by England during the American Revolution. They are called Hessians because 13,000 of the total 30,000 came from Hesse-Kassel (in Germany).
Staten Island Meeting
This was a meeting between British general William Howe and his brother Admiral Richard Howe and the American leaders John Adams, Ben Franklin, and Edward Rutledge. It was a meeting to try to bring an early end to the American Revolution, and it was held on Staten Island, New York. The meeting was ultimately a failure, as the Americans wanted to be acknowledged as an independent country and the British refused this.
Battle of Trenton
(Dec. 26, 1776) This battle includes the famous crossing by George Washington of the Delaware River north of Trenton, New Jersey. The weather conditions were so terrible that the Hessians thought they were safe and didn’t even post a dawn sentry. After a Christmas feast, with lots of drinking, most of the soldiers fell asleep. Almost two thirds of the British and Hessian forces were captured. This sparked hope for the revolution, as a week earlier it almost seemed like a lost cause. Because of Trenton, more soldiers re-enlisted and new recruits were attracted.
Battles of Saratoga
These two battles are considered to be the turning point in the war. The first battle began September 19, 1777, when the British general John Burgoyne tried to flank the American entrenchment. However, this attack was anticipated by Benedict Arnold and intercepted. This, like the battle of Bunker Hill, was *considered a win for the British soldiers, but they suffered high casualties*. The second battle was on October 7th. It became apparent that British re-enforcements would not come in time, while the Americans got reinforcements almost daily. The British were outmatched, and when Benedict Arnold disobeyed orders and stepped onto the battlefield and rallied the troops, the *British were pushed back, surrounded, and forced to surrender*. The battle is called the turning point of the American Revolution, as it was a big win for us that *convinced the French to join us against Britain*. It also convinced Benedict Arnold that his talents were going unnoticed, encouraging him to defect to Britain.
Franco-American Alliance of 1778
This was between the US and Louis XVI’s France. The French provided arms and money, and most importantly, their navy. This was during the American Revolution, and they engaged in a full-scale war with Britain. Spain and the Netherlands allied with the French, though they did not directly assist the colonies. Britain was without allies. This alliance was made possible when the Americans captured a British army at Saratoga, New York.
Valley Forge
This was the camp for the Patriots during the winter of 1777-1778. The soldiers didn’t have enough clothing or food, and hundreds of horses starved to death. The soldiers also lived in crowded, hastily-built huts that provided little protection from cold. Conditions were damp, and disease spread. This was the low point of the Revolution for the Americans.
USS Bonhomme Richard
This is the name of a warship used by the Continental Navy, built in France. It was then placed under command of the American John Paul Jones. It was involved in a battle against (a British ship) the HMS Serapis. During this battle, it was heavily damaged, yet gained victory over the British. However, it sank 36 hours after the battle! Jones uttered the famous phrase, “I have not yet begun to fight!” during the battle. It was one of the very few naval victories by America during the Revolution.
Joseph Brant
He was a political and military leader of the Mohawks. He had connections with British officials and led Mohawk and colonial Loyalists against the American militia on the New York frontier. After the war, he relocated his people to the safety of Canada.
Battle of Yorktown
(1781) This was a combined victory of American forces led by George Washington and French forces led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army. The British Army was commanded by General Lord Cornwallis. The Yorktown campaign was the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War in North America. Cornwallis’ army surrendered, which caused the British government to eventually negotiate an end to the conflict.
The World Turned Upside Down
It’s an English ballad (song). Tradition has it that when Lord Cornwallis surrendered at the Battle of Yorktown, the British band played this tune. “If ponies rode men and grass ate cows, And cats were chased into holes by the mouse . . .If summer were spring and the other way round, Then all the world would be upside down.” The world was indeed turned upside down – a group of rinky-dink, backwater colonies defeated the mighty British Empire!
Articles of Confederation
An agreement among the 13 founding states that legally established the United States of America as a confederation (a government in which the central government is very weak and the state governments are strong). The Articles served as the United States’ first constitution. The Articles had structural weaknesses, and in 1789, it was replaced with the U.S. Constitution. The U.S. Constitution allowed a *much stronger national government*, with a *president, courts, and taxing powers*. The Articles had been *intentionally weak*, as the colonists were *determined not to have a powerful central government*, like the one they revolted against in the Revolution. *The Articles of Confederation could not tax, meaning that the government had very limited revenue* with which to do anything. The government also *lacked an executive*; all *decisions were made by a committee in Congress*. In order to make a law, *9 of 13 states were needed*, a very high fraction. Therefore, it was very difficult to make laws.
Not worth a Continental
This phrase refers to the Continental Currency issued in the colonies during the Revolutionary War. It was replaced by the US Dollar in 1785, when the Continental Congress adopted the dollar as the unit for national currency. At that time, private bank-note companies printed a variety of notes. Because America had virtually no gold to support the value of the money and because they printed too many Continentals, inflation set in, and the Continental dollar fell in value and became worth very little. Hence the expression, “Not worth a Continental!”
Robert Morris
He was a British-born American merchant elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly. Robert was also a delegate to the Second Continental Congress. He signed the Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution, and he controlled the Continental Navy. He was the founder of the Bank of North America and was known as “Financier of the American Revolution.”
Treaty of Paris
(1783) It ended the American Revolutionary War. The US: 1. gained its independence, 2. borders were extended to the Mississippi River, 3. promised to stop the seizure of Loyalist property, 4. gained the right to fish the Grand Banks, 5. agreed that its citizens would still pay back their loans to British creditors, 6. agreed to try to get the states to return Loyalist property (though the states never did), 7. The US and Britain would each have perpetual access to the Mississippi River (which becomes a source of conflict between us and Spain in the 1780s). The British agreed to leave the Northwest Forts (which they didn’t end up doing), and they give up control over East and West Florida to Spain.
Newburgh Conspiracy
The officers from the Continental Army were restless. When they had served in the war, they were promised a lifetime of half pay, but they were not getting paid at all because the states weren’t sending money to the national government (it was voluntary!). They threatened to overthrow the Congress and establish a military dictatorship. George Washington sympathized with their problems, but he refused to allow the overthrow to happen because he stood for republican values (representative democracy). So, he appealed to the officers directly by talking about the sacrifices he had made, thereby guilt-tripping the officers into backing down. Congress resolved the problem by granting the officers full pay for five years.
Northwest forts
The British possessed forts in the northwest (mostly Ohio Territory) during the 1780s, even after we won our independence. They promised to leave in the Peace of Paris (1783), but did not do so. Their refusal to leave caused a lot of friction between the US and Britain during the 1790s and early 1800s, especially after western frontiersmen found British weapons on dead Indian bodies (Indians who had attacked us). This issue helped lead to the War of 1812.
John Adams and Josiah Quincy
They defended the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre when they were tried. They convinced the jury the British shot the rounds because the soldiers believed their lives were in jeopardy. This earned Adams and Quincy respect and a reputation of fairness. Even though they were Sons of Liberty, they believed in the rule of law, and not mob rule.
Paul Revere’s Engraving
It was a picture printed by Revere and featured in newspapers that shows many British soldiers firing rifles into a defenseless crowd of civilians. The print is believed to be inaccurate because the event wasn’t as malicious as pictured. Only a few people were wounded and 5 died.
Committees of Correspondence
A committee formed for inter-colonial communication. After Samuel Adams formed the first group at a Boston town meeting, 80 others were formed. These committees were important for sharing information, developing public opinion, and led to the First Continental Congress in 1774.
Tea Act
In 1773, this tax gave the British East India Company a monopoly on all tea imports. Even though it made the price of tea actually decline, it was a tax. The colonists weren’t happy!
Benjamin Franklin
He was an inventor (stuff from bifocals to musical instruments, etc.) He also found that lightning bolts were electrical. He signed the Declaration of Independence. He was also very important at the Constitutional Convention. as he was the peacekeeper who kept delegates from getting out of control. He was the most famous American during this time period, even more famous than George Washington!
Gaspée Affair
This involved the English ship Gaspée, which was anchored near Rhode Island. It was a customs vessel designed to stop smugglers. In 1772, a colonial sloop (boat), the Hannah, lured the Gaspee onto a sandbar. The Gaspee was boarded and burned by Patriots. This event is generally regarded as an open act of defiance against Britain. Obviously!
Tarring and Feathering
Importing tea from England to America made a person “an enemy to his country” because the colonists boycotted British tea to protest the Tea Act. Some groups of people hung ads threatening tarring and feathering if people imported tea. This referred to dumping hot pine tar over a person’s body and then covering it with feathers. The purpose was humiliation.
Boston Tea Party
(1773) English ships filled with tea refused to leave Boston. The colonists did not want the ships to be there because they refused to pay the tax on the tea. So, at a large meeting, Samuel Adams spoke to a captain of one of the ships, but failed to convince him to remove the ships. After the meeting, 50-60 colonists dressed as Mohawks invaded a ship, dumping 45 tons of tea (342 chests!) into Boston Harbor. The tea party led Parliament to pass the Intolerable Acts, which further united the colonies because people felt that Boston was being too harshly punished for the Tea Party.
Intolerable Acts
(A.K.A. Coercive Acts, Repressive Acts) (1774) Passed by Parliament to punish Boston for the Tea Party, it included several acts. *Boston Port Bill*: this closed Boston Harbor until bill for the lost tea was paid. *Massachusetts Government Act*: this forbade town meetings and gave the governor power over nearly all civil offices. Act for the Impartial Administration of Justice – Colonial courts could no longer try British soldiers, placing the soldiers above colonial law. *Quartering Act*: forced colonists to house and feed British soldiers in their homes. These acts were very unpopular.
Quebec Act
(1774). Since the end of the French and Indian War, Quebec was governed by Britain, and this act set up a formal governing procedure for the province. It was not part of the Intolerable Acts, but the colonists mistakenly thought it was, and that the British were punishing them. The act did three things that worried and angered the colonists: 1. It took a huge amount of Ohio away and gave it to Canada. 2. It established Catholicism as the official religion of Quebec (colonists hated Catholics). 3. It set up an unrepresentative government in Quebec. The colonists thought the British were getting ready to impose #2 and #3 on them!
First Continental Congress
The first meeting of 12 of the 13 colonies was held in Philadelphia on September 5, 1774. It was Ben Franklin’s idea to call it. Franklin didn’t get much support until after the Intolerable Acts closed the port of Boston. The FCC had a few accomplishments, including calling for a boycott of British goods, called the Continental Association, and publishing a list of complaints to be addressed to King George III.
Declaration and Resolves
This outlined colonial objections to the Intolerable Acts, listed a colonial bill of rights, and provided a detailed list of grievances.
Committees of Observation and Safety
these committees were established throughout colonial America at the start of the American Revolution. They were a way to discuss the concerns of the time, and often included all the male adults in the community.
Patrick Henry Quote
“I know not what course others may take; but as for me, *give me liberty or give me death!*”
Paul Revere’s Ride (What really happened)
(Revere, Dawes, Prescott) He (Revere) was remembered for his midnight ride, warning colonists of the impending British Army attack. What really happened, though, is that two other men also rode to Lexington to warn the colonists that the British were coming. These men were William Dawes and Samuel Prescott. Prescott is the one who should get the credit historically. All three men were caught and detained by British officials, but Prescott escaped and warned Sam Adams and John Hancock that the British were moving toward Lexington and Concord. Revere does deserve credit, though, for setting up the warning system at the Old North Church – light one lamp if the British came by land, and two lamps if the British came by water. “One if by land, two if by sea.”
Lexington
A town in Massachusetts at the halfway point to the British destination, Concord. About 70 armed Minutemen assembled in the center of town. Disorganized and confused, a skirmish broke out between the British and the Americans, while no order to fire was issued. This left 8 Americans dead and 10 wounded. No one knows who fired first, but the “battle” is known as the “shot heard ’round the world” because it was the start of the American Revolution.
Concord
The British burned a small amount of supplies in Concord. Already hearing news of Lexington, the American militia had concluded that the British were burning colonial homes. The Americans attacked a British company, killing 73 soldiers. The British fled back to Boston, and Americans attacked them along the way.
Second Continental Congress
(1775) This was founded on May 10, 1775 in Philadelphia. This represented 12 of the British colonies. This group decided to declare independence from Britain, raise an army, and declare George Washington Commander in Chief.
Militia
Armed men from local communities, they were vital to the protection of their areas. They had homes and their reputations to protect, so they would do anything that they needed to in order to protect their communities. Unfortunately, they were often poorly trained and frequently deserted in the middle of battles when things got rough!
Minutemen
They were a small, handpicked group of elite militia forces created to be movable and to assemble quickly (in a minute!). The men were were chosen by their commanding officers as the best militiamen to serve as Minutemen. Men chosen for this group were usually about 25 years old or younger. They were chosen for their enthusiasm, reliability, and physical strength.
Continental Army
They were a professionally trained army, unlike the militia. Unlike romantic historical descriptions, it was the Continental Army that won the war, not the militias. They were often ill-equipped, but were generally well-trained.
Olive Branch Petition
Written by John Dickinson, this was sent to the King on July 5, 1775. This petition was a last-minute appeal to the King to try to avoid war, but the King refused to consider it.
Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms
Written by Jefferson and Dickinson, it was approved the day after the Olive Branch Petition was sent. It described what colonists viewed as the unconstitutional effort of the British Parliament to extend its jurisdiction into the colonies following the Seven Years’ War. Objectionable policies listed include taxation without representation, extended use of vice-admiralty courts, the several Intolerable Acts, and the Declaratory Act.
Ethan Allen/Green Mountain Boys
In May 1775, Ethan Allen commanded a small force of New Englanders and surprised the British at Fort Ticonderoga, demanding that the British commander surrender. The cannons were then taken by land all the way to Boston to be used to force the British out of the city.
Breed’s Hill
Located in the Charlestown section of Boston, Massachusetts, it is the location where most of the fighting of the Battle of Bunker Hill took place early in the American Revolutionary War. The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, 1775. It took the British three tries to take the hill (Breed’s Hill). Even though they won, the British suffered so many casualties taking the hill, that it is considered an American victory. The British lost nearly 1/3 of their forces, over 1,000 men.
Benedict Arnold
He was a general during the American Revolutionary War. He began the war as a member of the Continental Army, and led a march through the wilderness of Maine to attack Quebec in 1775. While he was still a general on the American side, he obtained command of the fort at West Point, New York and plotted unsuccessfully to surrender it to the British. After the plot was exposed in September 1780, he entered the British Army as a brigadier general. The main reason he defected was because the Continental Army passed him over for promotion; they did not give him the credit he deserved, particularly after his heroics at Saratoga in 1777. His name is synonymous with “traitor.”
Battle of Quebec
It was fought on December 31, 1775 between American Continental Army forces and the British defenders of the city of Quebec, early in the Revolution. The battle was the first major defeat of the war for the Americans, and it came at a high price. General Richard Montgomery was killed, Benedict Arnold was wounded, and Daniel Morgan and more than 400 men were taken prisoner.
William Howe
He was the British general who replaced General Gage in command of all British forces in North America after the Battle of Bunker Hill, decided to withdraw the British from Boston, and relocated British command to New York (even then, a home for losers!).
Common Sense
This is a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine. It was first published anonymously on January 10, 1776, during the American Revolution. It, signed “Written by an Englishman,” became the #1 best selling book other than the Bible of the 18th century. It gave colonists an argument for independence from British power at a time when support for independence was still uncertain.
Richard Henry Lee
His Resolution of June 7, 1776, a motion in Congress to declare American independence, led to the Declaration of Independence, which Lee signed.
Declaration of Independence
This is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the 13 American colonies then at war with Great Britain were now independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire. Written by Thomas Jefferson, it is an explanation of why the colonists had been forced to declare their independence from Britain. This actually separated America from Britain on July 2, which should be the date Americans celebrate, but we celebrate the 4th because that is the date it was formally adopted.
John Peter Zenger
New York City editor who printed anti-government articles. He attacked William Cosby, and was charged with seditious libel (trying to overthrow government). This was important because even though he was indicted, the colonial court refused to convict him. Because of this, he paved the way for freedom of the press.
Republicanism
A political system where citizens vote and elect officials to represented them. Political leaders put others ahead of themselves (at least thats how its supposed to go). This idea came from the ideas of Enlightenment thinkers like John Locke, and had major influence on colonists like Jefferson, Adams, and Washington. (The Founding Fathers also believe that the uneducated masses should not vote).
New Imperial Policies (The Grenville Program)
Enacted by Treasury Secretary George Grenville, these were a series of acts that were set in place to raise money for the costs of the French and Indian War. And also to pay for the expenses of the 10,000 soldiers that were still stationed in America. Some of the acts included the Sugar and Stamp act. The colonists acted like brats. We wanted Britain’s help but didn’t want to pay for it.
Sugar Act
Put in place to enforce the Molasses Act, this set stricter regulations on imported sugar into the colonies. It was to stop the smuggling of sugar.
Vice-Admiralty Court
This was set up to prosecute people caught smuggling sugar. It was unfair because the court was in Halifax, Nova Scotia instead of in front of a jury of their peers (people from their region), and judges were paid by the amount of people they convicted.
James Otis
A Massachusetts lawyer who thought like John Locke. He said, “no taxation without representation”. Which meant that Britain should not be able to tax the colonists unless they were represented in the Parliament, and not just virtually.
Stamp Act of 1765
This was a tax placed by the English Parliament on the colonies. Colonists were required to purchase an official stamp for all paper products (newspapers, legal documents, licenses, insurance policies, ship’s papers, and even dice and playing cards). The tax did not go over well, because colonists wanted actual representation in Parliament before paying any taxes. This tax was seen as oppressive, as it affected virtually everyone who used paper.
Virtual Representation
This type of representation meant that the members of Parliament represented the entire empire, including the colonies. Colonists has no say in the election of members of Parliament. The British claimed that they were looking out for the colonists.
Actual Representation
This type of representation meant that there had to be elected representatives for the colonies in Parliament, so that Parliament couldn’t impose taxes on the colonies.
Patrick Henry
He was a radical lawyer from Virginia that helped pass Virginia Stamp Act Resolutions. He argued that King George III had become a tyrant and that they no longer needed to follow his orders (treason). He also gave the speech, including the famous quote, “give me liberty or give me death.”
Samuel Adams
He was a brewer and a patriot. He helped organize anti-British feelings in Massachusetts. He argued that if the British tax colonial trade, that someday they would tax their land and everything they own. He was part of the Loyal Nine, which organized an Stamp Act protest. He was also one of the founders of the Sons of Liberty. He was a major pain in Lieutenant Governor Hutchinson’s a$$.
Liberty Tree
The liberty tree was a tree in Boston, Mass. that was a major rallying point for anti-British activists. One day they hung straw dummies of British officials from the tree. One of which being Andrew Oliver, Boston’s Stamp distributor.
Thomas Hutchinson
The brother-in-law of Andrew Oliver, he was Lieutenant Governor. He was the person who ordered the sheriff to break up the crowd outside of Oliver’s house. Citizens greeted him by pelting him with paving stones and bricks. Soon after, a crowd developed outside of Hutchinson’s own house. While he and his family fled the scene, the mob ransacked his home.
Sons of Liberty
A group of people who put themselves in charge of creating moderate protests. They took action by creating pamphlets and circulating petitions, saving mobs as an extreme option. The most famous members were Paul Revere, John Hancock, John Adams, Sam Adams, and Patrick Henry. The Revolution didn’t spiral into mass violence because they maintained control
Stamp Act Congress
Nine colonies (excluding Georgia, New Hampshire, Virginia and North Carolina, for various reasons) met in New York City for this. They passed resolutions that denied Parliament the right to tax the colonists because taxation was dependent on representation. In exchange, the colonies allowed Parliament the right to pass regulatory laws on the colonists. Though mobs were becoming rare, most of the stamp distributors had resigned in fear by 1765, which made enforcing the Stamp Act impossible for Britain. The Congress decided that Non-Importation was the way to force Parliament to nullify the Stamp Act.
Non-Importation (why successful)
Boston was the center of resistance to imports from Britain. The colonies refused to import or use British goods, especially luxury items, until the British dropped the taxes. Boycotting products became the main weapon to resist the British. Craftsmen were very enthusiastic supporters of non-importation because they wanted less competition. However, merchants had a very divided view. Non-importation appealed greatly to rural towns because it helped support local industries. Boycotting British goods was an act in which everyone could participate, even women helped by forming the Daughters of Liberty. Women spun and wove their own material so that they didn’t have to buy British textiles. All of the colonies except for New Hampshire participated in the boycott. Non-importation proved to be a highly valuable means of protest. Imports from England declined by 41%. This caused British merchants to apply pressure to Parliament to get them to repeal the Stamp Act. Since the Parliament included many members who represented commercial (trading) interests, they ended the Stamp Act and the Townshend Acts.
Declaratory Act
While the colonists were celebrating the repeal of the Stamp Act (because it hurt British commerce), Parliament passed this act. It was an act that reaffirmed the right of the Parliament to create and enforce laws that bound the colonies. Many prominent citizens, friends of America or not, were for the Declaratory Act because it seemed natural that the mother country would be able to control its colonies. The colonists didn’t pay much attention to this act because they were still partying like it was 1799!
Charles Townshend
Recognized first as Chancellor of the Exchequer (fancy word for “Treasurer”), Charles Townshend took over William Pitt’s position as the head of the cabinet after Pitt resigned in 1763. His first big problem to tackle was the national debt after the Seven Years’ War. Unemployment rates were high, riots began over prices, and folks protested taxes. In an effort to subdue the possibility of a rebellion in England, Townshend tried to place some of the tax burden of maintaining the Empire on the colonies, but failed like his predecessor, George Grenville, did.
Townshend Acts (Revenue Acts)
By passing the Revenue Acts, Townshend forced the American colonists to pay taxes on imports of lead, glass, paint, paper and tea. He hoped that he could fix the colonial grievances against internal taxes (like in the Stamp Act), but the colonists were determined not to pay taxes on any of these products and began a boycott.
Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania
Articles written by John Dickinson published in nearly every colonial newspaper. Dickinson argued that the Revenue Acts had no constitutional right to tax goods and use the money to pay royal governors in the Americas. By the way, he was a lawyer, not a farmer, and he wasn’t from Pennsylvania!
Massachusetts Circular Letter
Written by Sam Adams. He argued that the Townshend Acts were unfair because Mass. didn’t have representation in England. The General Court (the Mass. Legislature) sent the letter to all English colonies and received support from many of them. This upset the British so much that they sent their Army to occupy Boston.
John Hancock
He was a protégé of Sam Adams and first governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Customs officials seized his boat, the Liberty, and Hancock was charged for *smuggling* in 1768. After this, he used his considerable wealth to support the cause of independence. He was also the **president of the Second Continental Congress**, and signed his name extra large on the Declaration of Independence
Colonial Troublemaking
(1769-1770)- The colonists built and placed liberty poles (a tall wooden pole representing freedom) in town squares, only to have them taken down by the British. Many colonists picked bar fights with the British troops. Sam Adams released stories of the British abusing women and many colonists made up versions of **Yankee Doodle** (a British soldiers’ song from the French and Indian War that made fun of the ragtag American soldiers) to taunt the British troops. The colonists also used **tarring and feathering** (covering a person with hot tar and feathers) and the **Grand Tory Ride** (tying a person to a split rail fence and then carrying him around town) to humiliate people who collaborated with the British
Boston Massacre
This was an incident in March 1770 where colonists were mocking the British soldiers. They were throwing snowballs and stones at the soldiers and calling them names like “Bloodyback” and “Lobsterback.” The soldiers then opened fire. 5 were killed and a few more were wounded. The first to die was Crispus Attucks, ironically a half-Native, half-black man. Paul Revere used this incident for propaganda.
Seven Years’ War
This war, which lasted 9 years in the colonies, is also known as the French and Indian War. It was fought between the English and its colonies vs. France and most Native American Tribes. The war began in 1754 due to a dispute over the border between English colonies and New France. George II granted 200,000 acres of land to the Ohio Company to send 100 families to claim land and build a fort along the Allegheny, Ohio, and Monongahela rivers. The cause of the war was that the French and English both tried to claim the land.
Albany Conference of 1754
During this conference, leaders of the British Board of Trade discussed defensive tactics against the French. To make the plan work, the British needed to negotiate a settlement with the leaders of the Iroquois Confederacy. However, the Iroquois were angry with the British because of their land grabbing habit. Things got worse when real estate agents tried to negotiate a deal with the Iroquois for a large chunk of land in Pennsylvania. The deal failed causing more anger towards the British. In addition, the Albany Plan of Union failed, leaving them disunited.
Albany Plan of Union
Ben Franklin’s Plan of Union, it called for representatives from 12 colonies and one president appointed by the King. The council would have control over Indian affairs, western settlements, and other items of mutual interest. However, colonists did not like the idea of a more centralized government (colonies should make own decisions). The cartoon, “Join or Die”” was Franklin’s effort to unify the colonies to fight France.
Acadia
This was the land around Louisbourg. It included Maine north of the Kennebec River, Eastern Québec, and the Maritime Provinces.
Trans-Appalachian Region
This was the Ohio country along the Ohio river. It had very fertile land and was very lucrative to the French. The English has attempted to settle here, and made the french feel very threatened. The region was also very important because it ran into the Mississippi.
Ohio Company
The English were upset that the French were challenging their land claims. So, King George II decided to grant a huge chunk of land in Ohio (200,000 acres, West of the Appalachians), which would be overseen by Virginia and London capitalists. They planned to build a fort at the junction of the Allegheny, Ohio, and Monongahela Rivers to undermine the French.
Fort Duquesne
A fort established by the French and the junction of the Allegheny, Ohio, and Monongahela Rivers in what is now downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was important for controlling Ohio country.
Fort Necessity
The British fort built after the English, led by George Washington, asked France to vacate the Ohio Valley. The Battle of Fort Necessity took place on July 3, 1754. Washington was forced to surrender the fort, and it was the only time he surrendered.
Battle of Monongahela (Battle of the Wilderness)
This took place on July 9, 1755, in present day Braddock, Pennsylvania. The British were on the Wilderness road traveling to for Dequesne, and the French and Indians jumped them. The British troops huddled in the middle of the road like a bunch of sheep. Out of 1,300 British that were present at the beginning of the battle, 900 were killed or wounded.
Edward Braddock
Commander of British forces at the Battle of Fort Necessity and the Battle of the Monongahela. He was shot during the Battle of the Monongahela, and died during the retreat.
Hero of the Monongahela
Colonel George Washington, who took command of the British troops when General Braddock was shot and killed during the Battle of Monongahela. He was able to maintain some order and retreat the remaining troops. This established his fame, even though the British devastatingly lost!
Acadian Expulsion
The British were very angry about their loss at the battle of Monongahela, so they took their anger out on the Acadians, who had lived there peacefully for over 40 years. The French refused allegiance, and the British forced 10,000 of them out of Acadia. Many died during the expulsion to Louisiana. They are now known as the ancestors to the Cajuns.
William Pitt
He took control as the British Prime Minister during the Seven Years’ War. He turned his focus on winning the war in America. Which worked, first they took Fort Duquesne, then Fort Louisbourg, Québec, and finally Montréal.
Fort Pitt
When the British were taking siege on Fort Duquesne, the French destroyed their own fort rather than let the British take it. The British ended up building this fort next to the remains of Fort Duquesne.
Plains of Abraham
This is an area which is now Battlefields Park in Québec City. This was the site of a three-month long siege of Québec by the British. The whole battle was decided in an hour when both commanders, Wolfe and Montcalm, were killed.
Treaty of Paris 1763
The treaty that ended the French and Indian War. This treaty gave Britain control over all of the Trans-Appalachian Region to the Mississippi River and all of Canada. The French lost everything. Before the end of the war, the French gave the lands west of the Mississippi and Louisiana to Spain.
Neolin
Also know as the Delaware Prophet. He told other Indians that they should stop relying on the European products and ways, like alcohol and materialism. He got this idea from the Great Spirit. He wanted the Indians to go back to their old ways of living off the land and using bow and arrows, and dressing in animal skins. His biggest follower was Pontiac, leader of the Delaware tribe.
Pontiac’s Rebellion
This was a war that began in 1763 in the Great Lakes region. The war was lead by Pontiac who was leading three Indian tribes, against the British. They were upset because General Amhearst decided to stop giving the Indians gifts because they no longer needed their alliance against the French. Pontiac managed to destroy 8 out of 12 of the British forts in the west before the war ended in 1766.
Germ Warfare
General Amhearst was upset with the Indians because they had killed 2,000 English settlers. To get revenge, the English distributed blankets infected with smallpox to the Indian tribes, causing an epidemic amongst the Delaware, Shawnee, Southern Creek, Choctaws, and Chickasaws, killing hundreds of people.
Proclamation of 1763
King George III drew a line down the Appalachian Mountains and gave all of the land west of the line to the Natives. This made the english settlers very angry as they felt that they deserved the land (some lost relatives during the war, or they were wealthy land speculators who owned land there, etc.)
Paxton Boys
A group of Pennsylvania settlers who killed 20 Indians, also known as the Conestoga Massacre. The group was formed of settlers who had resentment from the King giving the land west of the Appalachians away to the Indians. This was one of the first signs of anger toward British policies.
Dunmore’s War
This war started in 1773 between the Virginia colony and the native Shawnee and Mingo nations. The war started when the Virginia Governor asked the House of Burgesses to declare war on the “hostile” Indians. The British colonists were also not assisted by Britain. The war was caused by violence, mainly because British colonists were settling on land south of the Ohio River that had been agreed upon to be the Indians land.
Differences between the British and the American colonists
Brits: loud and violent, cruel and inhuman
Americans: backwater hillbillies
Nationalism… why?
The Seven Years’ War caused the desire for Nationalism. 1.People saw how cruel british officers and how different soldiers were, 2. British treated the Americans like inferiors 3. Inter-colonial commerce quadrupled from 1735-1775. 4. People started criticizing the government in American newspapers, in which 1/4 of the colonists read.
18th Century Population Growth
1. High birth rate, 2. Low death rate, 3. Abundance of food, 4. Low infant mortality rate, 5. Immigration
Middle Class
Land-owning farmers or tradesmen (artisans, craftsmen, and small shopkeepers).
Enlightenment
This was a major period of intellectual history during the 17th and 16th centuries. The focus was on reason and logic, and deemphasized was faith. The _______ thought their knowledge and reason could end ignorance, superstition, and tyranny.
John Locke (natural rights)
He believed that God gave certain rights to people that could never be taken away. These rights are called natural rights. The three rights were the right to life, the right to liberty, and the right to own property. (Thomas Jefferson used these rights in the Dec. of Ind., but changed them to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness)
First three colleges
Harvard (Cambridge, MA), William and Mary (Williamsburg, VA), and Yale (New Haven, CT)
Captivity Narrative
Stories told about someone being captured by “primitive” people. (Ex. Englishmen being captured by pirates, or people being captured by Native Americans)
Mary Rowlandson
A woman captured by Indians during King Philip’s War, when released, she wrote a story about her life in captivity, and created the captivity narrative literary style.
Poor Richard’s Almanac
An annual almanac written by Benjamin Franklin. Published from 1732-1758, it was very popular. It contained weather forecasts, household hints, and puzzles.
Puritan Decline
This occurred after the Puritans discovered that it was difficult to keep their members involved in the church, as many of them were more concerned about survival and material comfort. Also, Mass Bay expelled several ministers for disagreements over personal belief, whom then founded their own puritan churches. This weakened the control of the church over the people.
Half-Way Convenant
It was a form of partial church membership creating in 1662 by the Puritan Church. They created it because many children of the Puritan Church weren’t as strict with religion. Church leaders created the Covenant to draw more of them to the church, without making them full members. The Church thought if they granted partial memberships, where people attend church, follow the creed, and baptize their children, that they will be “born again”. This lead to the Great Awakening because many felt that the HWC allowed people to not care enough about God.
Arminianism
In the 18th century, the Puritan Church changed its beliefs to the idea that God had given people freedom to choose salvation by developing their faith and doing good works (similar to Catholicism).
First Great Awakening
A religious revitalization in the 1730’s-40’s in New England. It started by the powerful preachings of Jonathan Edwards, which gave people personal guilt and the need of salvation by Christ. It was only effective in short term; once people stopped being scared, they drifted away from the church again.
Johnathan Edwards
He sparked a revival movement in the 1730’s in Massachusetts known as the Great Awakening. His sermons were full of emotion as opposed to those of others that “read like rational dissertations.”
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
A sermon written by Jonathan Edwards in 1741 in Connecticut. It was very emotional, and basically scared people into being religious. It was full of imagery of torture and burning in Hell for non-believers. It was effective in getting people back to church, but it only lasted for a few years.
George Whitefield
He made local revivals intercolonial by going on tours. He was an evangelical Anglican minister from England whose preaching had a powerful effect.
William and Gilbert Tennent
Presbyterian clergymen who were leaders in the First Great Awakening along with John Edwards and George Whitefield. They created Log College, which was the precursor to Princeton University.
New Lights
Preachers with the new style of preaching that were more passionate about religion. They were much more emotional, and sang and danced during services. John Edwards, George Whitefield, and the Tennents.
Old Lights
Preachers that kept the old style of preaching during the First Grear Awakening. They were serious and sat quietly in their pews.
Dummer’s War
Also called Lovewell’s War, it was a series of battles between New England and the Wabanaki Confederacy (Mi’kmaq, Maliseet, and Abenaki) who were allied with New France. The Eastern part of the war was fought on the border of Acadia and New England. The Western part of the war was fought in Northern Massachusetts and Vermont at the border of Canada and New England. The war began by English colonization in Maine on French land. The English won and gained control of Maine and the Wabanaki lost Fryeburg, Norridgewock, and Old Town.
King George’s War
(1744-1748) This was the 3rd of 4 major French/Indian wars. When a French attack was organized to take Nova Scotia, French forces were delayed and their Native American allies attacked on their own. In a few days, the N.A.’s gave up their attack. When the French arrived, the siege was tried again, but Nova Scotia still wasn’t captured. The British captured Louisbourg in the process. The war ended with the Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle, and Louisbourg was returned to France.
Wool Act of 1699, Hat Act of 1732, Iron Act of 1750
These acts forbade the production of these products (Wool, Hats, and Iron) in America because England felt American products would cause competition.
Salutary neglect
A British policy of not strictly enforcing laws, to keep the colonies loyal. (Eg. The Navigation acts were not rigidly enforced until after the French and Indian War. The colonists were allowed to break the law, and British officers would look the other way. )
Molasses Act of 1733
This act caused a lot of smuggling of French Molasses, after the English put this act into effect to make French Molasses more expensive than English Molasses to keep money in the empire.
Deerfield Raid
One of the many French and Indian raids on an English settlement. The Deerfield Raid in Massachusetts occurred during Queen Anne’s War in 1704. 50 people were killed, 100 people were captured.
Juan Cabrillo
He was a Spanish explorer who was the first European to sail into San Diego Harbor
Presidio
The Spanish name given to a fortified town
Mission System
A series of religious outposts that were founded by the Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan order between 1769-1823; it was formed to spread the Catholic faith to local Native Americans.
French Crescent
(1700’s) The French established this trade network with the N.A.’s, consisting of military posts and settlements, starting at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, through the Great Lakes, and down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico.
Long Lots
A system widely used by French Settlers in Canada and along the Mississippi River. The French divided waterfront land in narrow strips 350-600 ft. long, and 10 times wide. This gave many people land on water, and rich farmlands.
John Locke (ideas about religion)
An Enlightenment thinker, he wrote a book called ‘Letters Concerning Toleration’. He gave reasons for religious tolerance. His reasons were 1. Human beings cannot dependably evaluate the truth-claims go competing religious standpoints 2. Even if they could, enforcing a single true religion wouldn’t have the desired affect because belief can’t be controlled by violence. 3. Coercing religious uniformity would lead to more social disorder than allowing diversity. His influence on the U.S. was that 1st Amendment (Freedom of Religion) is based on his thoughts.
Congregationalists
Self-governing Puritans. Puritan Church -> Congregationalist Church
Salad Bowl
or “melting pot”, it describes how different cultures combined together. (ex. The Middle Atlantic Colonies ((NY, NJ, PA)) are good examples of this because in NY, different religious groups, including Baptists, Puritans, Quakers, Catholic, and Jewish all held onto their distinctions as different ethnic groups.
Backcountry
A.K.A. the western frontier of the colonies. Until the U.S. won it’s independence in 1783, the frontier was the Appalachian Mountains.
The “big house”
A.K.A. the huge home in which a plantation owner lived. (Because Plantations were big, the South built few towns, therefore fell behind the North in education and commerce.
Apprentice
Once a boy is 14 or younger, he is sent to live in a master tradesman’s house. He would learn the trade of his master and planned to become a master someday. This person would learn his trade for 7 years before opening his own workshop, or becoming a journeyman.
Journeymen
A craftsman who finished his apprenticeship. This person earned money and trades his product. Before he becomes a master, he must submit a masterpiece to the guild (a union of masters). If they approve it, the man is a master.
Master
Member of the guild, who has completed an apprenticeship and had a masterpiece approved as a journeyman. He may also house apprentices. They are the leaders of their craft and can open their own shop and hire people to work for them.
Redemptioner
An emigrant to the New World who paid for his voyage by working for wages upon his arrival in the New World. (This is not similar to an indentured servant, as this person worked for wages, while I.S.’s worked for free).
Culpepper’s Rebellion
A conflict between western settlers and the eastern government that didn’t represent them. It took place in North Carolina and failed.
Mercantilism
An economic theory stating that how prosperous a nation is depends on its capital (wealth), and that its volume of global trade is unchangeable. The theory says that a nation should export more than import and accumulate gold.
Navigation Acts
English laws restricting the use of foreign shipping for trade between England and its colonies. This meant that goods only grown in other countries was banned (sugar, rice, etc.), which lead to resentment in the colonies and contributed to the American Revolution.
Enumerated goods
Goods that could only be traded to England. These were mainly crops not able to be grown in England, like sugar and rice.
Hudson’s Bay Company
Established to break the French monopoly on the fur trade, it’s one of the oldest corporations in the world. It established fur trading posts around Hudson Bay and James bay.
Dominion of New England
A super colony King James (reigned 1685-88) decided to create to defend against the French and Indians and to ensure the Navigation Acts were followed. This new colony replaced all of New England, New Jersey, and New York, and it caused much upset in the colonies. During the Glorious Revolution Edmund Andros (in charge of colony) was arrested and Governor Nicholson (NYC area) was kicked out during Leisler’s Rebellion.
Edmund Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England, he was very unpopular. He was unpopular for a. imposing the Anglican Church on New England, b. banning town meetings, and c. challenging land titles. He was arrested during the collapse of the Dominion of New England.
Glorious Revolution
Occurring in 1688, this was a revolution in which James II was overthrown and replaced by William and Mary. This was important because it distracted England, allowing the colonists to overthrow the Dominion of New England.
Leisler’s Rebellion
(1688-91) A rebellion which occurred in NYC. The leader of the rebellion and his followers forced Governor Nicholson out of power and set up a government based on popular representation. This made wealthy aristocrats mad and lead to the leader’s removal, hanging and beheading (oh my!)
King William’s War
A huge war between the French and English (and other countries) from 1689-97. The war began when Andros ordered an attack on French settlements
Burning of Wells, Maine
In 1692 when the French and Abenakis attacked Wells, Maine during King William’s War. The church and other buildings were burned. In 1703, during Queen Anne’s War, Wells was attacked again, and houses and barns were burned, and 39 people were killed or abducted. e
Triangular Trade
Trade points that included Europe, Western Africa, and America. Europe sent manufactured goods like alcohol, cloth, metalware, and household articles. Africa sent slaves. America sent raw materials, such as furs, lumber, fish, grain, tobacco, rice, indigo, silver, sugar, coffee, cocoa and gold.
Middle Passage
The voyage of slaves from Africa to America. European powers captured the slaves, and caribbean traders received the slaves in exchange for American goods. In all, about 15% of the slaves died; about 1 million in all.
Growth of Slavery: why?
Africans were needed to run the wealthy sugar plantations. Also, indentured servants caused fear of rebellion.
James Oglethorpe
He was a British General who founded the colony of Georgia in 1732. He set up the colony as home for debtors and petty criminals, and as a buffer zone between Florida and South Carolina. He banned slavery and alcohol from Georgia.
Stono Rebellion
A slave rebellion in 1739, in S.C. Led by a slave named Jemmy, about 60 slaves killed 40 whites before being suppressed. This caused S.C. to form the Negro Act of 1740, which kept slaves from being educated and meeting together.
Black Codes
Laws like the Negro Act of 1740 that were passed to prevent blacks from moving, becoming educated, and carrying weapons.
Queen Anne’s War
The second war between England and France (in this hemisphere)(King William’s war was the first). England fought France, and Spain in the war, which started in 1702. The war was mainly fought in the Caribbean and New France. England captured Port Royal and St.Augustine, while the French raided New England. The war ended with the Treaty of Utrecht.
Peace of Utrecht
(1713) It was a peace treaty between England and France, and England and Spain. The English received Acadia (renamed to Nova Scotia), Newfoundland, and areas in Hudson Bay from the French. Also, English were given the asiento, the contractual right to sell unlimited numbers of slaves to the Spanish colonies.
War of Jenkins’s Ear
(1739) It was a war between the English and Spanish. The Spanish King canceled the asiento with England. The Spanish coast guard boarded English ships. An English Captain, Robert Jenkins, insulted a Spanish captain and had his ear cut off. When Jenkins returned to England, be testified against the Spanish, displaying his ear, and sparking war. In the end, the Spanish gave up the asiento in return for cash payment and the right to trade with Spain’s South American colonies.`
Puritan Ideal
Rigid family structure. The father was in charge, mother did as she told by husband, and the kids did as they were told by their parents. If a child misbehaved they were beaten. “Spare the rod, spoil the child”
Massachusetts Education Act of 1647
Law of public education. Towns with 50+ families were required to have a public school. Towns with 100+ were required to have a grammar school that taught Latin to prepare for Harvard College. Puritans felt that you needed to be able to read the Bible or you would be tricked by Satan.
Harvard College
First institute of higher education in the English colonies. It was created in 1636 in Cambridge, Mass.
Puritan Women
These women had fewer rights than men. Their jobs were housework, milking, and getting eggs. Women had multiple children because there was no birth control, and they needed help on the farm. Adultery = WORST CRIME YOU COULD EVER COMMIT, EVER.
Salem Witch Trials
In 1692, this occurred in several Massachusetts towns. Nineteen people were hanged for being accused of being witches. Many people believed that widows, or women unable to have children were witches.
Cotton Mather
He was a New England Puritan Minister, he is known for his part in the Salem Witch Trials. Many believe he laid the groundwork for the trials. Many historians also blame him for allowing spectral evidence to be used in court (the girls seeing ghosts of the defendant).
Thomas Hooker
Puritan Minister who founded the colony of Connecticut after dissenting with Puritan leaders in Massachusetts.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
A constitution that set up the governmental structure of Connecticut. It was also the first written constitution in the colonies.
Roger Williams
He was a puritan minister in Massachusetts. He spoke out about how CHURCH AND STATE should be SEPARATE. He also argued that Puritans should be tolerant of other religions. The Puritans saw him as a threat and he was banished from Massachusetts Bay and founded Providence, Rhode Island.
Anne Hutchinson
An unauthorized minister of a Puritan discussion group in Massachusetts Bay. Her interpretations of the bible “offended” the colonial leadership and she was banished from M.B. She was banished for A. claiming a revelation with God, and B. criticizing male leadership of the church. She retreated to Rhode Island, and was killed by Indians in New York.
Restoration Colonies
Colonies established after the English Civil War (1642-1660). These colonies got their names from the Restoration Period (1660-1685), when Charles II rewarded his supporters with land in the New World. These colonies included Carolina, New Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.
New Netherlands
The Dutch established 2 trading posts in 1614: one on Manhattan Island (New Amsterdam) and one on the Hudson River in present-day Albany (Fort Orange). These trading posts were administered by the Dutch East India Company, but were corrupt and failed.
Beaver Wars
This was a war between the Iroquois Nation and the Huron tribe. The Iroquois were successful and gained control of the fur trade. The war lasted from the late 1630s to the 1690s, and the Iroquois became allies with the English after the Dutch departure in 1664.
New Amsterdam/New York
New Amsterdam was captured by the English during the Anglo-Dutch Wars and was renamed in 1665 to New York, in honor of the Kings brother, James, duke of York. Wall Street was originally the wall on the edge of the settlement to defend N.A. from Indian attacks.
Quakers
A.K.A. the Society of Friends, they settled primarily in Pennsylvania. They were pacifists and friendly towards the Indians. They were also persecuted in New England. Mary Dyer, a quaker, was hanged just for being one. This shows the intolerance of the Puritans.
William Penn
The English Quaker who founded the PENNsylvania colony. King Charles II owed his father a debt, so the king granted this man the colony.
Holy Experiment
This term describes the Quaker settlement of Pennsylvania. The Quakers believed they could show how well they could function without persecution
King Philip’s War
Causes: The English kept taking land away from the Wampanoag Tribe
Events: 16/90 New England colonies were destroyed and 1.5% of the colonists were killed.
Results: the Wampanoag were destroyed, and survivors were sold into slavery.
Metacomet
(a.k.a King Philip) He was a son of Massasoit, and chief of the Wampanoag tribe. To get along with the English, he changed his name, and dressed in English clothes. At the end of King Philip’s War, he was shot by hunters and his wife and son were sold into slavery. His head was displayed at Plymouth for 20 years.
Bacon’s Rebellion
(1670) This was a rebellion by indentured servants of Virginia, which began by Berkeley ignoring their demand of him making the Indians leave treaty-protected land to prevent war. Since no freemen had rights in the House of Burgesses, Nathaniel Bacon, against Berkeley’s wishes, fought the Indians. This showed the risks in using indentured slaves and led to the use of more african slaves.
George Calvert
Also known as ‘Lord Baltimore’, he was awarded a proprietary grant from Charles I to settle what is now Maryland. The colony was a haven for Catholics.
Maryland Toleration Act of 1649
This as a guarantee religious freedom for Catholics, Protestants and Anglicans, as Catholics were becoming a minority. This was passed to keep them from being persecuted.
Indentured Servants
In return for being paid transportation to the New World, these people were contracted to work for 4-7 years to pay off the trip.
Freedom dues
Once an Indentured Servant had completed his contract, a master would give a gift of land, clothes, or tools for the servant to start his life.
Matriarchy
A system where women fill the leading roles in society. This was common in Virginia, as many men died of disease. When a man died, the woman received the land. Later, men passed laws to prevent this.
Chesapeake Settlements
The colonies surrounding Chesapeake Bay (Virginia and Maryland). These colonies’ economies were based upon tobacco. These colonies were not permanent, as the land became exhausted rather quickly. Jamestown and Williamsburg maintained close relations with England, allowing them to be permanent.
Puritans
Strict Protestants who felt that the Anglican church was too “Catholic” with its practices. Due to their beliefs of the church, they were persecuted, and fled to the New World for religious freedom.
Plague of 1616
Known as the “Great Dying” this bubonic plague wiped out 75-95% of Native Americans living in New England before the Pilgrims arrived.
Pilgrims
Also known as “Separatists”, they were a group of Protestants. They wanted to COMPLETELY separate from the Anglican Church. In 1620, they sailed on the Mayflower and settled at Plymouth in Southern Massachusetts.
Mayflower Compact
An agreement by the Plymouth Settlers to rule the colony by male church members. Written by William Bradford, it is known as the first document of self-government in North America.
Massasoit
Leader of the Wampanoag tribe, he negotiated a treaty with the Pilgrims, preventing their starvation. Supposedly, he also celebrated the first Thanksgiving with the Pilgrims in 1621.
Squanto
He was a Native American that interpreted for the Pilgrims and Massasoit. He was Massasoits’s Advisor. He taught Indians how to catch eel and plant corn, and to use fish as fertilizer.
William Bradford
Governor of the Plymouth Colony, his journal, Of Plymouth Plantation, tells us most of what we know about the Plymouth colony. He also wrote the Mayflower Compact.
John Winthrop
He acquired a royal charter from King Charles I for the “Massachusetts Bay Company”. He led a group of English Puritans to the New World in 1630. He was the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and he wanted to build a “city on a hill”.
A city upon a hill
A quote from Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount, Winthrop used this quote to inspire the colonists. The quote, “We shall be a city upon a hill, the eyes of all people are upon us.” This was Winthrop’s inspiration to make a model of a proper christian city.
Predestination
A religious notion developed by John Calvin, it described the relationship between God and humans. This is described as God being all-powerful, and decides a person’s fate at birth. A person can do nothing to change this, but God can choose to convert someone.
Great Migration
This refers to the large arrival of English settlers (mainly Puritans) from 1620 to 1640. Roughly 20,000 came from the Old World to Massachusetts Bay.
General Court
This was a Massachusetts governing body that held cases of judicial appeals. It also functioned as a bicameral (two houses – Senate and House of Representatives). Each town would send two elected delegates. This was an early example of a representative democracy.
Pequot War
This was a war between the English/Narragansett/Mohegan’s against the Pequots (Dutch ally) E/N/M nearly wiped out the Pequots, and at Mystic Connecticut, nearly 700 Pequots were burned alive at the stake by the English.
New England colonial economy
It made money from fishing, shipbuilding, commerce, and lumbering.
Puritan Ideal
Rigid family structure. The father was in charge, mother did as she told by husband, and the kids did as they were told by their parents. If a child misbehaved they were beaten. “Spare the rod, spoil the child”
Juan de Onate
A Spaniard who led 130 Native American/Mestizo families to New Mexico and founded Santa Fé in 1598. He brought missionaries to convert all of the Pueblo, but ended up slaughtering many of them at Acoma.
Pope
Leader of the Pueblo. He led a Pueblo rebellion against the Spanish in 1680. He organized a conspiracy consisting of 20 Pueblo towns. He was deposed for telling Christian Native Americans to destroy their Spanish technology and etc.
Acoma
A Pueblo village on rock, the Spanish (led by Juan de Onate) attacked Pueblo people here. They slaughtered most of the town, and enslaved many of the Pueblo. Surviving soldiers had one of their feet chopped off.
Samuel de Champlain
Established the French outpost of Port Royal (1st permanent French Settlement in New World) and he established the town of Québec. He was involved in the fur trade and he allied with Hurons (Hurons controlled the access to furs in the Great Lakes).
Coureur des bois
French fur traders (led many French explorations).
Sieur de la Salle
Fur trade commandant. He navigated the Mississippi river from the upper reaches to the opening at the Gulf of Mexico.
Montreal
Established in 1642, it was a missionary center for Catholicism.
Society of inclusion
Referring to New Spain and New France, where whites and Native Americans intermarried. (English people immigrated as families.)
James I
King of England, issued royal charters for colonization of the mid-Atlantic region (Virginia) to joint-stock companies.
Joint-stock company
A company where Englishmen could invest their money in return for a portion of the profits from trade to the new world. The Virginia company, which founded Jamestown, was a joint-stock company.
Virginia Company
A group of London investors who sent ships to the Chesapeake bay region, where 104 men founded Jamestown. The company went bankrupt fighting the Powhatan Indians.
Jamestown
First permanent English colony in the New World. It almost failed because the men on the expedition searched for gold instead of planting crops, and settled in a swamp infested with malaria-carrying mosquitoes.
Powhatan
The powerful leader of a confederacy of Algonquian tribes (Powhatan Confederacy) surrounding Jamestown. He originally saw the colonists as allies, but after the English stole food, he nearly wiped out Jamestown. He also captured Jamestown’s leader, John Smith.
Starving Time
After the colonists stole food from the Powhatan Confederacy, Powhatan cut off all aid to the colonists and laid siege to the settlement. As a result, only 60 colonists survived the brutal 1609-10 winter. (One guy salted and ate his wife)
John Smith
Commander of Jamestown, he forced his settlers to work. “If you don’t work, you don’t eat”
Pocahontas
Powhatan’s daughter, rescued John Smith, married John Wolfe, died in 1617 by disease while visiting England.
John Rolfe
He was famous for bringing tobacco seeds from the Caribbean, planting them in Jamestown, and creating a hybrid breed which became popular in England.
Headright Grant
A gift of land to attract settlers to the English colonies. Anyone who paid for their transportation got 50 acres of land, and 50 more acres for each person he brought with him.
Second Powhatan War
It began with the Indian Massacre of 1622, when Powhatan’s brother, Opechancanough, led a group of Algonquians into a war with the colonists. 1/3 of the English settlers were killed, including 25% of them on Good Friday in 1622.
Proprietary colony
A colony where one person/group own land and have rights to it.
Croatoan
Was an island off the coast on North Carolina.
Walter Raleigh
He hired navigators to st go and explore the new world. He supposedly took off his cloak and threw it over a puddle so Queen Elizabeth wouldn’t get her feet wet. This isn’t true.
Manteo and Wanchese
Two Native American at Roanoke that showed their differences with the colonists. Manteo argued that english weapons and technology could help his tribe. Wanchese argued with english society about how they didn’t care about the less fortunate colonists.
Virginia Dare
First English child born in America
Feudalism
Was a social system where land was divided among lords and those lords would have peasants that worked on their land for shelter and food.
Black Death
Was an epidemic of bubonic plague in Europe. It wiped out at least a third of the population. Following the plague it made the peasants labor so much more special.
Renaissance
Was following the Crusades when western scholars could access ancient Greek and Roman texts. 14th 15th and 16th centuries were known as the renaissance. Purposes: 1. Made people think that life was worth living instead of focusing on an afterlife. 2. lead to developments in navigational technology.
Prince Henry The Navigator
He established a school of navigation off Sagres point. At the school were instrument makers, shipbuilders, geographers and sailors. They developed the caravel.
Caravel
Built at Sagres Point and could travel faster and farther then any other ship. The Portuguese used the ship to travel the Atlantic coast and to round the Cape Of Good Hope.
Bartolomeu Dias
Was a Portuguese explorer that was the first European to round the Cape Of Good Hope.
Vasco da Gama
Was a Portuguese explorer that was to first European to reach India by sailing around Africa. This lead to the trade discovery of spices, gold and slaves.
Christopher Columbus
Was a Genoan that sailed for spain and “discovered” America in 1492. He had thought that he landed in India which was why he named the indians. He made 4 voyages to the New World.
Isabella and Ferdinand
They were the leaders of Castile and Aragon which lead to the creation of Spain. They conquered the Iberian Peninsula. They wanted more money and land so they sponsored Christopher Columbus to do so.
Reconquista
Was the reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims.
Amerigo Vespucci
Was an explorer from Florence and traveled to the Caribbean. He was the first European to describe the New World discovered by Christopher Columbus.
encomienda
Was a Spanish colonial system where the lords could use the indians for labor. It was the first form of slavery where the indians were treated very poorly.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Was the first European to discover the Pacific Ocean. He crossed the Isthmus of Panama to discover it.
Tenochtitlan
Was the capital of the Aztec Empire. The population was 5 times as large as spain and Mexico City was built on the remains of it.
Hernan Cortez
He was a Spanish conquerer. He conquered the Aztecs in only 2 years. This gave Spain tremendous amounts of gold and silver.
Carib
A tribe of cannibals living on the islands in the Caribbean Sea. The name of the sea comes from this tribe.
Bartolome de las Casas
Was a Spanish Catholic preist. He said that the Europeans should convert the indians and not steal from them. He felt that they should have been treated as humans. He wrote The Destruction Of The Indies which blamed the spanish for the killing of millions of slaves.
Syphilis
Was an STD transmitted from the Native Americans to the Europeans. It was part of the Columbian Exchange.
Ponce de Leon
Was the first Spanish conquistador to land in North America. He named Florida.
Cabeza de Vaca
He was in a shipwreck that led them wandering the land of the Gulf Coast. He wrote a book about his adventures telling of the Seven Cities Of Cibola.
Seven Cities Of Cibola
Legendary cities made of gold and they inspired the Spanish to explore North America.
Hernan de Soto
Was a Spanish conquerer that lead 700 men to find the Seven Cities Of Cibola. They marched through Georgia, Carolinas, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas before running into the Chickasaw Indians. 311 of the soldiers survived that encounter and de Soto was the first European to view the Mississippi river.
Francisco Coronado
Lead the 2nd attempt to find the Seven Cities Of Cibola for Spain. Because he didn’t find any gold Spain lost all intrest in the Southwest for the next 50 years.
Treaty Of Tordesillas
Was an agreement between Spain and Portugal. It separated the Portugese and Spanish land in the New World. Pope Alexander VI drew the line to separate the lands.
Mestizos
The people living in New Spain that were a mixed European and Indian decent.
Mulattos
The people living in New Spain that were a mixed European and African decent.
Martin Luther
He began the Protestant Reformation when he posted the 95 Theses on a church door in Wittenburg, Germany. He encouraged people to ream the bible instead of being preached about it.
John Calvin
Was a Protestant reformer in Geneva, Switzerland. He argued that god had already decided who was going to heaven and who was going to hell. His followers in France were called Huguenots and his followers in England were called Separatists.
Henry VIII
Was the King of England from 1509-1547. He was known for breaking England away from the Catholic Church. So he started the Anglican Church where he was the leader of it. If you weren’t following the Anglican church you were persecuted and then would have emigrated to the New World.
Huguenots
French Calvinists.
Jean Ribault
He settled and French colony at Parris island but it failed then set un Fort Caroline. This was successful. It was eventually conquered by the Spanish in 1565.
St. Augustine
Was founded by the Spanish in 1565 and is the oldest European city in North America. It was built as an area to hide and attack Fort Caroline.
John Cabot
Genoese explorer who sailed with an English crew and he discovered Newfoundland.
Giovanni da Verrazano
Italian explorer that sailed for France. He explored from North Carolina to Maine. He discovered New York Harbor.
Jacques Cartier
He discovered the St. Lawrence River and claimed Canada for France planting a 30 ft cross.
Elizabeth I
Was the youngest daughter of Henry VIII. She ruled England from 1558-1603. She is known as the greatest ruler in English history.
Richard Hakluyt
He had argued that England should start new colonies to get rid of the undesirables. He also argued that colonies would allow the English to raid Spanish ships and be able to grow products on their land.
Humphrey Gilbert
He is Walter Raleigh’s half brother. Him and his brother didn’t like the Irish and believed them to be savages. When the Irish came to the New Word the English had to move because they didn’t like them.
John Hawkins
Was a Sea Dog. He was the first Englishman to engage in the slave trade. The Spanish then attacked Hawkins because he stole their slave trade monopoly and Hawkins was the first to bring the potato and tobacco back to England.
Sir Francis Drake
Was an English pirate that just attacked Spanish ships. He was the first Englishman to sail around the world and was the second behind Magellan. He attacked Spanish vessels on the way and also returned with gold and spices to England. Queen Elizabeth then knighted Drake because that was more valuable then what they had made in a year.
Sea Dogs
English Privateers. Drake and Hawkins were both Sea Dogs.
Sir Martin Frobisher
He was an English explorer the made 3 voyages to the North Atlantic looking for the Northwest Passage. Instead he found Eskimos and fools gold. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth.
Philip II
He was the King of Spain during the 1500s. He was a defender of the Catholic faith. He attacked England because; 1. religion, England was Protestant and Spain was Catholic. 2. piracy, Because Queen Elizabeth encouraged the Sea Dogs to attack Spanish Vessels. 3. tresspassing, England tried to claim Roanoke but Spanish said that they had control over all the New World. 4. personal, because Queen Elizabeth rejected Philip with he asked her to marry him.
Spanish Armada 1588
Philip II sent 130 ships and 30,000 men to invade England. The English then filled boats with explosives and trapped them winning the battle. England then became the #1 naval power in the world and it allowed England to opened permanent settlements in the New World.
Westward expansion, effect on suffrage
When all the new states during the 1810s and 1820s were being set up, the right to vote to all white men over the age of 21 was granted. This caused the older states to follow their example, and many of the original states extended the right to vote to all white men. The amount of men who could vote tripled during the 1820s.
Universal Suffrage
The right for all people to vote. This was not the case in the early 19th century, because only white men had the right to vote, not women or minorities.
Election of 1824
The Democratic-Republican Party leadership chose William Crawford of Georgia as their nominee for president. However, Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and John C. Calhoun decided not to accept the choice of the party leadership, and instead chose to run against Crawford. Calhoun dropped out early and ran as Jackson’s VP. In the election, none of the candidates won a majority of the vote, so the election went to the House of Representatives. Clay and Crawford did poorly in the election, so the contest was between Adams and Jackson. Even though Andrew Jackson had the majority of the popular and electoral votes, Speaker of the House Henry Clay chose John Quincy Adams to be president. Some people think that a “corrupt bargain” was made between Adams and Henry Clay (who was the Speaker of the House at the time), because Adams chose Clay as Secretary of State afterwards. On the other hand, Clay and Adams both believed in the American System, while Jackson did not, so it is natural that Clay would support Adams.
Corrupt Bargain
The idea amongst many Jackson supporters after the 1824 election that John Quincy Adams made a deal with Henry Clay that if Adams were elected, he would choose Clay as Secretary of State. The truth is that Clay and Adams were much more close in their beliefs (both supported the American System) than Clay and Jackson, so Clay probably chose Adams because Adams believed in the same things. However, it did look pretty bad when Clay was named the Secretary of State immediately after the election was decided!
Election of 1828
A rematch between Jackson and the Democrats vs. Adams and the new, but very short-lived, National Republican Party. Andrew Jackson won in a landslide. This campaign was characterized by personal attacks, and didn’t focus much on the issues. Jackson’s victory was called a “revolution” because it seemed to represent the victory of the common man (Jackson) over the rich aristocrats (Adams).
Bucktails
It was a political faction formed in 1819 by the New Yorker Martin Van Buren. They were a party formed of average Americans, and were angered by the actions of rich aristocrats in the government (especially DeWitt Clinton, the governor of New York).
The Age of the Common Man
The name given to the time period when Jackson “ushered in a new era in American politics,” after the election of 1828. Non-landowning white men gained political rights in the United States at this time.
Jackson, common man?
Jackson was not a common man. He was a war hero, a rich slave owner, lived in a huge mansion, and had an undemocratic personality. He ran as a regular guy to get votes, much like some politicians do today. Jackson was the first candidate to respond to the ways that the extension in suffrage to more “regular Joes” changed politics. For some reason, Americans have often been attracted to hard cider-drinking good old boys, and Jackson was a great example of that.
Rachel Robards Jackson
Rachel Robards Jackson was the wife of Andrew Jackson. During the election of 1828, she was accused of having been married to two men at once (bigamy). Although this was a true accusation, her “crime” was a mistake. Her divorce files from her first marriage had not been processed by the time she married Jackson, so she wasn’t truly unmarried at the time of their wedding. Her alleged bigamy and his rumored seduction of a married woman were the basis of frequent fist fights with opponents, and occasional duels. In 1806, for example, in response to an insult about his wife’s character, Andrew Jackson fought a duel with attorney Charles Dickinson, who wounded him before being shot and killed by the future President. Rachel died less than two months after the 1828 campaign, supposedly due to a broken heart because the National Republicans were so mean! Jackson blamed the National Republicans and Adams for her death.
Jackson’s Inauguration
Jackson took the unusual step of inviting the public to the White House to celebrate his Inauguration on March 4, 1829. Unfortunately, alcohol was served, and the people became a drunken mob. Thousands of dollars in damages, including broken china and broken windows, were done. The mob was only dispersed when the punch bowls were brought outside on the lawn!
King Mob
Adams’ supporters sneered at the events at the Inauguration, saying that Jackson was the leader of drunken rabble. They gave him the nickname “King Mob” to symbolize their disgust with the “common man.”
Spoils System
First used by Jackson, the spoils system is when a government official awards jobs to friends and supporters, instead of basing job selection on ability. As a result, many unqualified people were (and still are) filling important governing positions. Jackson named some of his best buddies and loyal supporters to fill high government positions using the spoils system.
John C. Calhoun
A Senator from South Carolina, he was a War Hawk and nationalist during the War of 1812, but gradually became an advocate for states’ rights, nullification, and slavery. He served as Secretary of State, Secretary of War, Vice-President, and was a member of both the House and Senate during his long career. He was one of the “Immortal Trio,” including Clay and Webster, who were named among the five greatest senators in US history in 1957. Unfortunately, his passionate defense of slavery had a lot to do with convincing South Carolinians to secede from the Union ten years after his death. He also wrote (anonymously), while he was Jackson’s VP, The South Carolina Exposition and Protest, which argued in favor of nullification (the right of a state to cancel a federal law it doesn’t like).
Daniel Webster
He was a politician from Massachusetts. He was very similar to Alexander Hamilton in that he wanted a strong national government, high protective tariffs for manufacturing, internal improvements paid by the federal government, and a national bank. In other words, he supported the American System! He is most famous for the Webster-Hayne debate in 1830, which was where he vigorously defended the federal government against states’ rights. That speech is still known as the greatest speech in American history. He also served twice as Secretary of State and served in both the House and Senate.
Henry Clay
He was from Kentucky and represented the West. He was charming, witty, and always eager to forge political compromises, and was known as the “Great Compromiser.” He was Speaker of the House of Representatives from 1811 to 1825 and later served in the Senate. Clay promoted the American System, which looked to improve national roads, canals, and railroads, and add protective tariffs and a national bank. He became the Secretary of State when J. Q. Adams became president, part of what some people consider the “corrupt bargain.”
Martin Van Buren
He was the only person in Jackson’s Cabinet who didn’t have a wife and therefore didn’t have a problem with Peggy Eaton (see #17). While the wives of the other Cabinet members were causing social problems within the Cabinet, nothing important could get done. Van Buren was also part of the group called the Kitchen Cabinet (see #18). Van Buren served as Jackson’s Secretary of State, and then as his VP. He became President in 1837.
Peggy Eaton
She was the beautiful wife of Secretary of War, John Eaton; allegedly she was unfaithful to her former husband (which may have caused him to commit suicide) and had been John Eaton’s mistress before they married. The other Cabinet wives didn’t accept her because of this accusation, and that caused problems within the Cabinet. Jackson, still angered by the accusations of bigamy leveled at his wife (who died of a broken heart!), defended her. But, he was unsuccessful. The women snubbed poor Peggy. The meanest witch of all of them was Mrs. Calhoun. She made Jackson so angry that he transferred his favor of John C. Calhoun, his vice-president, to Martin Van Buren, his Secretary of State. Van Buren, a widower, had been nice to Peggy! Calhoun soon resigned from the vice-presidency (after this and the Jefferson Day Dinner). Some historians say that the Peggy Eaton Affair caused Jackson to elevate Van Buren to the vice-presidency and then to the presidency. Jackson dismissed almost all of his Cabinet and relied instead on the “Kitchen Cabinet.” The Peggy Eaton Affair is sometimes called the “Petticoat Affair.”
Kitchen Cabinet
The Kitchen Cabinet was an informal group to which Jackson confided, more so than his actual Cabinet. This Cabinet consisted of Van Buren and some old western friends of Jackson’s. The rest of his actual Cabinet was not included in this group, though. Basically, it was a bunch of Jackson’s drinking buddies sitting around making government decisions!
Jackson and executive power
Jackson freely used his office to strengthen the executive branch of government at the expense of the judiciary and legislature. Jackson vetoed more bills than all other presidents before him combined (12-9). As a result, he earned the nickname “King Andrew” from his opponents.
Maysville Road Bill Veto
Jackson vetoed the Maysville Road Bill of 1830. The bill authorized a nationally funded road in Kentucky. He claimed it was unconstitutional because the road was entirely within a state (intrastate). He believed, as a strict constructionist, that the Constitution did not give the federal government the power to fund intrastate projects. The reason the veto was surprising was because it was against Jackson’s biggest supporters, who were Westerners wanting better transportation. He turned the veto in his favor by explaining that federal funding would limit states’ rights, which appealed to southerners. Incidentally, the veto was a nice way for Jackson to strike at his bitter enemy Henry Clay of Kentucky, too!
Erie Canal
New York Governor DeWitt Clinton proposed building a canal to connect the Hudson River to Lake Erie. At the time, roads helped people move around, but moving bulky goods was slow and expensive. Water transportation on the rivers was only north to south, or along the coastlines, so east to west transportation was needed dearly. Clinton proposed the canal in 1817, and investors chipped in $7 million for the project, an immense sum for the time. The Erie Canal was 364 miles long, 40 feet wide by 4 feet deep, and included 83 locks and more than 300 bridges. It was a miracle of engineering for the time. Irish immigrant labor built much of it. The canal was completed in 1825.
“Clinton’s Ditch”
It was a nickname for the Erie Canal to make fun of its creator, DeWitt Clinton. Critics of Clinton’s plan to build the canal argued that the canal was a huge waste of money. They were wrong!
Effects of the Erie Canal
1. Easy transportation on the Erie Canal attracted settlers from the East and even overseas to the West. 2. People had an expanded market to sell their goods, stimulating the economy. Now, the city of New York’s merchants traded less with Europe and more with interior America. 3. It also convinced other states to build their own canals. 4. It eventually led to the invention of the steamboat.
Robert Fulton
An American inventor and engineer who invented the steamboat. The steamboat was a major engineering advance, allowing people to travel on rivers and newly built canals much faster. Fulton’s first commercially successful steamboat, the Clermont, connected New York City and Albany. The steamboat brought more commerce to the interior of the United States. It also stimulated urban growth because Eastern cities benefitted by being able to trade with the interior.
Steamboat Act of 1838
Steamboats were dangerous and often had fires, explosions, or sank. The act provided better security for people on board of vessels propelled in whole or in part by steam. At first, the government was scared to pass any adequate safety laws because of the fear of interfering with the growing steamboat industry, which was a big part of the country’s economic development. The act was one of the first uses of the federal regulatory power in the public’s best interest. In other words, the power of the government was used to protect the safety of the public.
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
It is the oldest railroad in the country. Baltimore wanted to compete with the Erie Canal, so the railroad was constructed. The railroad connected Maryland to the Ohio River. It originally opened with only 13 miles of track!
Gauge Problems
One of the early problems with railroads is that the gauges (widths) of the rails were not standard. Some were narrow, while others were wide. As a result, freight on railroads had to be loaded and unloaded every time the gauges differed. This is why canals remained important for awhile, instead of being immediately replaced by railroads.
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward (1819)
The case arose after the college trustees fired the college president. The New Hampshire legislature, which disagreed with the trustees’ decision, then attempted to force the college to become a public college and place the ability to appoint trustees in the hands of the governor. The college took the State of New Hampshire to court. The Supreme Court ruled for Dartmouth College and upheld the original charter of the college. The decision settled the nature of public versus private charters and resulted in the rise of the American business corporation. It meant that private contracts could not be broken by state governments.
Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)
This case was a landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the power to regulate interstate commerce was granted to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution. In other words, if trade took place between States, then it was the job of the federal government to regulate that trade.
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge (1837)
A decision by Chief Justice Roger Taney (Marshall died in 1835) that favored competition for the sake of commerce instead of granting a monopoly. It was similar to the Gibbons v. Ogden case because it was a federal reversal of a state decision. This case showed that contract rights did not guarantee control over an entire industry. So, contract rights (like those guaranteed by Dartmouth College v. Woodward) are vital, but protecting competition is more important.
Limited Liability
When businesses grew too large for individual ownership, multiple people invested in corporations. These investors wanted protection from being sued. This protection is called “limited liability,” which allows investors to lose only the amount of money that they’ve invested into the company and no more. In other words, an individual investor cannot be sued for millions when someone sues the corporation. This is important because without this reassurance of protection, the economy wouldn’t have grown as quickly.
John Deere
John Deere invented the steel plow. This was important because the steel plow was strong enough to break through the thick sod on the Great Plains. The sod was up to a foot thick – people even built sod houses!
Cyrus McCormick
Cyrus McCormick invented the mechanical reaper. This invention harvested wheat four times faster than using a traditional hand scythe.
Tariff of Abominations
Jackson’s supporters in Congress passed high tariffs on iron in order to increase northern support from NY and PA for him in the presidential campaign of that year (1828). The tariff greatly angered the South because it raised prices on iron, but Southerners in Congress didn’t have enough votes to block the tariff. It led to South Carolina threatening to nullify the law.
Nullification
If a state didn’t agree with a law passed by the federal government, then they didn’t have to follow it (or so supporters of this believed). This power of a State government had been argued by Madison and Jefferson in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolves. South Carolina attempted to nullify the Tariff of 1832, but soon discovered that Jackson did not agree that a State had the right to nullify a federal law.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
(1828). It was a widely circulated defense for nullification, written by Calhoun but signed anonymously because he had been elected as Jackson’s Vice President. While Calhoun saw nullification as a safeguard of the rights of the minority (the States), Jackson saw it as a threat to national unity. Word of Calhoun’s authorship leaked out, leading to a rift between Jackson and Calhoun.
Jefferson Day Dinner, 1830
At this dinner, Jackson made a toast saying, “Our federal Union, it must be preserved.” In response, Calhoun made his own toast saying, “The Union–next to our liberty most dear. May we always remember that it can only be preserved by distributing equally the benefits and burdens of the Union.” This showed that the President and Vice President openly disagreed on a matter of crucial national importance. Calhoun believed that freedom was more important than the Union, while Jackson believed that a Union was necessary for freedom. Calhoun lost all influence with Jackson after this (the relationship was already strained after the Peggy Eaton Affair) and soon afterward became the first VP to resign. Martin Van Buren replaced him in Jackson’s second term.
Nullification Crisis
In 1832, the nullification controversy became a full-blown crisis. Congress passed the Tariff of 1832, which retained high taxes on woolens, iron, and hemp, although it reduced taxes on other items. In response to the high taxes, South Carolina held a special convention where they came up with the Ordinance of Nullification, whereby they rejected the tariff and refused to collect the taxes it required. Even further, they threatened to secede from the Union if Jackson tried to use force to make them pay the tariff.
Force Bill
Jackson obtained the authorization to use force from Congress after South Carolina’s threat of secession. It stated that the federal government had authority to collect the tariff in South Carolina at gunpoint if necessary. So, basically, Jackson called S.C.’s bluff – he would not permit them to secede from the Union!
Tariff Act of 1833
This was the compromise by Henry Clay that ended the Nullification Crisis. This act pledged a return to the tariff rate of 1816 by 1842 through a series of very small annual decreases for nine years, followed by a large cut in the final year. (The cut was so large that in 1842 Congress voted to return to higher tariffs). The compromise ended the Nullification Crisis and kept South Carolina from seceding…for now!
Sequoyah
He was a Cherokee scholar who developed the Cherokee alphabet. This made reading and writing in Cherokee possible. The Cherokee officially adopted his alphabet in 1825, and their literacy rate became higher than the American settlers.
Indian Removal Act of 1830
An act passed in 1830 under President Andrew Jackson that allowed the removal of Indians by treaty or by force if necessary. This act moved the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole) to west of the Mississippi River. The removal of the Cherokee was especially infamous and is known as the Trail of Tears (see #44). The vote was very sectional, since the South and West wanted it, but the North did not.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) and Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
These were Supreme Court cases filed by the Cherokees after the Indian Removal Act of 1830. In both cases, the Supreme Court ruled that the removal of Indians by the Georgia government was unconstitutional since treaty making is the job of the federal government. After these rulings, Jackson said, “John Marshall has made his decision. Now, let’s see him enforce it.” In other words, Jackson ignored the ruling of the Supreme Court and the Native Americans were removed.
Trail of Tears
It is the name given to the trail traveled by the Cherokee after they were removed from U.S. territory. 4,000 of the 15,000 Cherokees died on the trail from disease, exposure, and starvation. The Cherokees never formally agreed to the Indian Removal Act, so they tried to fight it with the white’s man tool, the law (see #43). However, they were forced to move to the west of the Mississippi River. They walked 1,000 miles with almost no clothing or shoes. The Americans gave them blankets, but they had been used in a hospital that recently experienced a smallpox outbreak. The tribe was not allowed to pass through towns or villages because of the disease, making the walk even further.
Black Hawk War
This war started in 1832 after the 5 civilized tribes were moved west of the Mississippi River. Black Hawk, a Sauk leader, led his tribe onto land in the state of Illinois. The Sauk were part of a group of tribes called the “British Band” and were thought by whites to be violent. Black Hawk crushed the militia at the Battle of Stillman’s Run. Black Hawk took his army to Wisconsin and attacked settlers. The US Army defeated the Sauk at the Battle of Wisconsin Heights, forcing them to retreat to west of the Mississippi River.
Horseshoe Bend
It was the site of a battle in Wisconsin, the Battle of Horseshoe Bend, in 1832. It was a turning point in the Black Hawk War, because the U.S. won the battle. It is also the name of the famous battle in 1814 where Jackson destroyed the Creeks.
Indian Removal and Sectionalism
Indian removal was a sectional issue. The Southern and Western states were generally for it, and so was Jackson. The Northern states, however, were completely against it. The Indian Removal Act passed the House of Representatives by a mere 3 votes.
Nicholas Biddle
He was a banker who ran the Second Bank of the US. Andrew Jackson held a personal grudge against the bank because he disliked the fact that the bank had foreign investors, it seemed to benefit rich people at the expense of poor farmers, and it wasn’t mentioned in the Constitution. Jackson called the Second Bank a “monster,” and he was determined to slay it! The grudge against the bank turned into a personal grudge against Nicholas Biddle; when Biddle applied early to recharter the bank (the charter of the Bank expired in 1836), Jackson vetoed it.
Bank opposition – why?
The Bank’s frugality with currency (in other words, it was hard to get a loan from the Bank) was troublesome for western land speculators and farmers who wanted to get money easily and with low interest. Some people greatly disliked the economic power of the bank, worrying that rich elites used it to their advantage to the detriment of the poor.
Bank Veto
4 years prior to the expiration of the bank’s charter, Nicholas Biddle applied for an extension of the charter, hoping Andrew Jackson wouldn’t interfere because he had to worry about re-election. Andrew Jackson vetoed the charter, shattering any hope of a renewal of the bank’s charter if he won re-election (which he did, as it turned out).
Anti-Masonic Party
It was the first third party to run in an election; they ran in 1832. They were basically insignificant except for the conventions they held to nominate party candidates. They were the first to do so and this became a trend with political parties.
Bank War
The Bank War arose when Nicholas Biddle, President of the Second Bank of the United States, applied for the renewal of the bank’s charter. Biddle did this four years before the charter was supposed to expire because he knew Jackson was going to let the bank charter expire before the next presidential election; by making it an election issue, he hoped to save the bank. In the election, Biddle supported Henry Clay. The plan didn’t work because Jackson crushed Clay in the 1832 election! After the election, Jackson decided that all government money would be removed from the Second Bank of the United States and would be invested in smaller state banks. Jackson’s opponents referred to the state banks Jackson chose to hold the federal deposits as “pet banks” – Jackson’s favorites. In response, Biddle decided that the country would suffer because of the actions of the president. He didn’t allow the bank to issue any new loans and forced people to pay their existing loans immediately. The country’s economy struggled for a few years because Andrew Jackson refused to support the bill that would extend the bank’s charter.
Whigs
It was a new political party that opposed the Democrats. Their ideas were based on the old Federalist views. They believed in having a national bank, a strong federal government, and high protective tariffs. They believed that the government should be very active and should get involved in cases involving the economy and in solving societal problems. For example, they supported a public education system, while the Democrats did not because they felt it would limit freedom. Whig presidents were William Henry Harrison, John Tyler and Zachary Taylor. Another famous Whig was Henry Clay, who pushed the American System forward.
Election of 1836
It was between Van Buren and 4 Whigs, including William Henry Harrison. The Whigs used the strategy of nominating four Whigs from different parts of the country in hopes of denying Van Buren an electoral majority, thereby throwing the election into the House of Representatives to be decided. The Whigs made up the majority in the House, so this could have worked. This tactic failed, though, and Van Buren won in a close race.
Specie Circular
(1836) this was an announcement from Andrew Jackson saying that all public land had to be paid in hard money (specie) as opposed to paper money. He created this after noticing the inflation caused by the increased use of paper money being issued by pet banks. Demanding the payment of debts in gold created massive economic problems. Biddle said that Jackson was directly responsible for the irresponsible creation of paper money by the state banks. I agree with Biddle! Jackson’s war on the Bank caused the Panic of 1837.
Panic of 1837
a five-year depression caused by the end of the Second Bank of the United States. After the Specie Circular, banks only accepted silver and gold for land payments to make sure they were getting their worth for the land, since the bank notes were of questionable value. 800 banks were unable to pay off their deposits when people tried to get their money, and went bankrupt. Unemployment was rampant. A group of New Yorkers protested the panic, wielding signs at City Hall. The mob overpowered law officials (see #57). There was no unemployment insurance and there were no bailouts. Some big cities had soup kitchens, but they were paid for by private charities, not the government.
Eli Hart Incident
The mob at City Hall in New York soon moved on to the warehouse of one Eli Hart, a well-to-do merchant. The mob broke in and stole barrels of flour that Hart had kept in storage. Eli would not sell the flour at a price the mob considered fair, so the mob simply took the flour. The police were incapable of stopping the mob, and a full-scale riot ensued!
“Van Ruin” and the government response to the Panic
Van Buren didn’t really do anything in response to the Panic. He dawdled while the economy spiraled downward. That’s when people named him “Van Ruin,” because they blamed him for the failing economy. The most he did was promote low tariffs, which made the South happy, but he still lost the support of the people because of his lack of any attempt to help end the Panic or aid suffering people in any way. The Democratic Party of the 1830s did not feel that it was the proper role of government to help suffering people.
Democratic beliefs and support
Many Democrats were farmers, who were for a weak central government and were strict constructionists. Poor farmers, poor businessmen, and people from the South and West supported the party.
Whig beliefs and support
Whigs were in favor of the American System. Their support was mostly made up of urban bankers and businessmen who liked tariffs. They had a lot of support in the North.
Election of 1840
President Martin Van Buren fought for re-election against a depression and a Whig party unified behind war hero William Henry Harrison. Campaigning under the slogan “Tippecanoe and Tyler too,” the Whigs defeated Van Buren easily. Unfortunately, the Whig choice of John Tyler, a former Democrat from Virginia, to win southern votes ended up backfiring when Tyler became President following Harrison’s death.
Death of Harrison
He developed a cold after delivering his 8,000-word, two-hour Inaugural Address in a snowstorm without a coat or hat! This soon turned into pneumonia, and he died only 31 days into his presidency. As a result, Tyler became president, which was a huge setback for the Whigs, because he reversed the progress of Whig bills that supported the American System (since he was really a Democrat).
John Tyler
He was a Democrat turned Whig through disagreements with Andrew Jackson’s presidential style. He was chosen for the vice presidency because he had sectional appeal (he could get votes from the South). The Whigs never looked into his political viewpoints, assuming that Harrison would live through his entire presidency. Unfortunately for the Whigs, Tyler was anti-Jackson and anti-Whig. As president, Tyler vetoed multitudes of bills for everything from tariffs to a new US Bank. As a result, the Whigs removed Tyler from their party and stepped out of his Cabinet. His entire Cabinet resigned! Tyler replaced them with former Democrats. The Whig party’s rise to power flopped because they chose the wrong man for a vice presidential candidate. Tyler successfully tore down the Whigs and even divided the Democrats while he was in office. He was known as “A Man Without a Party” and was not nominated for President in the 1844 race.
Washington Irving
He is credited with publishing The Sketch Book and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and making the characters Rip Van Winkle and the Headless Horseman famous.
James Fenimore Cooper
He wrote the Leatherstocking novels, a series of semi-historical novels, The Last of the Mohicans being the most famous, and became known in both America and in Europe. His novels were about the nobility of the Native Americans while the Americans defeated them.
Hudson River School
This was a school of landscape painting founded by Thomas Cole, a British landscape painter who moved to America. George Catlin, Albert Bierstadt, and Asher Durand were all members of this school. A major focus of their work was paintings of American landscapes.
John James Audubon
A painter of American birds. His greatest work was Birds of America.
Natchez
It is a city in Mississippi by the river. It was known for having the largest population of free black men. Ironically, it was also known for having the most successful slave trading market in the state of Mississippi, called the Forks in the Road Market. Prior to the Civil War, it was one of the richest communities in America.
Nabobs
A name for the rich planters of the Natchez community.
Eli Whitney
He invented the cotton gin. The cotton gin combs seeds out of the cotton boll 50 times faster than one person can do it by hand. The cotton gin shaped the economy of the South and made the South more dependent than ever on slavery, though this was not intended, because now more slaves were “needed” to plant and harvest the cotton.
Alabama Fever
when cotton became such a profitable crop and so easy to process, the lands in places like Georgia and Tennessee weren’t very fertile. People began a mad rush to get to Alabama and claim land before the government surveyed the land to sell it at high value. This was part of southern expansion.
Internal Slave Trade
After the International Slave Trade was abolished in 1808, the internal slave trade flourished. Masters sold their slaves to masters of other plantations in the South as punishment to the slaves, or to make more profit. It was typical that slaves of the Upper South would be “sold down the river” to the Lower South.
Cotton is King
a term used by Southern politicians to show the importance of cotton to the economy of the South. They thought of cotton as the most important crop. They felt that the North would be paralyzed without Southern cotton. It really made the South cocky that they could blackmail the North because they felt the North could never do without Southern cotton.
African Methodist Episcopal Church
Since slaves were unable to practice their African religions because of fear of rebellion, they adopted Christianity. They wanted to incorporate their traditional ceremonies with singing, dancing, and other such aspects of African religions with the Christianity they now believed, hence the birth of the AME, founded by Richard Allen in 1793.
Harriet Tubman
She was an escaped slave from Maryland. She helped with the Underground Railroad, making 19 rescue missions and freeing over 300 slaves.
Gabriel Prosser
(1800) He was a literate blacksmith who planned a revolt on Richmond, Virginia. He planned to round up over 1,000 slaves to storm into Richmond and demand freedom. “Death or Liberty” was the motto for his revolt. He hoped to get help from the Haitians, but his plans were found out, and he was hanged with 35 other slaves. Still, the idea of a slave revolt terrified white Southerners, and they became more paranoid and protective of slavery in the South. After this, there was no chance Virginia was going to end slavery.
Denmark Vesey
(1822) He was a carpenter who lived in Charleston, S.C. Vesey planned to invade the city, and steal horses and weapons. He even had house slaves involved, instructed them to hold their masters hostage, and if anyone tried to escape, they were to kill them! His ultimate goal was to seize Charleston, then sail with the slaves to Haiti. However, two days before the revolt, two house slaves confessed the plan, and Vesey was hanged with 35 others. 37 other slaves were sold down the river. “Remember Denmark Vesey of Charleston!” was the battle cry of the first black regiment formed to fight in the Civil War.
Nat Turner
(1831) He was a slave who planned a rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia. Turner’s plan moved forward after Turner had a vision and a solar eclipse convinced him that God was telling him to slay white people. One night, he rounded up a bunch of escaped slaves to go kill white people. By the next morning, they had killed 55 whites. The group was found, but Turner escaped and lived in the woods for two months before being found. He was hanged with 55 others. Turner’s Insurrection was the only actual slave rebellion in the 19th century. Across Virginia and other southern states, state legislators passed new laws prohibiting education of slaves and free blacks, restricting rights of assembly and other civil rights for free blacks, and requiring white ministers to be present at black worship services.
Black Codes
In 1830, the South starting tightening up on black codes, or laws regulating free African Americans. The reason was because so many revolts had been planned in the last decade or so (two of the most famous being by free African Americans) and whites were beginning to think free blacks had too much freedom. Free African Americans were not allowed to bear arms or buy slaves unless they were family; they were subject to slave punishments such as whippings and trial with no right to a jury, could not testify against white people, and they were forbidden to vote, have guns, serve in the military, or hold public office.
Yeoman Farmer
Thomas Jefferson was the first to suggest that an agrarian republic made up of yeoman farmers was essential for a democracy. “Yeoman” refers to a farmer who works his own land. Most yeomen did not own slaves, and grew only enough food to provide for their families. Yeomen communities were mostly in the upper South, where the land was less fertile, and therefore less suitable for big plantations. These farmers were accustomed to being independent and were generally against industrialization and commercialism.
Tenant Farmer
A tenant farmer is someone who lives on another person’s farm and helps with the crops. The farmer pays a small fee to live on the land, but gets to keep a certain amount of the crop he harvests. Many freed slaves and poor white people ended up as tenant farmers.
The Old Planter Elite
This term refers to the 2.5% of Southerners who owned 50 or more slaves. Most of their wealth was inherited, though many added on to the bequeathed wealth. This elite group ran Southern politics from colonial times up until the 1820s, when more middle class men were elected into office thanks to the Era of the Common Man. The Old Planter Elite increasingly lost its grip on Southern politics after 1830.
Mary Boykin Chesnut
She was the wife of a wealthy slave owner from South Carolina and kept a diary, writing down everything. “God forgive us, but ours is a monstrous system….Like the patriarchs of old, our men live all in one house with their wives and their concubines, and the mulattoes one sees in every family party resemble the white children. Any lady is ready to tell you who is the father of all the mulatto children in everybody’s household but their own. Those, she seems to think, drop for the clouds.” I imagine it was tough for Southern women to look the other way while their husbands were raping slave women!
Proslavery Arguments
Southerners came up with many reasons why slavery was essential to them. These reasons developed into proslavery arguments going against the mostly northern, antislavery arguments. The South used everything they could for these arguments, such as the Constitution and even the Bible. Their strongest argument was that the Constitution allowed slavery. They also said that slavery was good for uplifting the primitive black man into civilization.
William Lloyd Garrison
He was a militant abolitionist who began publishing the Liberator, which became the leading antislavery newspaper. He was one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society, favoring the immediate abolition of slavery. He also was one of the leading advocates for women’s rights. His effectiveness was limited because his radicalism scared some people; he even burned a copy of the Constitution in public to protest slavery!
Gag Rule
This was a rule to stop all talk against slavery in Congress. It made it so that a Congressman could either stay silent about his antislavery feelings, or he could leave. It was introduced in 1836, and neither major party addressed slavery for years afterwards.
James Henry Hammond
He was one of the first to develop proslavery arguments, as opposed to just being defensive on the matter. He was elected South Carolina Congressman in 1834. In 1836, he delivered a major address to Congress denying that slavery was evil. He said that it had produced “the highest toned, the purest, best organization or society that has ever existed on the face of the earth.” In other words, slavery is wonderful because it created an awesome society in the South!
George Fitzhugh
He was another Southern spokesperson who, in 1854, asserted that “the negro slaves of the South are the happiest, and, in some sense, the freest people in the world” because they didn’t have to worry about housing, clothing, or feeding themselves. He argued that unlike the Northern “wage slaves” working in the factories, at least the plantation slaves were taken care of by their masters, while the “wage slaves” employers didn’t take any care of them. He argued that “Southern masters and their slaves were bound together by a community of interests.”
Wage Slaves versus Southern Slaves
A Southern Slave was considered property. He could not quit or leave. He was only given food so that he would be able to do his work the next day. A Northern wage worker was free to come and go as he pleased. He could quit his job whenever he chose. If he quit a job or was fired, though, he would have to find another job or he would have no money with which to buy food to eat and pay for shelter.
Hinton Helper
He was a Southerner who published an attack on slavery, The Impending Crisis of the South, making the growing arguments between “haves and not-haves” of the South publicly known. He argued that slavery had a negative effect on white people. Because of his views, he was forced to flee from the South!
Lowell girls
It is a name given to female textile workers in Francis Cabot Lowell’s mill in Lowell, Massachusetts. About 3/4 of all the workers at the mill were women. The mill girls agitated for better working conditions and better wages, since they worked an average of 73 hours per week. They typically worked from 5am to 7pm. The women were kept in boarding houses, and six women shared a single bedroom. They went on strike (refused to work until their demands were met) in 1834 (failed) and in 1836 (they succeeded in preventing the company from raising their rent).
Patriarchy
A society ruled by men, it was characteristic of American society in the antebellum (pre-Civil War) period. At Lowell, for example, the men governed over the women, taking care to look after their moral behavior.
Lowell Strike of 1834
The mills cut wages of the workers by 25 percent. The workforce was comprised of all women. They then banded together and began a strike to restore their previous wages. It was unsuccessful and many of them were fired and replaced by the Irish who worked for less.
New England Female Labor Reform Association
Formed in 1845, they were a union of women that looked to protect the women in the workforce. They demanded a 10-hour workday at the Lowell Mill, but it was denied. After other states agreed to shorten the workday to 10 hours, the company finally agreed. This was the first time women gathered together and fought for their rights.
John Jacob Astor
He was the first multi-millionaire in US history, making his money through the fur trade, real estate, and opium. His fortune in today’s money would be over $110 billion! He is significant because he donated a huge portion of his income to the arts, sponsoring Audubon and Edgar Allen Poe, and because his wealth showed how the American economy was industrializing: creating a lot of wealth for a few rich people.
Samuel Slater
He was known as the “Father of the American Industrial Revolution,” since he started the industrial revolution when he brought British textile technology to America. The revolution started in a mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island with the construction of the first successful textile mill in America in the 1810s.
Putting-Out System
Also known as the Workshop System, a system where goods were made in the private homes of subcontractors, under the eye of a merchant who “put out” the materials needed. The merchant also gave a certain sum for the finished piece, and then they would sell the completed item to a distant market. So, basically, a merchant would come to your house with raw materials, you and your family made them into finished products, then the merchant would come back to collect the goods and pay you. Factories replaced the putting-out system.
Satanic Mills
This was a nickname given to the early mills because of the horrid working conditions found there. Many women and children were employed in these filthy and unsafe mills.
American System of Manufactures
Americans were described as “mechanics by nature.” People everywhere invented tools and machines. The biggest aspect of the American system of manufactures was the development of standardized, interchangeable parts. A faulty gun could be easily disassembled and the broken part could be replaced with the interchangeable part. Before this development, if one little piece of the gun broke, then the entire gun would have to be replaced.
Simeon North
He was an American manufacturer. He manufactured scythes before moving to guns. He supplied pistols and rifles to the U.S. government from 1799 and he also developed the use of interchangeable parts in manufacturing and the first-known milling machine.
Isaac Singer
Singer was a U.S. inventor and manufacturer. He is famous for producing an improved version of Elias Howe’s sewing machine in 1851. He then founded I.M. Singer & Co.
The Second Great Awakening
It was an evangelistic religious movement from about 1790 to the 1840s. The sermons were strong and emotional, and salvation from sin was a broader concept. People were still scared of original sin, and of Hell, but there were ways (they believed) to rid themselves of damnation. Those saved felt especially inclined to demonstrate their faith in their daily behavior. In other words, they tried to be “good!” It was most popular in the West.
Charles G. Finney
He was a preacher during the Second Great Awakening. He preached to people of all social classes.
Catharine Beecher (Treatise on Domestic Economy)
Catharine Beecher’s book was all about the woman’s role in the home. It focused on everything she thought a woman should know about organization, cleaning, cooking, medical advice, even rearing children. It was the ultimate guide to house and home for women of that time. Her book, along with the Bible, was the only one pioneering women took west with them.
Birth control and abortion
The birth rate fell dramatically during the 19th century. The average woman had 7 kids in 1800, but only 4 in 1900. This was through abstinence and abortion. Surgical abortions became very common after 1830 – 1/4 of all pregnancies were aborted between 1840-1860.
Industrial motherhood
People believed that women were more gentle, moral, and loving, so childrearing was left to them. The men went to work and the women stayed home.
Transcendentalism
It was a major philosophical movement in America from the 1830s-1850s. It favored the importance of the individual and frowned upon conformity. It emphasized emotion and the power of nature over cold logic and reason. The movement was basically a reaction against the changes brought on by industrialization.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
A famous writer and lecturer. He popularized transcendentalism. He taught that the best way to understand the spiritual side of life and to gain insight into the Universal Being (God) was to observe nature. He gave a series of lectures on culture as part of the lyceum circuit (a speaking tour of intellectuals). He is very well known for Nature, which began the transcendentalist movement, and for The American Scholar, which has been called the “Intellectual Declaration of Independence.”
Henry David Thoreau
He was a friend of Emerson who emphasized individualism. He spent two years of solitude in a cabin at Walden Pond, near Concord, MA. In 1840, based on his experience at Walden Pond, he wrote Walden. He criticized materialism, believing that men needed to live simple lifestyles that left time for spiritual thought.
Margaret Fuller
She was a transcendentalist thinker. She advocated women’s rights and thought that women were entitled to an education and the right to hold jobs. She also advocated emancipation for slaves and prison reform. She expressed her opinions in her book, Woman in the 19th Century.
Seneca Falls Convention
This was a woman’s rights convention held in the summer of 1848 at Seneca Falls, New York. Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized it. They developed a petition called the “Declaration of Sentiments,” which was modeled after the Declaration of Independence. In the same way the Declaration of Independence listed the oppressions dealt to Americans by the British, the Declaration of Sentiments listed the oppressions dealt to women by men.
Effect of Market Revolution on Cities
The market revolution radically augmented the size of America’s cities, especially seaports. The amount of America’s population living in cities grew from 7% in 1820 to almost 20% in 1860. (So much for the agrarian republic!) The best example of this growth is the increase in the population of New York from 60,000 people in 1800, to over 1 million people in 1860.
Irish Potato Famine
This was a time of great starvation in Ireland’s history after the potato crop was attacked by a disease called the potato blight. Occurring from 1845-1851, the Irish Potato Famine caused Ireland’s population to fall by about 25%. Around 1 million people emigrated to America and about 1 million more starved. The people already in America detested the Irish immigrants, and many storefronts advertising job openings on their windows posted signs – NINA (No Irish Need Apply). The Irish and Free Blacks competed for the lowest level jobs in cities, leading to an intense rivalry between the two groups during the 1850s.
Forty-Eighters
Forty-Eighters were people who moved to the United States from Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia following revolutions in Europe in 1848. These revolutions were for human rights and more democratic governments. Forty-Eighters are significant to American history because many of the revolutionaries, disappointed due to failure, emigrated to America, accounting for many of our German immigrants during that time period. They tended to oppose slavery and be pro-immigration, and many of them fought for the Union in the Civil War. Germans brought the Christmas tree, lager, hot dogs, hamburgers, and kindergartens (among many other cultural items) to the U.S.
Little Germanies
These were urban neighborhoods comprised mainly of German immigrants. Germans wanted to recreate life in their old German communities. They founded leisure activities such as singing societies, concert halls, theaters, and beer gardens. The cities of Milwaukee, Cincinnati, Baltimore, and St. Louis had large “Little Germanies.”
Five Points
The worst New York City slum in the 19th century, it was located in Lower Manhattan. Gangs of immigrants, free black people, and criminals controlled the streets. Two of the most infamous gangs from here were the Plug Uglies and the Shirt Tails. During the Civil War, draft riots in 1863 were so severe that Lincoln had to send in several regiments of the army to put them down.
Blackface Minstrel Show
These were popular shows involving white actors blackening their faces, and acting as stereotypical free blacks or slaves. The shows were extremely racist! Unfortunately, blackface occasionally resurfaces on college campuses and by Hollywood actors. But, as Ashton Kutcher discovered in 2012, it isn’t cool anymore!
Walt Whitman
He was a newspaper author, and published “dime novels.” He was also an activist and a poet, publishing Leaves of Grass. It was a collection of 400 poems written over 35 years and inspired by the transcendentalists.
Edgar Allan Poe
An author whose horror stories, like Murders in the Rue Morgue, The Raven and The Mystery of Marie Roget, make him one of the most famous American literary figures.
Alexis de Tocqueville
Democracy in America – Alexis de Tocqueville was a French political thinker and historian. In his book, Democracy in America, representative democracy in the United States is the main topic. De Tocqueville warned against “tyranny of the majority,” which means that sometimes a majority of the people can take rights away from the minority. He also wrote about separation of church and state, concluding that the government and religion were both stronger in the US because they were separate.
Tammany Society
The Tammany Society was an organization in New York City that ran the Democratic Party, and reached voters through techniques such as rallies, parades, songs, and party newspapers. Tammany was a “political machine,” an organization established for the sole purpose of keeping one political party in power. The machine effectively worked by buying votes through providing public services. In other words, you vote for us, we pick up your trash!
Maternal Associations
Monthly church associations where mothers discussed ways to raise their children to be true Christians. They believed that all children were sinful at birth, and their wills must be broken to be “godly.” Yeah!
Horace Mann
He was the Secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education and he pioneered the new public education. Schooling in Massachusetts evolved from being only welcoming to those whose parents could afford it, to being almost mandatory for white kids from ages 5-19. He also said that kids needed to be taught in a pleasant and friendly atmosphere. The best way to do that was to separate kids by grade rather than have them all in one classroom together, and to pay special attention to the younger kids. He also focused on the importance of training teachers and on having a curriculum. Many women became teachers. Thanks to Mann, women got jobs, and for the first time, real careers. Of course, they were paid less than men, but it was a start.
Oberlin
It is a private liberal arts college in Oberlin, Ohio. It was the first American institution of higher learning to admit female and black students (in addition to white males).
Mount Holyoke
Mary Lyon created Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in Massachusetts. The young women who attended hoped to be missionaries in distant lands. The seminary was among the most rigorous academic institutions at the time. The school not only had challenging academic courses, but also stressed the importance of the moral and religious lives of its students. Along with Oberlin, it was one of the two schools open to women in the US before the Civil War.
Temperance Movement
The temperance movement worked to reduce or eliminate consumption of alcohol. Sometimes, men drank most of their paycheck away instead of supporting their families. By practicing temperance, men saved their families from spending money on alcohol and reduced violence and crime rates.
Female Moral Reform Society
It was an anti-prostitution movement with 558 supporting chapters. The Society viewed prostitution as an economic issue more than a moral one. The Society tried to find alternative work for the poor women who worked in prostitution. It was one of the first and most effective anti-prostitution groups. Evangelical women in New York in 1834 founded it. Its first president was Lydia Finney, wife of Charles G. Finney.
Dorothea Dix
She led asylum reform. Dix explained the terrible treatment of the insane, who were locked up with regular criminals. She traveled the country voicing her views on the treatment of the insane. She told the Massachusetts legislature about how the women were being treated. They were being “incarcerated up with criminals, locked up in cages, pens, closets, stalls. They were chained, naked, beaten with rods and lashed into obedience.” By 1860, 28 states had separate places for the insane to go, and conditions had improved some.
“Burned-Over District”
It was a region of Upstate New York along the Erie Canal. The district earned its nickname because of the many reform movements that swept through the area like wildfires (like temperance and anti-prostitution) and because of the fiery sermons of the ministers of the Second Great Awakening.
Millerites
They were a group of people who believed that the second coming of Christ would come on October 22, 1843. While waiting, followers sold all their stuff and bought white robes, thinking that they’d now be ready for their assent to Heaven. When the sun came up on October 23rd, many left the group! However, a small number stayed strong with their beliefs and formed a new group, which is still active today, the Seventh Day Adventist faith.
Mother Ann Lee, Shakers
The Shakers were the oldest utopian group, founded by “Mother” Ann Lee. They were very similar to the Quakers. They believed that America should get rid of the traditional family and start thinking of brothers and sisters living as equals. They believed in complete equality of the sexes. They grew a lot between the 1820s through 1830s. Their isolated lifestyle drew many new followers, especially women. They did not believe in sex, so keeping their membership was challenging! The last Shaker community in the world is in Maine.
Oneida
It was a utopian community in New York founded by Jonathan Noyes. Those of the community practiced “complex marriage,” meaning that sexual activity was highly regulated and only a select few males could father children (including Noyes, of course!). Practices of the Oneida earned them a bad reputation and prevented the group from growing past 200 members.
New Harmony
It was a utopian community founded by Scottish industrialist Robert Owen in 1825. Owen had established a workers’ community at his manufacturing plant in New Lanark, Scotland, where workers were treated well and education was emphasized. New Harmony, Indiana was established for the same purpose. It was supposed to be a manufacturing community without poverty and unemployment. The community only survived for three years.
Joseph Smith
He created the Mormon religion. He wrote the Book of Mormon, which he claimed to have translated from golden plates of ancient Americans shown to him by an angel. Mormons were persecuted because they believed in polygamy (men could have multiple wives). Because of persecution, the Mormons were forced to move west. They first went to Ohio, then Missouri, where they were attacked by a mob, then moved to Illinois, where Smith was eventually arrested and killed by a mob while awaiting trial.
Brigham Young
Young led the Mormons away from harm to the Salt Lake City region in present-day Utah. Though they struggled to survive in arid Utah, they were left alone to practice their faith.
American Colonization Society
It was a group of people who tried to solve the “problem” of large numbers of free blacks in the United States by sending them to Africa. Robert Finley founded the society in 1817. The society was virtually ineffective; they sent about 13,000 African-Americans to West Africa in 50 years. More slaves were born in one week than the society sent back in 50 years! One result, though, was the establishment of a country of former slaves – Liberia.
Freedom’s Journal
It was the first African-American newspaper, founded by John Russwurm and Samuel Cornish. Freedom’s Journal provided international, national, and regional information on current events and contained editorials declaiming slavery, lynching, and other injustices. The Journal also published biographies of prominent African-Americans and listings of births, deaths, and marriages in the African-American New York community. The newspaper employed subscription agents. One of these, David Walker, in 1829 published the first of four articles that called for rebellion.
David Walker
He was a free African American who wrote Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World. This pamphlet, along with others written by free African Americans in northern states, wanted slaves in the South to revolt. These authors were blamed for the actions of revolting slaves. Walker wrote, “it is no more harm for you to kill the man who is trying to kill you than it is for you to take a drink of water.” This bold attack was widely read, and widely banned in the South. It was published the year before Nat Turner’s Rebellion.
Theodore Weld
He was one of the leading abolitionists from 1830-1844. He wrote a book called American Slavery as it is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses. This book had a huge effect on abolition; it is considered the 2nd most influential book on the antislavery movement, behind only Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
She was the author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. This was one example of many stories by abolitionists condemning slavery as evil and immoral. It was the #2 best-selling book of the 19th century, behind only the Bible. Many people, including Abraham Lincoln, believe that the novel did much to cause the Civil War. It shocked Europeans so much that they refused to allow their governments to join the Confederacy against the United States in the Civil War.
Elijah Lovejoy
He wrote and published antislavery articles in Illinois. On four separate occasions, angry pro-slavery mobs attacked his warehouse and destroyed his press. The fifth time, he was killed by a pro-slavery mob that attacked the warehouse where his press was operated. They then threw his press in the river! For standing for what he believed in, he is seen as a martyr by many.
John Quincy Adams and the gag rule
After serving as president, JQA entered Congress. He spoke out against the gag rule often and strongly. In 1844, just 8 years after it was passed, the gag rule was repealed because of northern opposition headed by JQA.
Amistad
It was a Spanish ship transporting slaves to America in 1839. On the journey, the slaves, from Africa, were able to take control of the ship. They then sailed all the way to Long Island. When the Americans got ahold of them, the slaves were sent to jail. Great dispute followed because ownership of them could not be determined. The court decided that the Africans appeared to be in possession of the ship when they arrived in America; therefore, the Africans were released from prison and allowed to return to Africa. John Quincy Adams aided in their legal case.
Frederick Douglass
He was a free African American abolitionist. Garrison was once a mentor to Douglass, but Garrison thought the Constitution was evil because it was proslavery, while Douglass concluded that it was antislavery. He wrote Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an autobiography. It was a story of his life as a slave and greatly impacted the abolitionist movement.
Grimké sisters
Sarah and Angelina Grimké were the first female public speakers in the history of the United States. Since they had grown up in a household where slavery was present, they knew the cruelty of slavery firsthand. They were often recruited to talk about the evils of slavery. They were criticized because common belief disapproved women voicing their opinion. In fact, the abolitionist movement split when Garrison supported their right to speak out, while other abolitionist leaders did not. Fun fact: Angelina Grimké was married to Theodore Weld.
Rendezvous system
This was a yearly trade fair held in the Rocky Mountains. Trappers brought their fur to trade for goods like traps, guns, ammunition, tobacco, beads, fabric and alcohol. These trade fairs were based on traditional Native American trade gatherings. The fairs lasted many days and had trappers of many nationalities gather to trade, drink, and gamble.
Zebulon Pike
Following the Lewis and Clark expedition, Lieutenant Zebulon Pike led an expedition of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains in Colorado in 1806 and 1807. Pike’s Peak in Colorado is named for him.
Stephen Long
Major Stephen Long mapped out the Great Plains in 1819-1820. It was part of a plan to scare the British trappers out of the West. He is also known for his part in developing the steam locomotive. He led a military excursion up the Missouri River, and later he led several expeditions of the U.S. border with Canada. His 5 expeditions travelled 26,000 miles!
John C. Frémont
He is known as “The Great Pathfinder.” As an explorer and military commander, he mapped the overland trails to Oregon and California in 1843-44. He also helped secure California in 1846. He and his troops assisted in the Bear Flag Revolt, where a handful of American settlers announced California’s independence from Mexico. In 1856, he became the first candidate for President from the new Republican Party, but lost when the Democrats warned that his election would lead to civil war and also because the Know Nothings, a third party, took some of his votes.
John Wesley Powell
His exploration of the Grand Canyon (1869) was the most famous geological survey. He led a series of expeditions through the area surrounding the Grand Canyon, including a three-month trip down the Colorado River.
Rocky Mountain School
It was a group of landscape painters who were part of the Hudson River School, but painted Western landscapes. Thomas Moran, Thomas Hill, Albert Bierstadt, and William Keith are referred to as belonging to the Rocky Mountain School. It made people want to move westward, because it was so beautiful. Bierstadt’s Yosemite Valley follows:
Frederick Jackson Turner
He is one of America’s most famous historians. In 1893, he released an essay known as The Significance of the Frontier in American History at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. He said that the “repeated experience of settling new frontiers across the continent had shaped Americans into a uniquely adventurous, optimistic, and democratic people.” In other words, he believed that the spirit and success of the U.S. was directly tied to the country’s westward expansion. His argument is called the Turner Thesis.
Manifest Destiny
This was the American belief, in the 19th century, that the U.S. was destined to spread across the North American continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Democrats used this idea in the 1840s to justify the war with Mexico, and Americans rationalized their mistreatment and removal of the Native Americans by saying that it was ordained by God for the white man to take all the land between the Atlantic and Pacific!
Thomas Hart Benton
(Old Bullion) He was a U.S. Senator from Missouri and a supporter of westward expansion. He advocated trade with India by way of the Missouri and Columbia rivers and pointed out that Pacific trade would greatly increase if the U.S. held the harbors of the west coast. Obviously, Americans’ understanding of geography was somewhat lacking!
Overland Trails
The Overland Trails were a series of trails starting at the Missouri River and ending in the West. The trails were dangerous and tedious. The trip from Missouri to Oregon took about 7 months! The Oregon, California and Mormon trails all followed the Platte River into Wyoming, before splitting. The much harsher Sante Fé Trail stretched 900 miles southwest across the Great Plains. All of the trails crossed Indian Territory.
Cholera
It was a major cause of death on certain parts of the Overland Trail along the Platte River. Contaminated water spread the disease, and caused vomiting and diarrhea. This in turn caused dehydration and often death, sometimes in one night. Cholera killed a least a thousand people a year in 1849 and the early 1850s.
Willamette Valley
This was the spot where many of the former fur trappers and their Native wives and families chose to live when they moved to Oregon. The US government made a concerted effort to settle the disputed region, advertising it as a “Garden of Eden.” By 1845, Oregon was home to 5,000 American settlers, most of whom lived in the Willamette Valley.
Oregon Fever
A term that refers to the mass migration of people during the 1830s and 1840s to Oregon through the Overland Trails. By 1845, 5,000 people lived in Oregon. Most people came to find fortune and a better life after the Panic of 1837. People were also brought by promises of fertile land and potential riches. The American government advertised Oregon as a fertile, lush place. The US wanted people to populate this land so America could beat Britain to it, and take the land.
“Fifty-four Forty or Fight!”
In 1844, James K. Polk ran for President using *this slogan*. It referred to the Oregon territory. He threatened war with Britain unless they relinquished ownership of everything south of latitude 54 degrees and 40 minutes, which is the southern border of Alaska. However, once in office, he signed the Oregon Treaty.
Oregon Treaty (1846)
It was the treaty that established the border of the US and Canada at the 49th parallel. That is still the border today.
Donation Land Claim Act of 1850
It was an act designed to encourage people to move into the new territory acquired from the Oregon Treaty. The government promised every 18+ white male 320 acres, and every married couple 640 acres if they settled in the region. However, African Americans, Hawaiians, and American Indians were not open to this deal. When a married couple moved, half of the land owned was in the wife’s name. This was one of the first times married women were allowed to own land under their name. There were a couple stipulations. The participants had to arrive there before December 1, 1850, however, if you arrived after December 1 and before 1854, you could still be granted half the amount. Also, you had to live on the land and cultivate it for four years before you completely owned it.
Donner Party
They were a group of people who travelled on the wagon trail to California, but were forced to spend the winter of 1846-47 in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Food became scarce, and as sickness and starvation took hold, some made a severe sacrifice to survive – cannibalism. The group got their name because they were trapped near Donner Lake. Some set out on foot in December for help, but help didn’t arrive until February. 48 of the 87 made it to California.
Comanches
A Native tribe that lived on the Santa Fé trail. They, along with the Apaches, did not tolerate trespassers. Congress voted to protect the trail in order to make settlers safer. They were nomads that followed buffalo. Sometimes, they even went as far as Mexico, ending up on the Yucatan Peninsula at one point. Angered by the settlers moving over their land, they often raided settlements in Texas. They had absolutely no interest in being converted, or in having a friendly relationship with the American settlers.
Moses and Steve Austin
The Mexicans granted Moses Austin 18,000 acres in Texas in order to keep the heart of Mexico farther away from the Comanches. Moses died shortly after the deal, so his son, Stephen F. Austin (also known as the Father of Texas), took his father’s place and became the first American land agent or empresario. Austin brought 300 families to start the colonization of Texas. Upon the start of the colony, Austin agreed that he and the settlers would become Mexican citizens and become Catholic. Not surprisingly, most Americans did not live up to their side of the deal, refusing to become Catholic or Mexican.
James Bowie
He was a legendary fighter and frontiersman; the bowie knife is named after him. Bowie came into his fortune when he married the daughter of the Mexican vice governor of Texas, Ursula Veramendi. He became an honored, wealthy, Mexican citizen after that. After his wife and children died from a cholera epidemic in 1833, Bowie supported Anglo-Texan independence. He died at the Battle of the Alamo, but not from fighting – he contracted Typhoid Fever.
Tejano
This is a term used to describe the Mexicans living in Texas territory (although, technically, everyone living there was Mexican!). Their communities were made up of three main parts; rich cattle farmers called rancheros, cowboys known as vaqueros and poor tenant farmers called peónes.
William Travis
He was a lieutenant colonel in the Texan Army. Legend says that three days before the Battle of the Alamo, Travis announced that reinforcements would not be arriving. He then drew a line in the sand in front of the fort and said, “Those who are willing to stay and die, cross the line; those who are not can leave without shame.” Travis was killed along with James Bowie and Davy Crockett.
Davy Crockett
He was a politician turned soldier in the Texas Revolution. He is best remember for being a frontiersman and for his “heroic” death at the Alamo historians disagree about whether he surrendered or if he fought to the last man, surrounded by piles of Mexican corpses.
Santa Anna
General Antonio López de Santa Anna brought 5,000 Mexican troops to siege the fortress known as the Alamo. An estimated 187 Texans held the fort, and López, President of Mexico at the time, came to put down the rebellious settlers living on Mexican land. He and his army took the fort on March 6, 1836, losing around 1,000-1,500 of his men in the attack. All 187 Texans were killed.
The Alamo
Located in what is now San Antonio, Texas, it was a huge battle in the Texas Revolution fought on March 6, 1836 between the Texans and Tejanos against Mexico. President Santa Anna led an army into Texas to hold a 13-day siege on the fort. There were about 187 Texans stationed at the fort including James Bowie, William Travis, and Davy Crockett. The Texan army went on the beat the Mexicans at the Battle of San Jacinto.
Sam Houston
After the Battle at the Alamo, Santa Anna continued to try to destroy the remaining American armies. Texan General Sam Houston led an attack against a divided Mexican army and obliterated them. This victory gave the Republic of Texas independence.
Republic of Texas
Texas gained independence from Mexico in the Treaties of Velasco, but the Mexicans refused to sign the agreement. Texas’ boundary was set at the Rio Grande in the south. Texas was not added to the Union, originally, because it would cause an imbalance in the ratio of slave states to non-slave states. Due to the threat of a Texan alliance with Britain, among other other political reasons, Texas became a state in 1845. It was also known as the “Lone Star Republic” from 1836-1845, when it was an independent nation.
Rio Grande or Nueces?
This question refers to the boundary between the Republic of Texas and Mexico. Texans believed the boundary was the Rio Grande River while Mexicans said the Nueces River (north of the Rio Grande) was the boundary. This dispute eventually led to the Mexican War in 1846.
Election of 1844
Due to his betrayal to the Whig party, John Tyler was not named the presidential candidate for the Whigs in 1844. Instead, they nominated Henry Clay. The Democrats nominated James K. Polk of Tennessee. He was an avid supporter of expansion, which included adding Texas and Oregon to the Union. His famous slogan was “54 40 or fight!” Another candidate was James G. Birney of the Liberty Party. James K. Polk barely won the popular vote but dominated the Electoral College.
Liberty Party
It was a third party in 1844, and they were advocates for the abolition of slavery. They wanted to disallow the admission of new slave states to the Union, to get rid of slavery in the District of Columbia, and to put an end to the interstate slave trade. The party ran in the Election of 1844, and took away enough votes from Henry Clay to give the election to Polk (in other words, people who would have voted for Clay if it was only Clay vs. Polk voted for the Liberty Party). Their presidential candidate was James Birney.
General Zachary Taylor
He was the commander of an American army in northern Mexico. He was ordered by President Polk to protect Texas from a Mexican attack. He led a group of soldiers from the Nueces River to the Rio Grande where a brief battle broke out with some Mexican forces. This was a step that led to the Mexican-American War because Mexico considered the land south of the Nueces to be their territory. Most historians believe that Polk ordered Taylor south of the Nueces to provoke a war; Abraham Lincoln criticized Polk for this from the floor of the House. Taylor earned the nickname “Old Rough and Ready” for his heroics.
Spot Resolutions
Abe Lincoln demanded to know the spot where Americans were attacked by Mexican soldiers because he did not believe Polk’s explanation for how the war started. He introduced the Spot Resolutions to the House, but they were never acted upon.
Bear Flag Revolt
It was a revolt in California when a group of Americans declared their independence from Mexico in 1846. They designed a flag with a bear and flag that read, “California Republic.” However, the Republic lasted only a few weeks, and Fremont showed up with the US Army to hold California.
John Slidell
He was an envoy sent by President Polk to Mexico in an effort to purchase California, New Mexico and an expanded Texan border. The price was set at 30 million dollars. The Mexican government turned him away. This was one step that led to the Mexican-American War.
Stephen Kearny
He led soldiers to Santa Fé at the beginning of the Mexican War and captured it with ease. He then led soldiers to the capture of southern California.
Battle of Buena Vista
Feb. 1847. It was a battle between Mexican forces, led by Antonio López de Santa Anna, and American forces, led by General Zachary Taylor in northern Mexico. The Mexican forces outnumbered the Americans by more than 3 to 1. However, the Americans won convincingly, with the Mexicans losing 5 times as many men. This victory was Taylor’s greatest, and it forced Santa Anna to retreat to Mexico City.
Battle of Veracruz
March 1847. This was a battle between the Mexicans, in the city of Veracruz, and the Americans, led by General Winfield Scott. The Americans laid siege upon the city and 20 days later, the city fell. It was an extremely easy victory that resulted in only 13 American deaths. This was the first stop on Scott’s journey to Mexico City.
General Winfield Scott
He was the general who led the Americans to victory at Veracruz. He also led his army into battle against Santa Anna on the way to Mexico City and finally captured Mexico City in Sept. 1847. After a long hard- fought battle with the Mexicans, they finally surrendered Mexico City. This was the end of Mexican resistance. Scott then became governor of Mexico City. He had the awesome nickname, “Old Fuss and Feathers” because of his snappy sense of dress!
Nicholas Trist
He delivered the message from President Polk to Mexican officials about peace terms. Although he was supposed to return to Polk after the capture of Mexico City, he did not. As a result of his message, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed. Polk, who was considering taking all of Mexico, was not pleased, but agreed to the treaty.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
(1848) It was the treaty between the Americans and Mexicans that put an end to the Mexican-American War. The treaty gave Americans all of California and lands that are now known as New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, California, Nevada and southern Colorado (collectively known as the Mexican Cession). It also set the southern border of Texas at the Rio Grande. In return, the Mexicans received 15 million dollars and 3 million dollars that it owed America was forgiven.
Wilmot Proviso
David Wilmot, a Democratic congressman from Pennsylvania, proposed that no slaves would be permitted in all of the land won in the Mexican-American War. This caused a rift between Southerners and Northerners, with sectionalism overwhelming party loyalty. People from the South voted for slavery and people from the North voted for freedom. This debate re-opened the issue of slavery, and its future in America. People were so passionate about the topic that fist fights broke out on the floor of the House of Representatives! It passed the House twice, but failed both times in the Senate (because the South had more power in the Senate than in the House). Even though the Wilmot Proviso failed, it is important because it divided the country and led to the Civil War.
Gadsden Purchase
(1853) It was a territory in present-day southern Arizona and New Mexico purchased by the United States. The US paid $10 million for this additional 29,670 square miles from Mexico. The US purchased the land because Franklin Pierce, the president at the time, was heavily influenced by his Secretary of War, Jefferson Davis (yes, the Jefferson Davis), who wanted to build a transcontinental railroad to connect the South to the west coast. The land in southern Arizona is flatter than further north, and would have been easier to build the railroad.
Sutter’s Mill
This was a sawmill owned by John Sutter. It was the location of the first gold sighting in California, in January 1848.
“Forty-niners”
Forty-niners were miners who rushed to California with high hopes of striking it rich. Most were young and unmarried. Almost all forty-niners were unsuccessful, with only a small percent of them finding significant amounts of gold. Most gold was deep in the mountains and could not be reached by these independent miners. Many were ashamed to come home with little earnings, and ended up remaining in California. As a result, California’s population exploded. For example, in 1846, San Francisco had 200 residents. By 1852, it had 36,000!
Chinese immigrants in California
The gold rush attracted many immigrants to California, mainly Chinese and Mexicans. Often, immigrants were discriminated against by white miners. They were sometimes “jumped” and their gold was stolen, they were killed, or were chased away from their land claim.
Commodore Matthew Perry
Matthew Perry was sent across the Pacific by President Franklin Pierce, and his mission resulted in a treaty with Japan, opening them to American trade in 1853. When Perry went to Japan, he brought a four-ship squadron with him, and was ready to fight if negotiations went sour. This was an example of gunboat diplomacy.
Gunboat diplomacy
Gunboat diplomacy is the use of militaristic intimidation to get the upper hand in a trade agreement. It is the threat of warfare if certain terms of an agreement are not met by the weaker civilization. Japan, for example, was threatened to open up their closed society to American trade…or else!
Young America
The Young America Movement was a sense of national pride following the Mexican War. It was the belief that since our system of democracy was so much better than other forms of government, our nation would inevitably expand. The term is applied to the early 1850s to the Pierce Administration, before the violence broke out in Kansas in 1854.
Free Soil Party
When many Northerners realized that the Liberty Party’s views were extreme, and the South would secede from the Union before accepting them, the Free Soil Party was formed. They believed in allowing slavery to continue in the South; however, not because they viewed it as moral, it was because they wished to preserve the Union. Although they supported sustaining slavery in existing states, they wanted all states and territories coming into the Union to be free. Unfortunately, when many free-soilers said “anti-slavery,” they really meant “anti-black.” Many of them wanted no blacks at all in the new territories and states, not just slaves. They ran Martin Van Buren in the election of 1848, but lost.
Popular sovereignty
Popular sovereignty, proposed by Lewis Cass, was that the people living in a territory would vote on whether or not they wanted their state to be a free or slave state, rather than just drawing a line like the Missouri Compromise line. Remember, the Missouri Compromise line applied to the Louisiana Purchase, not to the Mexican Cession. The downfall of this system was that people from other states could move into that territory and cast their vote. Once popular sovereignty was put into place by the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, this resulted in radical abolitionists living near radically pro-slavery supporters, leading to bloodshed.
Election of 1848
The Democratic party and the Whig Party were the two main parties running for president in the election of 1848. The Democrats’ nominee was Lewis Cass, who proposed the popular sovereignty system. Two separate biographies of him were handed out by his campaign, one for the North and one for the South. The northern biography made it sound like the popular sovereignty system was the best way to keep slavery out of new states, and the southern one made it sound the opposite. Opponents quickly figured out what he was doing, and called him “Cass the Jackass” and “General Gass” (he was a general in the War of 1812). The Whig nominee was a war hero from the Mexican-American war, General Zachary Taylor. Taylor decided not to take a position on the Wilmot Proviso, allowing both northerners and southerners to vote for him without defining his position on slavery. Since Taylor had no political experience at all (he hadn’t even voted before!), no one knew his views. A third candidate ran for the Free-Soil Party, former president Martin Van Buren. He knew he could not win, but successfully split the Democrats’ votes (because he had been a Democratic president), allowing Zachary Taylor to win the presidency.
Caroline Affair
The SS Caroline was an American supply ship, giving goods to Canadian rebels, who were fighting to separate Canada from Britain. On December 29, 1837, British loyalists seized the ship and burned it before setting it adrift over Niagara Falls. One American was killed. This event caused high tension between Britain and America. American newspapers had drawings showing innocent Americans trapped in the ship plunging to violent deaths over Niagara Falls, but the truth was that the ship had been abandoned.
Creole Incident
This occurred when slaves revolted on the Creole, an American coastal slave trading ship. While on a trip to New Orleans in 1841, 19 of the slaves on board revolted and took control of the ship. They then set course for Nassau, Bahamas. When they arrived, at the request of an American consul, the British governor posted a guard on their ship, trapping the mutineers. After trial, the 19 were imprisoned (17 of whom were set free later on). However, the British government freed the rest of the slaves, ignoring the property claim by the U.S. This event caused even more tension between the British and the Americans.
Aroostook War
Sometimes called the Pork and Beans War, this was an undeclared war between Britain and the U.S. This war was over the boundary location between Maine and Canada. Beginning in 1838, this war involved no actual battles, and was resolved by the Webster-Ashburton Treaty. The only fighting was between a few lumberjacks who threw potatoes at each other.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
Signed in 1842, the Webster-Ashburton Treaty resolved the Aroostook War, establishing the official border between Maine and New Brunswick. The treaty also revised the borders between Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods, previously defined by the Treaty of Paris in 1783. The British apologized for the Caroline Affair, and promised not to interfere with American slavery. The treaty was a huge milestone in Anglo-American relations, and shows how the US had become much more respected by the British.
The Civil Rights Act of 1875
banished racial discrimination in theaters, hotels, railroads and other public places. It was the last act passed by Congress to try to help the freed slaves. The next civil rights act didn’t pass until 1957. This one wasn’t very effective because it required that African Americans take their cases to court, which was a lengthy and expensive process that few people could afford. The Supreme Court in the 1883 Civil Rights cases struck down the act.
Redemption
The Democrats were brought back into power during the 1870s all over the South. As states returned to Democratic rule, including control by former Confederate officials, African Americans faced more harsh obstacles and lost any chance of having equal rights with whites.
Slaughterhouse Cases of 1873
Involved a Louisiana charter that gave a New Orleans meat-packing company a monopoly over the city’s butchering business on the grounds of protecting Public Health. Rival group of butchers sued, claiming that the law violated the Fourteenth Amendment. The Court held that the Fourteenth Amendment protected slaves, not butchers, and only protected national rights and not the ones of separate sovereign states. The ruling denied the original intent of the 14th amendment to apply national rights to the states, so it was only a matter of time after this until the states denied rights to African-Americans.
US v. Reese & US v. Cruikshank
(1876). The court cases restricted federal power to enforce the KKK Act of 1871. It left prosecution up to the states. According to the Supreme Court, the 14th Amendment only applied to discrimination by states, not to discrimination by individuals or groups. Also, the 15th Amendment did not guarantee the citizens the right to vote, it only prohibited denial based on color, race, or previous condition of servitude.
1883 Civil Rights Cases
These declared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional. The majority of the Justices felt that it was time for blacks to fend for themselves. The Supreme Court decisions stopped federal attempts at protecting the rights of African Americans until the 1950s.
Crop Lien System
This system developed because there was a chronic shortage of money. It allowed farmers to receive food, supplies, seeds and more on loan (credit) and pay it back after their crop was harvested and sold. This meant that there was a lien against the crop. The credit that was received was based on the value of the crop. Problems with the system were there could be mistakes in valuing the crop, a bad crop year which meant being in debt longer and merchants often could control the prices of the supplies and the debt. As a result, many Southern farmers were constantly in debt and in danger of foreclosure.
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
Began on July 17, 1877 in Martinsburg, West Virginia. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad workers went on strike because the company had lowered the workers’ wages twice in one year. The strikers refused to let the trains run until the most recent pay cut was returned. When the governor of WV sent in the militia, they disobeyed orders and joined the strikers. The gov. requested help from the president-Hayes. The army fired upon the workers all through the country, killing hundreds of workers. The strikers retaliated by burning and destroying railroad property. All across the country, Hayes sent soldiers to break up railroad strikes. All of the monopoly railroads were involved in this strike. The president was successful in stopping this. The attitude of railroad owners was really what caused the strike to be so bad. The strike led to the creation of labor unions and caused even more xenophobia (fear of foreigners) because the railroads brought in cheap immigrant labor to replace striking workers.
Pacific Railway Act of 1862
Its purpose was to create a transcontinental railroad to connect California to the East. The Union Pacific railroad and the Central Pacific railroad were granted huge government loans and free public land. The government granted loans based on a $ amount per mile that it would cost to build the railroad. $16,000 per mile was granted across the plains. The act said that building the railroad between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra-Nevada Mountains, double will be provided ($32,000). In the mountains they get triple per mile ($48,000). Chinese and Irish built the nations’ railroads with their cheap labor. Railroads were awarded 10 miles of free public land on each side of the railroad. This amounted to the size of Texas….10% of nation’s land. Then, they turned around and sold those lands for huge profits.
Promontory Point
Utah. This was the point where both railroads (Union Pacific and Central Pacific) came to the same point. The president of the railroad company, Leland Stanford, went to the point and drove in the golden spike to complete the transcontinental railroad. He swung and missed the first time!
Pools
These were devices used by companies to set rates, divide the market, and maximize profits. Companies would all get together to have a meeting, and decide what they would charge for each thing, such as gas for example, to keep it the same and stop any competition between themselves. This way, they could maximize profits.
Credit Mobilier Scandal
A Grant Administration scandal. Union Pacific stockholders created a dummy company designed to hold money from the Union Pacific Railroad. They bribed Republican lawmakers with company shares to keep it quiet. In return for the shares, the Congressmen looked the other way and supported the railroads. The Vice President for Grant, Schuyler Colfax, was caught and was forced to resign. Many people suspected that Grant must have either been involved or known about it.
National Mineral Act of 1866
Gave millions of acres of free land to mining companies. This led to a huge expansion of oil refining, iron and coal. This led to greater expansion in industries depending upon oil, iron, and coal. It also led to environmental devastation, which would finally begin to be addressed at the end of the century.
Standard Oil Company
It was the nation’s biggest oil refining company in late 19th century. It controlled 90% of the nation’s refining capacity. Its owner was J.D. Rockefeller.
William Marcy Tweed
He was called Boss Tweed. He was the boss of the Democratic Party in New York City. His organization was called Tammany Hall. He was a really corrupt politician who stole millions of taxpayers’ dollars from NYC. He got wealthy from kickbacks (he’d award a city contract to a company, and the company would then kick some of the money from the contract back to him). He was taken down by a prosecutor named Samuel Tilden, who became the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1876 because of the fame he gained.
Liberal Republicans
Part of the Republican Party, but had different ideas. They decided that the Republican Party been trying to help the freedmen, but that it was time to cut them off. The Radical Republicans opposed them, but the Liberals won control of the Republican Party by the mid-1870s. They felt that government jobs should be awarded based on ability, not on who you know. They passed the Pendleton Act, which would give job seekers the Civil Service examination, and is still given today. They felt that our government should be ruled by ‘the best men’, wealthy smart people. They distrusted the regular people. Their economic policy was known as Laissez-Faire, which means the government should keep its hands off business. In other words, business should be able to do whatever it wants, with no government regulations to control it.
Horace Greeley
He ran for the Republican nomination for President in 1872. He was a Liberal Republican. “Root, hog, or die,” was his advice to the blacks in the South. Grant also ran (for reelection) for the Republicans. After Grant won the Republican Party nomination, the Democrats nominated him as their candidate. This shows how weak the Democrats were at this point. He lost in the election.
Depression of 1873
Lasted for 65 months. Characterized by job-less men wandering from community to community trying to find work- the strolling poor/tramps. The Panic of 1873 caused 25% unemployment in many cities. NYC, as usual, had riots during the Panic.
E.L. Godkin
The editor of the Nation magazine; it was very conservative, but now it’s very liberal. He argued that poor people deserve to be poor, and rich people deserve to be rich. He also said that we shouldn’t give anyone charity because charity makes people lazy, and they should rely on themselves. In the Christmas issue of the Nation, he wrote “free soup must be prohibited, and all classes must learn that soup of any kind, beef or turtle, can only be had by being paid for.” The Christmas issue! What a(n) (expletive).
Whiskey Ring
It was a conspiracy between whiskey distillers and United States revenue agents, whose job it was to collect the whiskey tax. Instead of fighting each other, they decided to work together and help each other out to steal the government’s revenues. Scandal during the Grant administration, Grant’s personal secretary, Babcock, got caught in the scandal, and was forced to resign from office. Grant stepped in and got him cleared of all crimes. It made the party seem corrupt, weakening them during the campaigns of 1876.
Belknap Scandal
Another Grant Scandal!!! Involving this dude, the Secretary of War. In 1876, he was impeached, and he resigned before he could be convicted. He was impeached because he accepted bribes for the sale of trading posts in Indian Territory.
Samuel J. Tilden
Democrats hammered away at Grant’s low standard of honesty in government. They nominated this NY Governor for president. In 1871, he had helped expose and prosecute the “Tweed Ring” in New York City. As governor, he had toppled the “Canal Ring,” a graft-ridden scheme involving inflated contracts for repairs on the Erie Canal. He ran in the 1876 election against Rutherford B. Hayes for the Republicans and Peter Cooper for the Greenbacks.
1876 Election
Tilden, Democrat, vs. Hayes, Republican. In the election, Tilden got the most popular votes and 184 electoral votes. Hayes had 165 electoral votes. However, 20 disputed electoral votes were still out there to be decided from Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina, and Oregon. The dispute came when both sets of electors – Democrats and Republicans – tried to submit their votes.
Electoral Commission of 1876
President Grant appointed a commission to resolve the 1876 election. The commission was made up of 5 US Senators, 5 US representatives, and 5 US Supreme Court justices. Out of those 15, there are 8 Republicans and 7 Democrats. They brought up each contested vote. On every vote, the 8 Republicans voted for Hayes and the 7 Democrats voted for Tilden. For all 20 of the votes up in the air, it was an 8-7 vote all in favor of Hayes. Democrats were enraged, and they refused to accept those results.
Compromise of 1877
To resolve the crisis, the Republicans and Democrats compromised. The Republicans were given the presidency- Hayes “wins.” In return, the Democrats get- Hayes had to agree to appoint at least some Democrats to his cabinet, and military reconstruction in the South ended-all US soldiers were withdrawn. This compromise is very important because it ended Reconstruction in the South, and blacks lost their rights for another 80+ years.
The American Equal Rights Association
Founded in 1866 by Elizabeth Stanton, Susan Anthony, Frederick Douglass, and Lucy Stone. The 15th Amendment split the AERA. They thought that if the word “male” was included in the 15th Amendment, then it would take at least a century to get it out. The group had a series of campaigns to remove the racial and sexual restrictions on voting in the state constitutions. Opposed 15th Amendment saying it would enfranchise all men but leave women without political privileges.
Stanton and Anthony v. Stone and Douglass
Long-time abolitionist allies had contradicting ideas about the amendments, causing them to split. Lucy Stone was one of the leaders of the moderate American Women’s Suffrage Association (AWSA). It focused on achieving women’s suffrage at the state level. Maintained close ties with the Republican Party and the old abolitionist networks. It worked for the 15th Amendment, and actively sought the support of men. Anthony and Stanton founded the National Women’s Suffrage Association, NWSA, which opposed the 15th Amendment. They had a broader spectrum of goals for women’s rights. Anthony voted illegally in 1872 and was arrested to protest blacks being able to vote, but not women.
Revolution
The weekly magazine for the NWSA. It became a forum for feminist ideas on divorce laws, unequal pay, women’s property rights, and marriage.
Putting on airs
Refers to celebrations put on by free African-Americans after the emancipation and the Civil War. It was a term used by whites to criticize black celebratory behavior.
African-American churches
In SC in 1877, only a few hundred black Methodists went to biracial churches, compared to 40,000 in 1865. They hosted schools, picnics, festivals, and political meetings. They also helped form associations for mutual aid, such as temperance clubs, Masonic lodges, burial societies, and trade associations. Ministers were respected in almost every community for speaking skills, organization skills, and leadership. The first black churches were in rr cars and outdoor arbors. Before emancipation, blacks had to sit in the back row of churches, and were second-class members. They were not allowed to hold governing positions in the church. Before Emancipation, in their messages, white ministers justified slavery with the Bible. So, after emancipation, lots of blacks left the biracial churches. The five most popular black churches: Methodists, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Baptists, and Congregationalists.
Evictions of blacks
Even after the slaves were set free, they were not allowed to hold jobs as artisans, mechanics, shopkeepers, or any other trade or business besides husbandry or contracted services. Johnson ordered General Howard of the Freedmen’s Bureau to evict tens of thousands of freed people settled on confiscated and abandoned land. The land was in SE Virginia, southern LA, and the Low Country of GA and SC. These evictions created a deep sense of betrayal among blacks.
Money wage and share wage
Under both these systems, planters contracted former slaves to work in large gangs. They would get paid in cash (m wage) or with a share of the crop that the workers divided among themselves (s wage). The people didn’t like this. They wanted an alternative. They wanted to establish independent homesteads.
Sharecropping
People did this when they lost their land or didn’t own their own land. They would farm land that belonged to someone else, usually a rich family who owned the land. The sharecropping family would plow, plant, weed, and harvest. They could only keep a share of what they farmed. The rich family would take the rest (most of it).
Blacks in politics
In 1865 and 1866, blacks organized scores of mass meetings, parades, and petitions that demanded civil equality and the right to vote. Black political groups closely followed the professional debates over Reconstruction policy and argued for land confiscated and for distribution. Politics was the only area where black and white Southerners were on an equal basis. The first black Senators were Hiram Revels and Blanche Bruce.
Carpetbaggers
a term of derision applied to Northerners who went South during Reconstruction, motivated by either profit or idealism (to help the freed slaves). The name referred to the cloth bags many of them used for transporting their possessions. Despite the negative connotation of the name, many carpetbaggers were sincerely interested in aiding the freedom and education of the former slaves.
Scalawags
In the eyes of most Southerners, they were an unprincipled group of traitorous opportunists who had deserted their countrymen and ingratiated themselves with the hated Radical Republicans for their own material gain. In other words, they were people from the South who helped put the Radical Republican policies into place. Many scalawags were sincere in their belief that conformance with the dictated measures of the Reconstruction Acts was the best and fastest way to end Reconstruction and return the South to home rule. However, other scalawags, whose ranks included planters and businessmen as well as poor whites, joined the most unscrupulous of the Northern carpetbaggers in pillaging state treasuries and being the political pawns of the Radical Republicans in Congress. Scalawags who persisted in aiding the Northern Republicans after the passage of the First Reconstruction Act, which instituted military rule in the Southern states to enforce black suffrage and political equality, were especially detested and would sometimes become the target of vigilantism by groups such as the Ku Klux Klan.
Southern Republicans- goals and divisions
The southern Republican goals were to rebuild the South. They want to reconstruct “The New South” to build factories, make internal improvements, build public schools, provide debt relief to the poor, and construct railroads. These efforts mostly failed, with the exception of the railroads. They wanted to modernize the south and make it like the north. They broke it up into three major groups that had their own goals to make themselves stronger- African Americans, Carpetbaggers, and Scalawags. Really broke down into two major groups- the confiscation radicals (who wanted to take land away from rich and give it to freed men and white unionists), VS. the moderate republicans (wanted to focus more on economical development in the south).
Segregation
was the norm in the south despite Republican efforts to pass laws for the better of blacks in the south. Public and private facilities were divided between places allowed for whites and places allowed for “coloreds.” Southern Republicans didn’t mind the idea of segregated schools, because simply having schools was an achievement. Railroad cars, steamboats, theaters, and other public services were all segregated despite blacks efforts. Republicans feared such laws prohibiting segregation would lose support from their white supporters. As Black influence grew, laws guaranteeing equal access to transportations and public accommodations were passed in many states. However, some civil rights laws were difficult to enforce in local communities.
“Gospel of Prosperity”
This was a plan made by the Republicans, to improve the southern fortunes. They wanted the south like the north, with industries and large cities or towns and agriculture. Between 1868-1873, Republican-controlled Southern congresses passed hundreds of bills that were in favor railroads, for example.
Railroad Failure
From 1868 to 1873, the railroad system was rebuilt and 3,000 or more miles of track were added. There was a 40% increase in railroads. It seemed impossible to get the amount that was needed. This took money from education and other things. The Republican governments became in debt and many of the railroads failed because they built too many railroads. The gospel of prosperity plan failed and did not help out the South at all. The overextension of credit to railroad speculators helped cause the Panic of 1873, and it resulted in bank failures. This led to the loss of confidence in the Republican Party in the South. As a result, the Democratic Party “redeemed” (regained control of) the South by 1877.
Meridian (1871)
The March 1871, 3 African Americans were arrested in Meridian, Mississippi, for giving “incendiary” speeches. At their court hearing, the KKK killed 2 of the defendants and the Republican Judge, and 30 more African Americans were killed in the day of the rioting. It is an example of racial violence during the Reconstruction period.
Colfax (1873)
The bloodiest part of the Reconstruction where violence took place in Colfax, Louisiana, on an Easter Sunday 1873. Close to 100 African Americans were killed after they failed to hold a besieged courthouse during a contested election.
Enforcement Acts of 1870-1871
In 1870-1871, the Radical Republican-controlled Congress passed three Enforcement Acts designed to help fight racial terrorism. It provided federal supervision of voting and allowed the president to send the army and suspend writ of habeas corpus in areas declared to be in a state of revolt. These acts were very successful, and KKK activity was diminished.
Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871
This act made the breaking and violating of civil and political rights a federal crime that could be punishable by the national government. This was one of the three Enforcement Acts set up by Congress to try to make up for, and counter the racism, and terrorism against African Americans. Any actions that interfered with voting was now a federal offense, and the act called for supervision of voting by federal officials. The KKK Act was used as a reason to send in troops into 9 counties in SC, and it was very effective in breaking the KKK power.
Amos T. Akerman
he prosecuted hundreds of Klansmen from North Carolina and Mississippi. He was the Attorney General for Grant.
13th Amendment
Freed the slaves. Made by Radical Republicans, and was passed by Congress in 1865.
Andrew Johnson’s background and views
He was a Democrat and previously a slaveholder from TN. He had served as a state legislator, governor, and US Senator. Was only Southern member of US Senate to remain loyal to the Union. 1862 – Lincoln appointed him to become the military governor of TN. He began wartime reconstruction there. In 1864, the Republicans, in an appeal to the Northern and border state War Democrats, nominated him for VP, but many Radical Republicans distrusted him. After Lincoln’s death, he appeared to side with the Radical Republicans, who wanted to treat the South as a “conquered province.” The support for him quickly faded as his policies unfolded.
Johnson’s Reconstruction Plan
Johnson wanted to restore the union as quickly as possible. He blamed individual southerners for leading the South into secession. In 1865, Johnson restored property to all Confederates who pledged loyalty to the Union. Johnson appointed provisional governors for 7 of the former Confederate states.
Restoration vs. Reconstruction
*Restoration* was the idea that we should put the union back together and treat the South nicely, and kind of pretend that the Civil War had never happened, but without slaves. *Reconstruction* was supported by the Radical Republicans. It was to rebuild the South like the North and punish the South. Make them just like the North with industries and schools and businesses.
Radical Republican vision
Their careers had been shaped by the slavery controversy. They believed in equal political rights and equal economic opportunity. Argued for universal education, free labor, and equal rights in the South – that region would be able to share in the North’s material wealth, progress, and social mobility. In a radical’s view, the power of the federal government would be central to the remaking of Southern society, especially in guaranteeing civil rights for freedmen.
Thaddeus Stevens
He was a representative for the Radical Republicans from PA. He wanted to take 400 million acres of land from the wealthiest 10% of Southerners. He would give that land to blacks, white yeomen farmers, and northern land buyers. The whole fabric Southern society should be changed. He was Radical Republican leader.
Black Codes
Passed by Southern state governments to keep blacks as close to slave status as possible. Meant to restrict the freedom of the black labor force. If a black left his job early, he would have to give up previous wages, and then could be arrested by any white citizen. Some clauses said that children would work without pay, some states tried to ban blacks from land ownership, exclude them from juries, and ban interracial marriage.
Civil Rights Bill of 1866
It gave African-Americans full citizenship, overturned the Dred Scott decision, and overturned the Black Codes. It said that everyone born in the US except Indians were national citizens. Included the rights to make and enforce contracts, to sue, to give evidence, and to buy and sell property. Under this bill, blacks got the same rights as whites. Passed by the US Congress.
Expansion of the Freedmen’s Bureau
The FB Act of 1865 specifically required that abandoned land be leased for three years in 40-acre lots with an option to buy. Frequent reference in the Congress and press was the question of land distribution. It made the idea of 40 acres and a mule not just a pipe dream, but a matter of public debate.
Johnson’s Vetoes
He vetoed 2 bills that were designed to help African-Americans. The 1st was the landmark civil rights bill, which bestowed upon blacks full citizenship. The 2nd was the Freedmen’s Bureau. He criticized the idea that the government could protect the rights of Af-Am. He said that it was a strive towards centralization and the concentration of all legislative powers in the national government. He also argued that Congress lacked jurisdiction over the 11 unrepresented states. Johnson went too far attacking the Radicals and said that they were traitors unwilling to restore the Union. United Moderate and Radical Republicans succeeded in overriding his vetoes. Congressional Republicans, led by the Radicals, were now unified in challenging the President’s power to direct Reconstruction and in using national authority to define and protect the rights of citizens. He felt that it was his job to run Reconstruction.
14th Amendment
It gave national citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the US. It reduced state representation in Congress proportionally for any state disfranchising male citizens. They denied Confederates the right to hold state or national office. It also repudiated Confederate debt. It provided for due process of law for all citizens and provided equal protection of the law for all citizens. Republicans adopted the 14th Amendment as their platform in 1866.
Waving the bloody shirt
During the elections after the Civil War, the Republicans reminded everyone that Johnson and the Democrats were disloyal and were the ones who started the Civil War, which gave the Republicans the advantage of receiving the most votes in the elections. It reminded Northern voters of the hundreds of thousands of Yankee soldiers killed and hurt in the Civil War. In the 1866 elections, Republicans increased their majority in both houses of Congress and gained control of northern states.
First Reconstruction Act
(1867) It was passed over Johnson’s veto. Divided the South into 5 military districts subject to martial law. In order to restore the South, Congress required new constitutional conventions. These were elected by universal manhood suffrage. Once these states had new constitutions, it gave slaves voting rights and ratified the 14th Amendment and made it eligible to rejoin the Union. Supplementary legislation, also passed over the Presidential veto, invalidated the provisional governments, empowered the military to administer voter registration, and required the oath of loyalty to the US.
Tenure of Office Act
This act was also passed over Johnson’s veto. It stipulated that any office holder appointed by the President with the Senate’s advice and consent could not be removed until the Senate had approved his successor. This way, Congressional leaders could protect Republicans like the Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton. In August of 1867, Johnson suspended Stanton and appointed Grant to the Secretary of War. By firing Stanton without the approval of the Senate, Johnson violated this.
Impeachment
On February 24, 1868, Radical and Moderate Republicans in the House of Representatives joined forces and voted to impeach Johnson by a vote of 126-47. They charged him with 11 counts of high crimes and misdemeanors. They focused upon the violation of the Tenure of Office Act. In the Senate trial, Johnson agreed to abide by the Reconstruction Acts. In May, the Senate voted 35 votes for conviction to 19 votes for acquittal. Just missed the 2/3 needed to remove him. 1 more vote and he would have been booted from the Presidency. This set the precedent that only criminal acts, not political disagreements, warranted removal from office.
US Grant
In 1868, when the Senate overruled Stanton’s suspension, Grant broke openly with Johnson and vacated the office. In the election of 1868, Grant ran as a Republican for President. He was born in Ohio and went to school at West Point. He dedicated most of his life to the Army as a general. He totally lacked political experience. He didn’t want fighting politicians to become President because he thought it would mess things up. But, then he was elected President. He won 24 of the 36 states, for an electoral victory of 214-80. He won the popular vote by only 306,000 votes more than Horatio Seymour. More than 500,000 African-American voters cast their ballots for Grant. This demonstrated their overwhelming support for the Republican Party.
Democratic Party Views in the Election of 1868
In the election of 1868, the Democrats wanted to reverse Congressional Reconstruction. Horatio Seymour was their candidate. He was the former governor of NY. He didn’t support emancipation, and he supported states’ rights. The Northern and Southern Democrats, to get votes, made their issue “the abolition of the Freedmen’s Bureau; and all political instrumentalities, designed to secure Negro supremacy.”
Ku Klux Klan
A social club in TN. It was a secret organization that terrorized blacks and white Republicans. The KKK was founded in 1866, and they wore white sheets and went around murdering blacks, using guns and whips and making nighttime raids on horseback in Arkansas, GA, and SC. They murdered them so they couldn’t vote. The KKK was used by planters to make former slaves not want to leave the plantations or to organize for higher wages. The terror enabled the Democrats to carry Georgia and Louisiana, but cost the Democrats votes in the North.
Fifteenth Amendment
Passed in Feb. 1869. It said, “the right of citizens of the US to vote shall not be denied or abridged on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” Congress had power to enforce this article on legislatures that didn’t agree with it. Republicans wanted to make sure that the Amendment was ratified, so they required MS, TX, and VA to ratify the 15th amendment before they were readmitted into the US.
Morrill Act of 1862
it is also known as the Morrill Land Grant College Act. The act provided for states to receive 30,000 acres of federal land to support the development of agricultural and mechanical schools. MIT, Cornell, and Texas A&M are all examples of colleges founded because of this act.
Conscription Act of 1863
the year after the Confederacy instituted the draft, the Union did the same. All men between 20 and 45 had to sign up for the draft. Rich people could get out of the draft by hiring substitutes to fight in their place or buy outright exemption for $300. The draft was very unpopular, especially in NYC, where riots broke out. The draft office was burned, railroad ties ripped out of the ground, and telegraph lines destroyed. Mobs attacked anyone who appeared rich, calling them “$300 men.” Over 100 people died before the riots were finally put down by 5 regiments of the Union Army!
Copperheads
the Democratic Party in the North split into two groups – the War Democrats and the Peace Democrats. Peace Democrats opposed the war and the most radical of them, who actively worked against Lincoln, were nicknamed this.
Anaconda Plan
It was the 3-part Union plan to defeat the Confederacy. 1. Naval blockade to stop the South from getting supplies. At first, this was only a “paper blockade” – it couldn’t be enforced. Eventually, though, the Union was fairly successful in keeping the South from receiving vital supplies. 2. Take the Mississippi River to split the Confederacy. Led by General Ulysses S. Grant, Union armies took control of the Mississippi by July 1863, decisively defeating the Confederates at Vicksburg. 3. Take Richmond. This seemed to be the simplest objective, but the Union failed to take it in the Peninsular campaign in 1862. It was finally captured in April 1865, at the end of the war.
Merrimack v. Monitor
This (1st ship), an old wooden Union ship, was fitted with metal armor by the Confederacy and renamed Virginia. In 1862, the Union built its own metal-plated ship, this (2nd ship). The two ships fought to a standstill, and the Confederacy failed to break the Union blockade. It was the first battle between ironclad warships.
George McClellan
Union commander of the Army of the Potomac who failed to take Richmond during the Peninsular campaign. He was known as “Tardy George” because of his extreme caution. He is also known for the Battle of Antietam, where he is criticized by historians for once again failing to take initiative and crush the rebels.
Antietam
In Sept. 1862, General McClellan and General Robert E. Lee faced off in Union territory for the first time (only two major battles were fought during the war in the North). The battle took place near Sharpsburg, Maryland (the South calls it the Battle of Sharpsburg). It was the bloodiest single day of fighting in US history. Over 5,000 men died and more than 19,000 were wounded. Since McClellan succeeded in pushing Lee back into Virginia, the Union declared victory. Lincoln had been waiting for a victory so he could announce the Emancipation Proclamation. By the way, the major reason that McClellan wasn’t crushed here was because two Union soldiers found Lee’s orders wrapped around a packet of cigars dropped by a Confederate officer!
Emancipation Proclamation
announced to the world on Jan. 1, 1863, it freed the slaves in the part of the Confederacy that the US did not control at that point of the war, and it freed none of the slaves in the Border States. Of course, it did lead to freeing all of the slaves eventually. It is still very important, as it provided a moral reason to fight. “I’m fighting to free the slaves” is a lot better reason to fight than, “I’m fighting for the preservation of the Union!” It also guaranteed that Britain and France, who were thinking of fighting on the side of the Confederacy, would stay out of the fighting, since their people opposed slavery.
Gettysburg
the second, and last, battle to take place in the North. It occurred in a place of the same name in Pennsylvania in July 1863 over three days. This battle is called the “High Tide of the Confederacy” because a victory here would have potentially resulted in Lee’s capture of Washington D.C. Instead, the South made a huge mistake by attempting a full-frontal assault across a wide-open field on a fortified ridge. This assault is known as Pickett’s Charge, and ended in slaughter.
CSS Alabama
built by Britain for the Confederate States of America, the Alabama destroyed 65 Union vessels and captured millions of dollars of supplies. After the war, the US pursued the “Alabama Claims” against Britain and won heavy damages of over $15 million.
Sherman’s March
After U.S. Grant captured Vicksburg, MS, he turned inland and defeated the Confederates in Tennessee. After Grant took Chattanooga, General William Tecumseh Sherman marched to Atlanta and captured it in Sept. 1864, just in time to guarantee Lincoln’s victory over McClellan in the Election of 1864. Sherman then conducted his famous March to the Sea, the destruction of a 60-mile wide swath of land all the way from Atlanta to Savannah. He then moved north towards North Carolina, while Grant surrounded Lee. Sherman’s March broke the will of the South to continue fighting. It was an early example of “total war,” a tactic of demoralizing civilians so they wouldn’t continue to support the war.
Appomattox Courthouse
Lee surrendered to Grant at this site in Virginia on April 9, 1865 (almost exactly 4 years after Fort Sumter). It marked the end of the Civil War. 620,000 Americans had died, more than all of our other wars combined.
John Wilkes Booth
He assassinated Lincoln, while Lincoln attended a performance at Ford’s Theater in Washington D.C. This happened just 5 days after Lee’s surrender. Fun fact: Lincoln had a nightmare on April 11 that he was going to be assassinated!
Material Effects on the South of defeat
Cotton was destroyed by fleeing rebels to keep the North from taking it at the end of the war. It took the South about a generation to recover. Wealth from slavery disappeared. They didn’t accept the blacks into their society, which made them recover more slowly. The war itself destroyed the South’s fertile land and its cities.
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
Lincoln offered full pardon and full restoration of property excluding slaves to all those who would pledge their allegiance to the US and to promise to free the slaves. Not valid to leaders of the Confederate Army. Had to abide by all federal laws, including the Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln also proposed a plan to reinstall state government once 10% of the state’s population swore allegiance to the US. In the North, the Radical Republicans opposed the plan because they saw the reconstruction of the South as an opportunity to change the South and make them good Republicans like the North.
10% Plan
A way to bring the seceded states back into the Union. Lincoln proposed a plan when the number of Confederate state voters who had taken the oath of allegiance reached this percentage of the number who voted in the election of 1860, they could then make a state government. It was designed to make the war shorter and gain white support, not to reconstruct the South. The Radicals were angry about this, so when Arkansas and LA applied to make a state government and re-enter the Union, Congress would not let them.
Radical Republicans
Sometimes men whose jobs were shaped by slavery. They believed that men had equal political rights and economic opportunities. Once free labor, universal protection, and equal rights are brought into the South, financially and economically the South would be better off because of more industries. Northerners who wanted to totally change the South to make it like the North. Leaders were Benjamin F. Wade of Ohio and Henry W. Davis of Maryland. They saw reconstruction as a chance to change Southern society.
Wade-Davis Bill
Happened in July 1864. War still going on. Senator Benjamin F. ____ of Ohio and Congressman Henry _____ of Maryland proposed a tougher bill in response to the 10% Plan. Provisional military governors were to be set in seceded southern states. Required 50% of the seceding state’s white males to take a loyalty oath before elections could be held for a state convention to rewrite the state constitution. The states had to say they were sorry about seceding, and it disqualified Confederate officials from voting or holding public office. Also, this bill guaranteed equality for the former slaves, which was a huge hit to the South. Lincoln wanted to win support in the South, and this bill threatened his beliefs, so he refused to sign the bill. Radicals saw this opportunity as a chance to reconstruct the South.
Special Field Order 15
Military order issued by General Sherman in January 1865. It set aside the Sea Islands off the coast of Georgia and some of the low country rice region in S.C. for the freed people. Each family would get 40 acres and a loan of a mule from the Army. “40 acres and a mule.” It gave blacks hope for a life. Sherman wanted to relieve the demands on his army by the blacks following his army. By the summer of 1865, 40,000 freed people settled on “Sherman’s land” on 400,000 acres of land (from Atlanta to Florida). Unfortunately, this order was revoked in the fall of 1865 by Johnson.
Freedmen’s Bureau
Congress created the FB (not Facebook) in March 1865. Congress voted the Bureau the power to *create schools and pay teachers*. Established *courts to prosecute those charged with depriving African-Americans of their rights*. The Bureau also helped *build the foundation for Southern public education*. The Bureau’s courts *allowed freed people to bring suits against white people in disputes involving violence, non-payment of wages, or unfair division of crops*. The FB, Johnson said, that Congress lacked jurisdiction over 11 unrepresented Southern states. *FB helped provide food, clothing, and fuel for former slaves*. It was charged with *supervising and managing all of the abandoned lands in the South* and *controlled all the subjects relating to refugees and freedmen*.
Buchanan’s weakness
He did not feel that it was legal for the South to break away from the Union, but he could not find anywhere in the Constitution where it gave him the power to do anything to stop it. He refused to use force because the US Army only had about 15,000 soldiers and they were needed to control the Indians in the West. He also sympathized with the view held by many to just let the South go in peace. And, he was surrounded by Southerners in his Cabinet, and they had a great deal of influence on him to not use force.
Crittenden Compromise
This was the last-ditch attempt to prevent a civil war. Senator Crittenden of Kentucky proposed making several amendments to the Constitution in order to make peace between North and South. The compromise would have prohibited slavery north of 36/30 (except Missouri), but give federal protection to slavery in the South. Future states above or below the line would use popular sovereignty to decide whether they wanted to be slave or not. Lincoln rejected the compromise, as he opposed extension of slavery into the territories.
Secession (Why did the South break away from the Union?)
The South felt that the political balance was going against them; the territories remaining did not appear to be likely to become slave states, and the North had opposed efforts to acquire territories like Mexico and Cuba that would have become slave. Also, the South felt threatened by Lincoln and the sectional Republican Party. They feared that the Republicans would take away Southern rights, including the right to own slaves. They also did not like the “interference” of the abolitionists in their affairs – as Jefferson Davis said, they just wanted to be left alone. The South also believed that the Declaration of Independence supported their side, as it said that a government that does not represent the people does not deserve the loyalty of the people. Finally, the South felt that the North would not fight and that they were too dependent on Southern cotton to want to disrupt their economy.
Fort Sumter
Off the coast of Charleston, South Carolina, this was a US military installation. South Carolina had demanded that it be turned over to the Confederacy, even before SC had seceded. The supplies of the fort were running low by March 1861, so Lincoln had to make a decision on whether or not to abandon the fort. Having more guts than Buchanan would have, Lincoln decided not to abandon it. Lincoln notified SC’s governor that he would send food and supplies to the fort, but he would not reinforce it. To the South, resupplying the fort was the same as reinforcing it! So, on April 12, 1861, as the US Navy sailed to resupply it, the fort came under southern attack. It was bombarded for 34 straight hours by Confederate artillery. Not one Union soldier died during the battle! Still, the fort was surrendered to the southern traitors. “Remember ____ ______” became a battle cry in the North. 4 more southern states seceded following Fort Sumter, including Virginia. Interestingly, Mary Boykin Chesnut’s diary tells us today that the Confederate traitors drank toasts to the start of hostilities. They wouldn’t be so happy for long, as the Union kicked their traitor butts!
First Battle of Bull Run
July 1861. Also called the First Battle of Manassas, especially in the South. It was the first major land battle of the Civil War. Led by the first in a series of awful Union generals, Irvin McDowell, the Union Army marched to capture the Confederate capitol of Richmond. At first, the Union Army overwhelmed the inexperienced Confederate Army, but the arrival of reinforcements changed the tide of battle. After Colonel Thomas Jackson and a regiment of Virginians stood their ground like a stone wall, the Confederates launched a counter-attack and forced the Union to flee for Washington D.C. Luckily, the Confederates did not chase the Union soldiers into D.C. or the war might have ended right then with a Confederate victory. The battle showed both sides that this war was going to longer and bloodier than anyone had anticipated.
Robert E. Lee
“Great” Confederate general. He was a graduate of West Point (#2 in his class!) and was offered command of the Union army by Lincoln. He decided to fight for the Confederacy instead, after his home state of Virginia seceded (following Fort Sumter). Southerners still worship him today, despite the fact that his armies lost the Civil War!
Salmon P. Chase
Secretary of the Treasury under Lincoln. He was a radical abolitionist, who thought that Lincoln was not active enough when it came to freeing the slaves. He later was a leader of the “Radical Republicans,” a group that wanted to punish the South for seceding (after the war was over). During Lincoln’s presidency, he and others vocally challenged Lincoln, which shows that Lincoln was man enough to have people in his Cabinet that didn’t say, “yes sir!” to everything he wanted. He valued differing opinions, which may be one of the reasons why he is considered America’s greatest president.
Edwin Stanton
Secretary of War. He effectively supplied the Union Army, giving it a huge advantage over the poorly supplied Confederates.
Jay Cooke
a financier from Philadelphia, he worked with Salmon Chase to finance the war. He helped the Treasury use patriotic appeals to sell war bonds to the people.
Legal Tender Act of 1862
Secretary Chase authorized the printing of paper money through this act. It replaced state bank notes. The new money was green and was called “greenbacks.”
National Bank Act of 1863
In 1863, Congress (without Southern opposition because they had left the Union) passed this to prohibit states from issuing their own bank notes. It forced state banks to issue the new national currency put into place by the Legal Tender Act of 1862.
Morrill Tariff Act
Now that the South wasn’t part of the Union, Republicans lived up to their campaign promises by nearly doubling tariff rates.
Union Pacific and Central Pacific Railroads
these, established during the Civil War, completed the first transcontinental railroad in 1869. The UP laid track west from Omaha and the CP laid track east from California. The tracks met at Promontory Point, Utah.
Homestead Act (1862)
This act gave 160 acres to anyone who had never taken up arms against the US, including free blacks, who planned to live on the land for five years and improve the land by building a home on it. They also had to agree to cultivate the land. Once they had done these things, they received title to the land. The new Republican Party after 1854 demanded that the new lands opening up in the west be available to independent farmers and not be bought out by rich slave owners who would buy up the best land and work it with slaves, forcing the white farmers onto marginal lands. The South, who didn’t want European immigrants and poor whites to settle in the West, had consistently defeated homestead laws in the 1850s. Once the South seceded, the law passed.
Popular Sovereignty
The belief that the residents of a territory should be able to choose to allow or disallow slavery when they applied for statehood. People liked the idea because it fell in line with the American idea of self-determination and democracy. It held the potential to cause problems, however, because people above the Missouri Compromise line might choose slavery, and people south of the line might forbid it. The idea’s best-known proponents were Lewis Cass and Stephen A. Douglas.
Zachary Taylor
He was the Whig nominee for President in 1848, and won the election despite never having held political office and not even ever having voted! He was known as the “Hero of Buena Vista” for his heroics during the Mexican War. He was also known as “Old Rough and Ready.” He was a slave owner, but refused to take a position on the issue in the election. He served as President for two years, dying in 1850 of some kind of intestinal problem.
Free-Soil Party
A third party in 1848 that ran on the issue of slavery. Their slogan was “___ ___, free labor, and free men.” The party nominated Martin Van Buren as their candidate for the Presidency, and he won just enough votes in New York that would otherwise have gone to Cass to give Taylor the election, just as the Liberty Party had done to Clay in 1844. The new Republican Party of the 1850s eventually supported their main ideas.
California Statehood Controversy
In 1849, CA applied for statehood, despite not having been an organized territory first (a standard established by the Land Ordinances of the 1780s). Their constitution disallowed slavery, thereby alarming the South. Part of CA is below 36-30, and the Southerners felt that the Missouri Compromise required that land to be open to slavery. CA’s entry as a free state would upset the delicate balance of free to slave states (at the time, it was 15 of each). It would be left to the Compromise of 1850 to resolve the crisis.
Texas Land Claim
Texas had been part of Mexico before the Texan War of Independence. When it was part of Mexico, it was part of a much larger province that included most of New Mexico and a narrow strip of land all the way north to the 42nd parallel (Wyoming)! Texas became angry when the federal government proposed taking the land away, especially when it appeared that the land would be free of slavery. This issue was also decided by the Compromise of 1850.
Underground Railroad
A system of checkpoints or “stations,” it consisted of homes where slaves would go to hide from capture by slaveholders. Slaves would ride all the way to Canada, where they would get their freedom. People who helped the slaves by hiding them were known as “conductors.” Though impossible to know exactly how many slaves escaped to freedom, historians estimate the number to be around 60,000. Southerners were angry – this was an obvious violation of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793. Slaveholders pushed for a tougher law to help protect their property, which they received in the Compromise of 1850.
Compromise of 1850
It temporarily resolved many of the issues that had arisen since the Mexican Cession. The major figures in Congress who debated it were Clay, Calhoun, and Webster. Clay tried to push the Compromise through as a major piece of legislation, but received a lukewarm response by President Taylor. When the Compromise seemed doomed to failure, the “Little Giant,” Stephen A. Douglas, stepped to the forefront. He broke it up into its various parts and passed each one separately by putting different coalitions of voters in Congress together. And, after Taylor died, the new President, Fillmore, was more receptive to the Compromise. The parts: 1. California became a free state, 2. Texas gave up its land claims in exchange for $10 million to pay for debts incurred during the Mexican War, 3. The slave trade (not slavery) was abolished in Washington D.C., 4. The Fugitive Slave Law was greatly strengthened and would be enforced by federal officials, 5. New Mexico and Utah territories would have slavery decided by popular sovereignty.
William Walker
He was a “filibusterer” who led an army made up of mostly Southerners. They failed to take over Baja California, but did succeed at making him the President of Nicaragua in 1856. He promptly legalized slavery in Nicaragua, showing that the South was desperate to expand slavery. He was soon overthrown by other Latin American nations, and was killed by firing squad in the early 1860s.
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
Britain became concerned that the US was preparing to grab Central America, which would have hurt British trade in the region. Britain responded by seizing control of the eastern end of the proposed Nicaraguan Canal, thereby violating the Monroe Doctrine. America was angered, and it looked like war was imminent, but this treaty was reached instead. It stipulated that “neither country would fortify or secure exclusive control over any future isthmian waterway,” which meant that neither country would take over a canal zone without the consent of the other country. This became a major pain in the future for the US when we became interested in a canal route through Panama, so we were forced to later rescind this treaty.
Ostend Manifesto
The Pierce Administration secretly decided to try to purchase Cuba – fertile ground for more slave states – from Spain or take it by force if Spain refused to sell it. American ministers in Belgium offered $120 million for Cuba, but Spain refused to sell it. Before Pierce could act, the proposal leaked out and became public. The North was angry at this blatant attempt by the Slave Power (as they called it) to acquire more slave territory, and Pierce was forced to back off.
Stephen A. Douglas
Illinois Senator. Known as the “Little Giant” for his size and energy, he wanted the first transcontinental railroad to go from Illinois to the Pacific by following a central route. His motives included benefiting his home state economically by making the railroad terminus in Chicago, and becoming popular with the South because of his support for popular sovereignty in the new territories, Kansas and Nebraska, which would be formed before the railroad could be built. Kansas, located above 36 degrees, 30 minutes, could have become a slave state with popular sovereignty, whereas it could not have according to the terms of the Missouri Compromise.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Proposed by Douglas in 1854, this would have organized the Nebraska Territory into two states, and slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty. The act abolished the Missouri Compromise, as Nebraska Territory was north of 36-30. Douglas sold the idea to the South with the understanding that Kansas would probably become a slave state, whereas Nebraska would be a free state. Douglas got the bill through Congress and Pierce signed it, despite an uproar from the North. This act led directly to the Civil War, as people from slave states and people from free states flooded Kansas to try to make it a slave or free state. The close proximity of people willing to travel all the way to Kansas because of slavery led to violence.
Republican Party
The Kansas-Nebraska Act led to the creation of a new political party. The party was a purely sectional party of the North – when Abe Lincoln ran for the Presidency in 1860, for example, he did not even appear on the ballot south of the Mason-Dixon Line. The party included northern Democrats dissatisfied with slavery, Whigs, Free-Soilers, and Know-Nothings (a party that hated immigrants and Catholics). The party began in 1854, and miraculously controlled Congress after the 1856 Congressional elections. The development of this purely sectional party convinced many in the South that secession was now necessary to protect their property and their interests.
William Lloyd Garrison
He was a very influential and opinionated abolitionist. He publicly denounced slavery. While others hoped for a gradual disappearance, he said it should disappear immediately. He began publishing his own paper The Liberator in Boston. It had a small circulation but occasionally aroused violent public reaction. In 1832 he formed the first society for the immediate abolition of slavery. He thought the North should separate from the South and the Union. He refused to vote & didn’t support the U.S. Government because it allowed slavery. He was so radical that he burned a copy of the Constitution during an anti-slavery rally in Mass. During the Civil War, he supported Abraham Lincoln and the Union Army, even though he was critical of Lincoln for making his main objective preserving the Union instead of abolition of slavery. After the 13th Amendment, which ended slavery, he discontinued his newspaper and focused his time on women suffrage (the right to vote), pacifism (against war), and temperance (cut back on drinking). Before the war, he had started the New England Emigrant Aid Society, which sent abolitionists to Kansas so it would become a free state.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Case decided on March 6, 1857. DS was a slave in Missouri who was brought to free state, Illinois, by his master; he lived there from 1830 – 1843. He then went to Minnesota, where he had a child and married a free black woman. His master then returned with him to Missouri. He tried to sue his owner for freedom. He was unsuccessful in the Missouri court, so he appealed and eventually made it to the Supreme Court. His owner argued that blacks could not be citizens and he wasn’t able to become a citizen of America according to the 3rd and 4th article of the Constitution. It was ruled that he could not become a citizen & so he remained a slave. According to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Roger B. Taney, he was property and property could not exercise the right of a citizen and sue in court. The Court’s ruling meant that slavery would be allowed anywhere in the US, despite state laws that forbade it, because the federal government protected property rights. This case upset people in the North because it basically said that there was no such thing as a free state and all blacks should be slaves.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
This was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe about the cruelty of slavery and the splitting of families. She was upset about the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 and wanted to get the word across to the North. The book was a great success and sold millions. There was even a show performed about it. This gave more political force than any other book because it showed slavery almost as cruel as it really was for the slaves. It helped to start and win the Civil War for the North. The reason for this is because it influenced many to not follow the Fugitive Slave Law and also influenced those who fought in the Civil War. The book spread to the European countries of England and France. Their governments thought about helping the South in the war but did not because they felt their citizens would not support them once they read the book.
New England Emigrant Aid Society
This antislavery group sent approximately 2,000 people to Kansas to help make Kansas a free state since it would be chosen by popular sovereignty. They also wanted to make a profit. The South was mad because they thought Kansas was to become a slave state while Nebraska was to become a free state. Therefore, slave owners took their slaves to Kansas. This led to confrontation between abolitionists and “border ruffians.”
“Border ruffians”
The proslavery people from Missouri who went to Kansas to vote for the territorial legislature. They established their own government at Shawnee Mission while the free-soilers set up their own at Topeka.
Pottawatomie Creek
John Brown was angered when the proslavery people burned part of Lawrence. Therefore, he led a band of followers here and killed five men in May 1856. This showed that free-soilers would retaliate from the proslavery people. This caused a small civil war in Kansas while the free-soilers and proslavery people fought for control of the government.
Lecompton Constitution
This was created by the proslavery forces when Kansas was ready to apply for statehood. It stated that the people could not vote for or against the constitution altogether but for or against slavery. If they voted against it, the constitution would still protect the slave owners who were already in Kansas. Therefore, there would be some kind of slavery in Kansas no matter what. Free-soilers boycotted voting and the slaveryites (pro-slave people) approved slavery in Kansas in 1857. After a fight in Washington, they decided to vote on the entire constitution. The free-soilers flocked to the polls and Kansas became a free state in 1861.
Sumner v. Brooks
Senator Charles S_____ of Mass. was an abolitionist who insulted the slaveryites. Senator Preston S. B_____ of South Carolina got angry and called a duel. He approached S_____ on the floor of the United States Senate and pounded him with an 11-ounce cane until it broke. The Senate could not get enough votes to expel B_____ from Congress but he resigned and was then reelected by southerners, who hailed him as a hero for defending southern honor. He was even sent golden canes by his supporters! S_____ had serious head injuries and had to resign for 3 years and go to Europe for treatment. He was also reelected. After the Civil War, he was a leader of the Radical Republicans, a group of northern Congressmen who wanted to punish the South!
American Party
Immigrants came in hordes in from Ireland and Germany and they alarmed the people already here. The supporters of the party were called “nativists,” a term used to describe anyone opposed to immigration. They were anti-foreign and anti-Catholic and formed this. It was also called the Know-Nothing Party because they were secretive. Whenever asked about their beliefs, they replied, “I know nothing.” They nominated ex-president Fillmore to run again in 1856. Their slogan was “Americans Must Rule America.” They threatened to cut into the Republicans’ strength in the election. Fillmore received 8 electoral votes. The Democrat, James Buchanan, did end up winning the election.
Panic of 1857
It was not as bad economically as the Panic of 1837. The California gold had inflated the currency. The Crimean War in Europe had overstimulated the growing of grain (lots of grain had been produced for the armies). Once the war was over, the demand for grain diminished. Speculation on land and railroads was also a cause. This caused the collapse of over 5,000 businesses and unemployment and hunger in urban areas. The Panic hit the North the hardest, while the South enjoyed the rising cotton prices. To the South, the Panic proved that the Southern agricultural economy was greater than the northern industrial economy.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Abe challenged him to a series of 7 debates in 1858. The two men were running for US Senator from Illinois. The most famous of the debates was at Freeport (see next term). Steve ended up winning the election, but “Honest Abe” won a moral victory in the debates by taking the higher moral ground.
Freeport Doctrine
This was a result of the debate between Lincoln and Douglas. Lincoln brought up the Freeport Question – “suppose the people of a territory vote slavery down? The Supreme Court in the Dred Scott decision had decreed that they could not. Who would prevail, the Court or the people?” Douglas’ answer, this, was that if the people vote slavery down, then it would stay down no matter what the Court said. It was a slick political answer, but it made Lincoln look good when he took the high moral ground and Douglas gave a politician-style answer.
Lincoln’s feelings on race
During the debates, Lincoln stated that he was in favor of the race to which he belonged, saying that whites were superior to blacks. He said, however, that there is no reason why blacks would not be allowed the same natural rights guaranteed in the Declaration of Independence, the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Blacks, he said, are not as smart or as moral as whites, but they are equal in deserving the chance to earn their own money and eat their own bread.
Democratic Conventions
The Democrats met for their 1860 convention in Charleston, South Carolina. Douglas was the leading candidate for the northern wing of the Democratic Party. The South did not like him because of his opposition to the Lecompton Constitution and the position he took on the Freeport Question. The South pulled away from the convention, making it so that Douglas did not get the 2/3 vote necessary for the nomination. So, the Southern Democrats seceded from the Convention! The Democrats tried to reunite the party by calling a second convention at Baltimore, but the South once again left the convention. The Southern Democrats held a rival convention in Baltimore – so there were two of these going on in Baltimore! The South chose John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky and the North chose Stephen A. Douglas. This split in the party guaranteed that the Republicans would win the election of 1860.
John C. Breckinridge
He was the Southern Democratic candidate in the election of 1860 from Kentucky. He favored the extension of slavery to the territories and the taking of Cuba to increase the number of slave states, but did not support secession.
Constitutional Union Party
This party developed out of the fear that the Republicans and Democrats had become sectional, not national, parties, and that the Union was in danger. They nominated John Bell of TN as their candidate. Their slogan was “The Union, the Constitution, and the enforcement of the laws.” Not exactly the most catchy slogan! The party was made up of mostly former Whigs and Know-Nothings.
Republican Platform of 1860
1. They were against the extension of slavery to the territories. 2. They wanted higher tariffs to protect northern manufacturers. 3. They wanted an open immigration policy. 4. They wanted a transcontinental railroad through the North and West. 5. They would use federal money to make internal improvements, including roads to the West. 6. They wanted free homesteads to be given to settlers in the West. Their slogans were “Vote Yourselves a Farm” and “Land for the Landless.”
Election of 1860
Breckinridge, Douglas, Bell, and Lincoln. Lincoln, the Republican, won even though he had a minority of votes because the other candidates split the vote. 60% of voters did not vote for him. Interestingly, the Democrats combined (Douglas and Breckinridge) received more votes than Lincoln. This election was the direct cause of South Carolina seceding from the Union, along with 6 other states. Lincoln had not even appeared on the ballot in the South!
Secession – What happened?
Four days after the election of 1860, a special convention was called in Charleston, SC. It met in December. South Carolina decided unanimously to secede. During the next six weeks, 6 other states of the lower South (Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas) followed SC. Later on, after Fort Sumter, four more states joined them (NC, Arkansas, Virginia, and Tennessee), making 11 states that left the Union. Those states together became known as the Confederate States of America.
Confederate States of America
The seven states that seceded first set up a government in Montgomery, Alabama. They chose Jefferson Davis as their President and Alexander Stephens as their Vice-President. Later, after Fort Sumter, the capitol was moved to Richmond, Virginia.
No man’s land
The far western district of Oklahoma (a.k.a. the panhandle) was known as no man’s land. It opened to homesteading in 1889, ending Indian control over the region. Thousands of white settlers, known as Sooners, rushed into the region early to claim their 160 acres of free land.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Decision of the John Marshall Court that declared the Indian Removal Act of 1830 unconstitutional. President Jackson ignored the Court’s decision, and the Indians were removed, leading to the Trail of Tears.
Bureau of Indian Affairs
a government agency that oversaw the movement of Indians onto reservations with clearly defined boundaries. The intent was to “civilize the savages” by teaching them English, making them into farmers, and converting them to Christianity. The Bureau was known for its corruption, and officials routinely diverted funds for the Indians to themselves.
Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867
It assigned land in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) to 9 tribes. The land assigned to them was incapable of supporting subsistence agriculture, leading to competition between tribes over scarce land.
Lakota
The Western Sioux, they lived in what is today the Dakotas. They followed the buffalo on horseback. The elimination of the buffalo by whites led the Lakota to fight!
Sand Creek Massacre
The governor of Colorado abolished all treaties with the Indians in Colorado Territory. He then encouraged white civilians to raid Cheyenne campgrounds. To protect themselves, 800 Cheyenne moved into a US fort. While the men were out hunting, the Cheyenne were attacked. Though Chief Black Kettle held a US flag in one hand and a flag of truce in the other, 700 drunken white men slaughtered over 100 men, women, and children, and they mutilated their corpses and took scalps.
Bozeman Trail
Connecting the Oregon Trail to Montana’s mining fields, this route crossed the Sioux’s buffalo range.
Great Sioux War
This resulted from the disruption of the buffalo by the whites’ use of the Bozeman Trail. Red Cloud, Chief of the Oglala Sioux, fought the US Army well enough to capture their forts and destroy them.
Treaty of Fort Laramie
Resulted from the Great Sioux War in 1868. Most of South Dakota was granted to the Sioux, including the Black Hills. Though promised the land for “as long as the grass grows,” the Sioux would lose it after gold was discovered there in 1874.
Crazy Horse
war leader of the Oglala Sioux during the 1860s and 1870s. He became famous as a result of the Fetterman Massacre in Wyoming in 1866, where 80 US infantry and cavalry were lured into a trap and massacred – the worst Army defeat on the Great Plains to that time. He was also a major participant in the Battle of Little Bighorn. He died in 1877 after being bayoneted by a guard.
Sitting Bull
He was a spiritual leader of the Hunkpapa Lakota Sioux and leader of the Ghost Dance religious movement in the 1880s. He prophesized the end of white expansion if the Sioux stopped drinking and lived a clean life. Some Ghost Dancers claimed that the Ghost Shirts would repel bullets through spiritual power. Alas, they were wrong! When the US government broke a Lakota treaty by giving some Lakota land to white settlers and labeled the Sioux “lazy Indians,” the Sioux responded by intensifying their religious dances and rituals. This frightened the whites, and the US Army arrested Sitting Bull. Sitting Bull was then killed when a fight erupted after his arrest. The Wounded Knee Massacre, the last major armed conflict between the Lakota and the US, took place on Dec. 29, 1890, right after Sitting Bull’s death.
Battle of Little Bighorn
(1876) The site of “Custer’s Last Stand” in present-day Montana. George Armstrong Custer and his 7th Cavalry (approx. 210 men with Custer) were annihilated by at least three times as many Sioux and Cheyenne warriors.
Cochise
Leader of the Apaches in the Southwest during the 1870s. He agreed to move his people onto reservations.
Geronimo
chief of the Apaches after Cochise’s death, Geronimo led numerous raids against white settlers in Arizona. When he surrendered in 1886, it marked the end of Indian warfare in the Southwest.
Red River War
A war between the Apaches, Kiowas, and Comanches and the US, it was won by the US Army when the Army succeeded in starving the Indians.
Chief Joseph
leader of the Nez Perce tribe in Idaho, he attempted to flee from US Army Generals Howard and Sherman to Canada, but was caught near the border after three months of cleverly fighting off the Army. He supposedly said, “Hear me, my chiefs! I am tired, my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever.”
Bonanza kings
people who owned large mining operations in California during the gold rush.
Klondike
the name given to the gold rush in Alaska in the late 1890s.
Comstock Lode
Henry Comstock’s discovery of silver led to a silver rush along the Carson River in Nevada in 1858. Only large companies who could afford the drilling equipment struck it rich.
Anaconda Copper Mining Company
One of the successful large businesses to strike it rich, it was one of the nation’s most powerful corporations in the late 19th century.
Helldorados
short-lived boomtowns characterized by the lack of law and order and the saloon. These were romanticized in later periods as the model of the “Wild West.” They were called “Helldorados” because of the dangerous conditions in the mines, where 1 in 80 men died and 1 in 30 disabled, but the survivors lived well.
Caminetti Act
the first act that gave a state (California) the power to regulate the mining industry. It was passed in the wake of massive environmental damage done by mining companies.
Joseph Smith
founder of the Mormon religion (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints). He and his followers were forced to leave New York, then Illinois, then Missouri. Smith was lynched in Missouri.
Brigham Young
After Smith’s death, Brigham Young led the Mormons. They migrated to the Great Basin (today Utah) and formed a nation called Deseret. After Utah became a US territory in 1850, US troops occupied the territory. The Mormons were persecuted because of their belief in polygamy, and Utah was denied statehood because of the practice.
United States v. Reynolds
(1879). The Supreme Court ruled that Mormons were free to believe whatever they wanted to believe, but they were forbidden to practice polygamy. The ruling led to two acts of Congress: the Edmunds Act and the Edmunds-Tucker Act.
Edmunds Act
those who practiced polygamy or believed in polygamy were stripped of their right to vote and threatened with fines and imprisonment.
Edmunds-Tucker Act
confiscated Mormon Church property and established a federal commission to supervise all elections in Utah Territory. This act led to Mormon leaders agreeing to renounce polygamy, allowing Utah to become a state in 1896.
Cortina’s War
In 1859, Juan Cortina and 60 followers attacked white-owned stores in South Texas and killed 4 Anglos (who had killed several Mexicans and weren’t punished by the law). The war is representative of the conflicts between the new Anglo settlers and the people who had traditionally held the land, the Mexicanos.
Mutualistes
Hispanic-Mexican alliances that worked to provide sickness and death benefits to Mexicano families in the late 19th century.
Joseph McCoy
One of the earliest entrepreneurs to build the cattle market in western Kansas following the Civil War.
Jesse Chisholm
Made the trail used for the cattle drives from Texas to Kansas.
Wyatt Earp and “Wild Bill” Hickok
famous law enforcement figures of the Wild West.
Range Wars
In the 1870s, sheepherders and farmers began to fence in fields with barbed wire. These fields had been wide-open range for the cattle drive. Cowboys cut the fences, and farmers would fight back. The violence was so bad that President Hayes sent in federal troops to stop it.
Homestead Act of 1862
granted a quarter section (160 acres) of land to white settlers for free if they lived on the land and improved it (built a home, for example) for at least five years. Settlers also had the option of buying the land for $1.25 per acre after they had lived on it for only 6 months. The act caused the greatest migration of people in American history, but much of the land went to land speculators, not family farmers.
Immigrants on the Plains
Over 2 million European immigrants settled the Plains between 1870 and 1900. The majority was German, but substantial numbers of Swedes, Norwegians, Poles, Danes, Czechs, and Russian-Germans (Germans who had fled Germany to live in Russia) also settled on the Plains.
Sod-busters
West of the Mississippi, the sod was so thick that it broke the cast iron plows used in the East. So, people were forced to break the sod with a team of oxen, which was difficult work since the sod was sometimes a foot thick. This practice faded because of the introduction of John Deere’s plow.
John Deere
In 1837, he developed the first steel plow. This plow proved effective in tilling the thick clay soils of the West.
Cyrus McCormick
invented the reaper, which cut stalks of wheat mechanically. This replaced the old method of cutting the wheat with a scythe (a hand-knife).
Morrill Act of 1862
this act established “land-grant” colleges (colleges which received a grant of free land for their school in return for them agreeing to teach courses in agriculture).
Hatch Act of 1887
created a series of stations that conducted agricultural experiments, and it spread information about its findings, including the areas of soil minerals and plant growth. These stations were usually connected to a land-grant college.
Agribusiness
whether it was wheat, oats, oranges, or grapes, the American farming industry became dominated by huge corporate farms known as agribusinesses. By 1900, for example, 2/3 of California’s farms were over 1000 acres. The dominance by agribusiness shows that the small family farmer is primarily a myth in America.
National Reclamation Act of 1902 (Newlands Reclamation Act)
added 1 million acres of irrigated land. Though very expensive to taxpayers, the Act helped agribusiness. The Act was devastating for the environment, as millions of gallons of water were diverted from rivers and lakes.
National Parks
millions of acres were saved from commercial development and industrial destruction. The first was Yellowstone National Park (1872) in Wyoming. Millions of tourists flocked to the West beginning in the late 19th century.
Rocky Mountain School
landscape painters of the 19th century, they presented the beauty of the West through sketches, paintings, and photographs. The most famous of these artists was Albert Bierstadt.
Dime novels
popular Western novels of the 1860s and later that romanticized the lives of the cowboys.
William Cody
his company, the Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show, reenacted battles of cowboys vs. Indians. He employed Annie Oakley (famous sharpshooter who shot dimes out of midair and cigarettes out of her husband’s mouth), Sioux Indians, and cowboys. Cody was a former Pony Express rider, army scout, and buffalo hunter.
Helen Hunt Jackson
wrote A Century of Dishonor, which detailed the mistreatment of Indians at the hands of whites. She was part of the Indian Rights Association, an offshoot of the Women’s National Indian Association (WNIA). These organizations worked to eliminate tribal customs and make the Indians good Christians. Their goal was the complete assimilation of the Indians.
Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
passed due to the efforts of the WNIA and the Indian Rights Association, this gave the President the power to give 160 acres of land to Indians who had severed all ties with their tribes. Those Indians could then petition to become a citizen. The act successfully took land away from the tribes, but mostly failed in the larger goal of wiping out Indian culture, language, and customs.
Indian Reorganization Act (1934)
this act reversed the Dawes Act. It stated that Indian culture would be preserved and returned some lands to tribal ownership.
Ohio Idea
the idea supported by farmers and other debtors that supported paying back war bonds in greenbacks. They wanted this for two reasons: 1. It would keep a lot of money in circulation, thereby keeping interest rates low (they borrowed a lot of money), 2. They opposed the eastern bankers and other rich people who wanted the bonds paid back in gold. Rich people had purchased the war bonds during the Civil War with inflated paper money, but now wanted to get paid back in gold. Democrats initially supported the Ohio Idea in 1868, especially in the Midwest, but their leaders gave up on it. The fight between hard money and soft money lasted for the rest of the century, with the hard money people consistently winning.
Fisk and Gould
in 1869, these two men tried to corner (take control of) the gold market by buying up all of the privately held supply of gold. As they bought more and more gold, the price of gold rose. The two men used their influence with President Grant, through Grant’s brother-in-law, to keep the Treasury from selling its gold. Grant’s brother-in-law then convinced Grant to hire General Dan Butterfield to be the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, and Butterfield agreed to tip Fisk and Gould off if the government planned to sell its gold. As long as the Treasury didn’t sell, Fisk and Gould could continue to drive up the price of gold. Once the price was high enough, they planned to sell. Once the price had risen 30%, Grant finally figured out what was going on and ordered the Treasury to sell $4 million of its gold supply. This huge amount of gold dumped on the market caused the price of gold to drop dramatically on Sept. 24, 1869 (“Black Friday”). Fisk and Gould had been alerted, so they escaped financial harm, but many investors were ruined. Henry Adams, grandson of JQ Adams, wrote an exposé claiming that Grant had tolerated, encouraged, and perhaps even participated in corruption and swindles.
1873 Coinage Act
Under pressure from creditors, Congress passed this act to eliminate the use of silver for coinage (demonetization of silver). This greatly upset western silver miners and those who wanted bimetallism (the use of both gold and silver for coins). This fight between supporters of gold, called Gold Bugs, and supporters of “free silver” (bimetallism), called Silverites, was a major campaign issue in every election for the rest of the century. Pressure from the silverites led to several acts by Congress to bring silver back. These folks referred to the 1873 Coinage Act as the “Crime of 1873,” and swore to bring back the “Dollar of Our Daddies,” the silver dollar. By the way, this was the act that resulted in the elimination of the Two-Cent, Three-Cent, and Half-Dime coins.
Bland-Allison Act (1878)
This act was a result of pressure by Silverites to bring back silver coinage. Though major banking interests pressured President Hayes to veto the bill, Congress overrode the veto. The act forced the U.S. Treasury to buy at least $2 million in silver per month at about double silver’s market value. In addition, the value of silver would be artificially maintained at 16:1 to gold (one ounce of gold equaled the value of 16 ounces of silver). This caused inflation because so much money was now in circulation. Needless to say, creditors were not happy!
Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890)
“While not authorizing the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the Free Silver supporters wanted, it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act had been passed in response to the growing complaints of farmers and mining interests. Farmers had immense debts that could not be paid off due to deflation caused by overproduction (too many crops!), and they urged the government to pass the Sherman Silver Purchase Act in order to boost the economy and cause inflation, allowing them to pay their debts with cheaper dollars. Mining companies, meanwhile, had extracted vast quantities of silver from western mines; the resulting oversupply drove down the price of their product, often to below the point where it was not profitable to mine it. They hoped to enlist the government to artificially increase the demand for silver.” (Wikipedia) And, they did! This act forced the Treasury to purchase another 4.5 million ounces of silver per month, on top of the $2 million they were already buying because of the Bland-Allison Act. Unfortunately, many people traded their silver coins for gold dollars, thereby depleting the country’s gold reserves. Creditors demanded payment in the form of gold, so this caused big economic problems. In 1893, President Cleveland convinced Congress to repeal the act, angering advocates of Free Silver.
Greenback Labor Party
This was a third party created in 1874. It favored the continuance of paper money (started during the Civil War) to help farmers and other debtors. They also fought for women’s suffrage and an 8-hour workday. They were eventually absorbed into the Populist Party of the 1890s.
Coin’s Financial School
Written in 1893, this book was about the Crime of 1873. The author argued that demonetization of silver brought about the Panic of 1873. The book sold 1 million copies, and it made free silver and populist movements quite…popular!
William Jennings Bryan
He ran as the nominee for both the Populist Party (explained later) and the Democratic Party for President in 1896. From Nebraska, he sympathized with the farmer and the common man, supported the fight to regulate railroads and banks, and was a Silverite. He was the Democratic nominee for President three times (1896, 1900, and 1908), but lost all three times. The big issue in 1896 was silver, and he toured the country, giving over 500 speeches supporting monetization of silver. He became the Secretary of State for Woodrow Wilson, but resigned during WWI because he felt that Wilson was unreasonable toward Germany. Finally, he was the prosecuting attorney in the Scopes “monkey” Trial in 1925, defending religion against the ideas of Charles Darwin.
Cross of Gold Speech
Greatest speech of Bryan’s career and maybe the greatest speech of all time. “Having behind us the producing masses of this nation and the world, supported by the commercial interests, the laboring interests and the toilers everywhere, we will answer their demand for a gold standard by saying to them: You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.” Don’t memorize this – just recognize it! Basically, Bryan was supporting the monetization of silver and advocating an inflationary monetary policy. At the end of his speech, Bryan extended his arms in a Christ-like pose for about 5 seconds, while the crowd was completely silent. Then, the crowd went nuts and rushed the stage – some of them apparently thought he was Jesus!
Gold Standard Act of 1900
This act was passed during the McKinley administration. It established the gold standard and ended bimetallism. Silver coins continued to be minted, but all paper money was backed by gold alone. So, in the end, the miners and farmers lost and the rich bankers won – what a surprise!
Stalwarts
Led by Senator Roscoe Conkling of New York, the Stalwarts were a faction in the Republican Party during the 1870s that supported the spoils system (patronage system) and were therefore against civil service reform. The Stalwarts were big supporters of Grant, and had a reputation for corruption. They were political enemies of Rutherford B. Hayes, the president after Grant. In the 1880 election, they failed to get Grant a third term, but did succeed in getting one of their own, Chester Arthur, chosen as VP for James Garfield, a Half-Breed. Some people at the time believed that the Stalwarts were behind the assassination of Garfield in 1881 (to get Arthur in power).
Half-Breeds
Led by James G. Blaine of Maine, the Half-Breeds were a faction of the Republican Party that supported civil service reform and a merit system. Their opponents, who considered them half-Republicans, named them “Half-Breeds.” They were successful in passing the Pendleton Act.
James Garfield
His presidency lasted only 200 days, ending with his death at the hands of Charles Guiteau. He was a Half-Breed, who favored civil service reform. He also supported bimetallism and civil rights for African-Americans. Interestingly, his death was probably more important than his presidency because Guiteau killed Garfield because Guiteau felt that Garfield owed him an office because of Guiteau’s support in the 1880 election. The death of the president shocked Chester Arthur so much that Arthur ended his Stalwart ways and supported the Pendleton Civil Service Act (see #63).
Pendleton Act
Passed in 1883, this act stipulated that government jobs be awarded based upon merit, instead of the spoils system. Employees now have to pass an exam to get a government job. It is also now illegal to fire or demote people because of their political beliefs. The US Civil Service Commission was created to enforce this law.
James G. Blaine
He was a Congressman and US Senator from Maine, and Secretary of State for three presidents. The governor’s mansion in Augusta is named for him. Even though he was a Half-Breed, he had a reputation for corruption. When he ran for President, his opponents chanted, “Blaine, Blaine, James G. Blaine, the continental liar from the State of Maine!”
Mugwumps
In 1884, the Republican Party nominated James G. Blaine as their candidate for the election. Blaine’s reputation caused a group of Republicans to break from the party and support the Democrat, Grover Cleveland. The group was strong enough in New York that it cost Blaine the presidential election.
“Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion”
The Reverend Samuel Burchard, a supporter of Blaine’s, used this slogan at a campaign rally, in Blaine’s presence. Burchard meant that Democrats were the party of alcohol, Catholics, and Confederates. Blaine did not say anything to contradict Burchard, which cost him the support of Catholics, who he needed to get elected. By the way, he was not against Catholics at all, since his sister was a nun! Blaine later acknowledged that this slogan cost him the election.
The Grange
Also known as the Patrons of Husbandry, the Grange was founded by Oliver H. Kelley in 1867. The major issue they dealt with was supporting government regulation of the railroads, grain warehouses, and grain elevators. At that time, most communities had one railroad line, for example, running through them. This allowed the railroad to charge ridiculous rates, and the communities had no choice but to pay them. The Grangers were initially successful, and passed many Granger Laws (state-level laws designed to regulate grain elevator rates, railroad rates and rebates, and long-haul/short-haul railroad rate discrimination (railroads would charge higher rates for goods shipped over shorter distances)). Granger Laws were tested in the Supreme Court in 1877.
Munn v. Illinois (1877)
This case upheld the right of states to regulate commerce within the borders of their own state. The Court decided that a Granger Law that regulated grain elevator rates in Illinois was constitutional. The Court held that private property could be regulated by the government when needed for the public good. Munn claimed that his 14th Amendment due process right to property was being violated, but the Court said that the 14th Amendment did not prevent Illinois from regulating charges for use of a business’ grain elevators. The decision focused on the question of whether or not a private company could be regulated in the public interest. The Court’s decision was that it could, if the private company could be seen as a utility operating in the public interest. The implications of this decision are huge! This gave the government the power to tell private business owners what they can and cannot do. Needless to say, this didn’t please conservatives!
Wabash v. Illinois (1886)
This case, also known as the Wabash Case, struck down the Granger Laws as unconstitutional because they affected interstate trade, which is regulated by Congress. Therefore, states no longer had the right to regulate the railroads; that power was held by the federal government. This was a big victory for conservatives, as farmers’ groups were less able to exert influence over the federal government’s laws. The case did lead to the Interstate Commerce Act, however.
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
Farmers and westerners believed that the railroads held tremendous power and needed regulation. They were upset about rate discrimination in particular. In addition, they were concerned about railroad influence and corruption of local and state officials. They also didn’t like it when the railroads gave free annual passes to elected officials, newspapermen, and ministers. So, they passed Granger laws (see above). After Wabash, the federal government responded to public pressure by passing this act, which: 1. banned discrimination in rates between long and short hauls; 2. required that railroads publish their rate schedules and file them with the government; 3. declared that all interstate railroad rates be “fair and just;” 4. created the Interstate Commerce Commission to administer the act. For almost 20 years after its passage, the act, like the Sherman Antitrust Act, was narrowly interpreted by the courts and had little practical effect.
Gustavus Swift
He owned the largest meat company in the US until his death in 1903. He developed the refrigerated railroad car to allow meat to be transported around the world, helping to make Chicago one of the most prosperous cities in the world. He is a great example of vertical integration, controlling everything from the ranch to the local butcher shop. Also, his plants used every part of the animal – “everything but the squeal,” said Swift. Lack of government regulation allowed sausages to include rat droppings, sawdust, spoiled meat, rodents, and other yummy bits. This, of course, inspired Upton Sinclair to write The Jungle.
James Duke
He owned the American Tobacco Company, another example of vertical integration. The ATC was a complete monopoly, and was broken up under anti-trust laws in 1911. He gave millions to the university now known as Duke University.
J.P. Morgan
He was the greatest corporate banker and industrial financier of the late 19th century. He arranged the creation of General Electric and U.S. Steel, two of the largest corporations in the world. He was so rich that he saved the US economy twice; in the Panic of 1893, he loaned the government millions in gold, and in the Panic of 1907, he bought out a brokerage firm whose over-speculation had helped cause the Panic. Near the end of his life, he threw his support behind the creation of the Federal Reserve System, which is what we have today.
Andrew Carnegie
He controlled the steel industry until the creation of US Steel in 1901. His company was the Carnegie Steel Company. He is known as one of the greatest philanthropists in US history – about 2,500 libraries across the world were funded with his money.
Andrew Mellon
He became very wealthy in the aluminum industry, but controlled interests in many different industries. He became Secretary of the Treasury for all three Republican presidents in the 1920s, and is controversial because of the huge tax breaks he gave the rich (the top tax rate fell from 77% to 24%). He donated his art collection, plus $10 million to fund construction, to the National Gallery of Art in 1937.
Captain of Industry
This term refers to the belief of some people that Morgan, Carnegie, Rockefeller, Swift, and others contributed positively to society via philanthropy, providing more jobs, increased productivity, or expansion of markets.
Robber Barons
This term refers to the belief of some people that Carnegie, Rockefeller, Mellon, and others contributed negatively to society by using questionable practices to acquire massive wealth.
Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
It was passed in response to public pressure to regulate the abuses of the trusts, but most members of Congress saw the act as a largely symbolic measure and the courts steadily weakened it after its passage. In other words, they passed it to pacify the people, not to actually make change. The act made illegal any combination in restraint of trade. Most people believed that meant the trusts, but the Justice Department used the law to break up unions instead! The act wasn’t enforced correctly until the early 20th century.
The Standard Oil Company
This was a large, integrated, oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing organization. Standard Oil began as an Ohio partnership formed by brothers John D. Rockefeller and William Rockefeller and several others. By either absorbing or destroying their competition in Ohio and then in the Northeast, Standard Oil became a dominant force. When States began passing laws to limit the size of companies, Rockefeller and his partners began to compile their separate companies spread across several states under a single group of trustees. “Anti-trust” laws were passed at the state and federal level to counter monopolies controlling large sections of the nation. Standard Oil was sued by the U.S. Justice Department under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. In 1911, the Supreme Court forced Standard Oil to separate into 34 companies, each with its own distinct board of directors. These separate companies formed the core of today’s U.S. oil industry.
U.S. v. Knight Co. (1895)
also known as U.S. v. E.C. Knight and the “Sugar Trust Case.” The E.C. Knight Company had been acquired by the American Sugar Refining Company (ASRC), which now gained control of 98% of the American sugar refining industry. President Grover Cleveland actually used the Sherman Antitrust Act to prevent the acquisition of E.C. Knight by American Sugar. The Court decided that even though the result of the transaction was the creation of a monopoly, it could not be regulated by the act because the ASRC was engaged in manufacturing sugar, not interstate commerce! Therefore, the federal government could not regulate the merger. This case shows the lengths that the courts went to in order to protect industry.
U.S. Steel Corporation
The first billion-dollar corporation in US history, it was created when J.P. Morgan bought out Carnegie Steel and incorporated it.
Thomas Edison
an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices at his industrial research laboratory at Menlo Park, NJ. He didn’t invent the first light bulb, but did invent the first commercially practical incandescent light. Edison had numerous other inventions, including the electric chair, phonograph, and motion pictures.
Fredrick Law Olmsted
He was the architect who designed Central Park in NYC, but more importantly, he designed Fenway Park in Boston!
Great Chicago Fire (1871)
The fire destroyed over 60,000 buildings and killed over 300 people. Legend has it that Mrs. O’Leary’s cow knocked over a lantern to start the fire. Mrs. O’Leary was a great scapegoat because she was an immigrant and a Catholic. The reporter who came up with the story admitted that he made it up about 20 years later. The Chicago MLS team is called the Chicago Fire to commemorate this event. After the fire, architect Louis Sullivan planned the reconstruction of the city. He made a new type of building – the skyscraper – made possible by the development of steel.
Brooklyn Bridge
The Brooklyn Bridge is located in New York City. The bridge is also known as The Great East River Bridge, and was built across lower East River between Brooklyn and lower Manhattan. It was designed by the engineer John Augustus Roebling in 1869. When he died during the construction, this 1.5 km-long structure (the longest suspension bridge of its time), was completed by his son Washington Roebling in 1883. It displays remarkable engineering, especially for the time period in which it was created (19th century). Two neo-Gothic towers and steel-wire cables anchor it. Its architecture influenced many architects, engineers, painters, and poets.
Chinese Exclusion Act
This Act was a United States federal law that was passed on May 6, 1882. It followed revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty (1868.) The Burlingame Treaty was a treaty of friendship with China, and encouraged Chinese people to emigrate to America. These revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend immigration from China. It also excluded all Chinese laborers from the United States for 10 years. Amendments made in 1884 made it more difficult for previous immigrants to leave the US and return. It also clarified that the law applied to ethnic Chinese regardless of their country of origin. In other words, even if a person was born in England, but had Chinese heritage, he was not allowed to enter the US!
U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark (1898)
The Supreme Court ruled that no act of Congress could limit the 14th Amendment’s citizenship guarantee for people born in the US. Wong was born to Chinese parents in the US, so nativists argued that he should not be a citizen because Chinese people had been excluded by the Chinese Exclusion Act. Wong won! This issue is still contested a lot. Some Americans, for example, do not feel that children of illegal immigrants should be citizens, but so far they have not prevailed in denying these children citizenship rights.
Jim Crow
These were laws passed after the Civil War to segregate restaurants, theaters, schools, railroad cars, and other public accommodations. One of the people to challenge these laws was Homer Plessy, who was 1/8 Black. (see Plessy v. Ferguson).
Poll tax and literacy test
These were methods used by whites in the South to deny Black people the right to vote. A poll tax was a fee paid for the right to vote, while a literacy test was a test to see if a voter could read before he was allowed to vote. To make sure that whites weren’t disenfranchised by these laws, since there are plenty of stupid white people in the South, southern states passed grandfather clauses to protect them. For example, in Oklahoma, anyone qualified to vote before 1866, or related to someone qualified to vote before 1866, was exempted (“grandfathered”) from the literacy requirement; the only people who could vote before that year were white male Americans. White Americans were thereby effectively excluded from the literacy testing, whereas the law effectively targeted black Americans.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
This Supreme Court case declared that segregation was fine, as long as the accommodations were equal. This standard is known as the “Separate But Equal Doctrine.” Until the Brown v. Board of Education decision in 1954, segregation was legal in America as a result of this infamous decision. Needless to say, the facilities of blacks and whites were not equal during this time, no matter what the Supreme Court thought.
Omaha Platform
In 1892, the interests of the farmers, miners, greenbackers, and urban laborers combined in a new third party. This party, known as the Populist Party (sometimes “People’s Party”), set forth a list of beliefs known as this Platform. The Platform: 1. Government ownership of the railroads, telegraph, and telephone lines, 2. Free and unlimited coinage of silver and gold at the 16:1 ratio, 3. A graduated income tax (an income tax where the more you make, the more you pay), 4. A postal savings banking system (government-owned savings institutions), 5. Direct election of US Senators by the people (like it is today), 6. No government subsidies for any corporation for any reason (in other words, the government would not give money to corporations, like it does today), 7. The initiative and the referendum (the people can make or end laws without legislators involved. For example, we did this recently by voting to allow a casino in Oxford), 8. Make it harder for immigrants to come into the country, 9. Adopt the Australian (secret) ballot for all voting. This platform was so popular that the Populist Party received over 1 million votes and won 22 Electoral votes in the 1892 election. Unfortunately for the Populists, they failed to enact any of these reforms. In the next generation, the Progressives would succeed in doing many of them, though. *Learn each goal of the Omaha platform. The platform was the building block of progressive platforms in the early 20th century.*
James B. Weaver
He was a leader of the Farmers’ Alliance during the 1880s, a group that joined the Populists in 1890. Weaver ran for President in 1892 as the Populist Party nominee, and received over 1 million votes and 22 electoral votes (pretty good for a 3rd party)!
Mary Lease
She was a Populist from Kansas who said that Wall Street controlled America, instead of the people controlling it. She is famous for the quote, “Raise less corn and more Hell!” though she never actually said it.
Morrill Tariff, McKinley Tariff, Wilson-Gorman Tariff, and Dingley Tariff
Beginning in 1861, after the South left the Union, and lasting into the 20th century, Republican politicians dominated national politics and passed high protective tariffs. All you need to be able to do is recognize these names and know that every one of them raised tariffs!
Thomas Reed
Known as Czar Reed, he was a Congressman from Portland, Maine from 1877-1899. During the 1890s, he was Speaker of the House. He did a lot to increase the power of the Speaker, hence his nickname.
Mark Hanna
He was the Republican Party boss from Ohio during the 1890s. He supported McKinley for the Republican nomination for President in 1896, and opposed Reed.
“Billion-Dollar Congress”
The 51st Congress which had access to approximately a 1 billion dollar surplus in the Treasury. Yeah, we actually had a surplus back then! The “Billion Dollar” Congress passed the Pension Act of 1890, which provided pensions for all Union Civil War veterans who had served for 90 days and were no longer capable of manual labor. This policy solved the dilemma of the existing surplus. It was also politically brilliant because giving money to the Grand Army of the Republic’s (GAR) veterans was popular.
Vertical integration
This is when a corporation controls all aspects of production from the bottom to the top. For example, Vanderbilt owned the forests needed to make railroad ties, the iron mines for iron ore, the smelter used to turn the iron ore into steel, the rolling plants to turn the steel into rails, the rails themselves, and the locomotives. This sort of monopoly allows the corporation to produce their product more cheaply than anyone else because they do not have to pay other companies for their materials.
Horizontal integration
This is when a corporation owns all or nearly all of the same type of industry. For example, Rockefeller controlled 90% of all of the oil refining facilities in the US. Another example, until Target arrived on the scene, Walmart had successfully squeezed out nearly all other department stores, driving Kmart and Sears into near-bankruptcy. The goal of this type of integration is to drive all competitors out of business, then raise prices and/or lower the quality of the products (to make more profit).
Injunction
A court order by which an individual is required to perform, or is restrained from performing, a particular act. Historically, it refers to the stopping of strikes. In the 1890s, employers discovered that they could get federal court injunctions to stop strikes and also to stop workers from organizing. The injunction was used to break the Pullman Strike in 1894, and was finally prohibited by the Norris-Laguardia Act in 1932. So, basically, during this time, the government helped big business by breaking up strikes through the use of the injunction.
Open shop
This is where a business where a person is not required to join the union as a condition of employment. Going back to medieval times, craft unions (guilds) had restricted the number of people allowed to practice a certain craft in order to keep wages high and product quality high. During the Gilded Age of the late-19th century, skilled workers were commonly replaced by cheap, unskilled (and easily replaced) workers. Companies wanted the open shop so they could destroy the craft unions. An open shop allows employers to break unions because it allows employers to hire people who won’t join a union.
Closed shop
This is a place of employment where union membership is required. The closed shop usually harms business by raising the cost of labor and requiring them to provide expensive safety equipment.
Yellow-dog contract
also known as an iron-clad oath, this is a promise by a new employee not to join a union. Companies with open shops typically required new employees to sign these contracts as a condition of employment. Then, if a person broke the contract, the company sued the union. This practice became illegal in 1932, with the passage of the Norris-Laguardia Act. But, companies still practice means to keep people from joining unions, by scaring workers about what will happen to the company if their employees join unions.
National Labor Union
This union was formed immediately following the end of the Civil War. It was the first trade union that organized workers regardless of gender or race, except for the Chinese (who they hated), whether they were skilled or unskilled. It was open to workers in both the agrarian and industrial sectors of the economy. One of their major goals was to get Chinese workers excluded from the United States. Some of their better goals included higher wages and an eight-hour work day, and also racial and gender equality. At the time, the ten-hour workday was normal and many workers worked longer. Their major accomplishment was that they were able to win the eight-hour workday for federal employees. The union dissolved in 1873, and most of its members joined the American Federation of Labor.
Workingmen’s Party
This was a California labor organization led by Dennis Kearney in the 1870s. It particularly aimed against Chinese immigrant labor and the Central Pacific Railroad that employed them. Kearney’s attacks against the Chinese were of a particularly open racism, and found support among the white Californians of the time. This eventually led to the Chinese Exclusion Act.
Knights of Labor
This was founded in 1869 and led by Terence Powderly. They wanted to combine various unions into one organization, and sought racial and gender equality. They welcomed all workers – skilled and unskilled. The Knights started declining after one of their members was executed for allegedly killing a policeman in the Haymarket Riot of 1886.
Haymarket Square Riot
(May 1, 1886). In Chicago, the McCormick Harvester Company workers were on strike for a shorter workday. City police had been harassing the strikers, and labor and protest leaders called a protest meeting at Haymarket Square. During a peaceful speech, police ordered the crowd to disperse, someone threw a bomb, and 7 cops were killed. The police, who had killed 4 strikers the day before, fired into the crowd, killing 4 more. Conservative, property-owning Americans demanded retribution! Chicago officers rounded up 8 anarchists and charged them with murder, on the grounds that their words had incited whoever threw the bomb. 7 were sentenced to death! One committed suicide, 4 were executed, and 2 had their sentences commuted to life in prison. The press, owned by the industrialists, reported frightening tales of anarchist terrorists threatening the US. The anarchists were connected with the Knights of Labor, weakening the union.
American Federation of Labor
(1886) It was a union that was not out to change the world but wanted to achieve realistic and attainable goals. They sought to organize craft unions in a federation in which the individual unions maintained some autonomy. The structure of the American Federation of Labor was different from the Knights of Labor, who wanted to absorb individual unions into one big union. The founding leader was Samuel Gompers, and it was open exclusively to skilled workers. It was more successful than other major unions, mostly because skilled workers are harder to replace and because the union had modest goals.
Samuel Gompers
He was the leader of the American Federation of Labor. Gompers was known for “business unionism,” a pragmatic approach based on negotiating for gradual concessions to labor. The AFL was more conservative compared to others such as the Knights of Labor, and rarely went on strike. Craft unions that made up its membership maintained autonomy, unlike the radical Knights of Labor.
Homestead Strike
This was a strike that occurred in Homestead, PA between the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (AA) and Carnegie Steel Company. It occurred in 1892 when the two organizations fought over contract negotiations. Homestead Steel Works was on the bank of the Monongahela River about seven miles from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In 1889, the workers had led a strike, won, and negotiated a three-year contract for a sliding scale wage (wages were determined by the market price of what they were manufacturing) and was due to expire on June 30, 1892. This resulted in a fairly dramatic pay cut, as the price of steel declined during this period. As the expiration date of the contract neared, Andrew Carnegie left for Scotland, leaving Henry Clay Frick, who was known for his anti-union beliefs, in charge. Carnegie was very concerned about his public image, and he supported unions in public, saying that no steel mill was worth a drop of worker blood. However, behind the scenes, he ordered Frick to make as much steel as possible before the contract expired in June, so that the company would be prepared for a strike. He told Frick to lock the workers out if they did not agree to the company’s contract demands. Contract negotiations went poorly, since Frick’s offer to workers was to slash their wages. The workers responded by burning him in effigy (they burned a dummy that looked like him)! The company began to shut the mill down on June 28 and by June 30 the entire workforce was locked out the plant. Frick then built a fence three miles long and 12 feet high around the steelworks plant, adding peepholes for rifles and topping it with barbed wire. Workers named the fence “Fort Frick.” Both union and non-union workers gathered to keep guard around the plant and keep any ‘scabs’ (replacement workers) from entering. However, Frick had contacted Pinkerton’s National Detective Agency, a private army, and got them to agree to send 300 Pinkerton Detectives to break up the scene. On July 6, the Pinkertons were seen being towed on a barge up the river at 3 A.M., and the workers sounded the alarm, lined the riverbank, and tore through a fence surrounding the property to stop them. The workers warned the Pinkertons not to get off the barge, but the Pinkertons made the mistake of trying to gain a foothold on the riverbank. It is still unknown who fired the first shot, but the ‘battle’ lasted from 4a.m. until 5p.m. that day – 3 Pinkertons and 9 workers died. Six days later, the National Guard of Pennsylvania arrived under the order of the Governor. The National Guard carried the newest rifles and Gatling machine guns, quickly taking over the mill. The company then evicted workers from company homes, arrested people repeatedly just to charge them bail and involved workers in many costly court cases to weaken the unions. On November 17 some of the workers voted to go back to work and three days later the Amalgamated Assn. voted to lift the ban on returning to work for the company. Some workers were re-hired as non-union members while others were blacklisted. The mills were not able to organize for the next 40 years. Carnegie’s reputation as a great democrat was forever tarnished.
Pullman Strike
The Pullman Strike occurred in a company town on the outskirts of Chicago on May 11, 1894. 50,000 workers at Pullman Palace Car Company went on strike. George Pullman was the owner of the company. Pullman’s workers lived in company-owned houses that were nicer than the houses other workers had to live in. But these nice houses came at a price. Since the workers lived in the company’s town, this meant they had to buy from the company store, and the company controlled every aspect of their lives. The company kept a debt on their workers by having the rent so high on them that it was impossible to pay. Basically, they were stuck to the company for life. In the 1890’s, George Pullman cut wages by 25% and kept his rent and other costs high. The workers joined the American Railway Union led by Eugene V. Debs and decided to strike. This strike sparked a nationwide sympathy strike, with the railroad workers refusing to operate the trains. President Grover Cleveland ended the strike with force, just as Hayes had with the Great Railroad Strike in 1877. He used the army to break it up, saying that the strike was interfering with the mail, getting the courts to issue an injunction to make the strike illegal. 13 strikers were killed and 57 wounded. Debs was sent to prison for 6 months for interfering with the mail. While in prison Debs became a socialist and went on to lead the Industrial Workers of the World, which we’ll cover later.
Social Darwinism
This is the idea that humans, like animals and plants, compete in a struggle for existence in which natural selection results in “survival of the fittest.” Some Social Darwinists argue that governments should not interfere with human competition by attempting to regulate the economy or cure social ills such as poverty. Instead, they advocate a laissez-faire (hands-off) political and economic system that favors competition and self-interest in social and business affairs. Social Darwinists argued that rich people were rich because they were the most fit, and poor people deserved to be poor because they were the least fit. The major Social Darwinists were Herbert Spencer, William Graham Sumner, and Andrew Carnegie. Interestingly and hypocritically, these men opposed government intervention to regulate business, but they thought it was just fine for government to intervene to destroy unions!
Gospel of Wealth
Also called the “Gospel of Success,” wealthy businessmen used this term as nicer way of talking about Social Darwinism. The advocates of the Gospel of Wealth linked wealth with responsibility, arguing that those with great material possessions had equally great obligations to society. Carnegie even wrote an essay called “Gospel of Wealth” in 1889. He argued that the accumulation of wealth was beneficial to society, and the government should take no action to impede it. Carnegie believed the rich held their money until proper public uses could be discovered. Unlike many of his contemporaries, Carnegie usually practiced what he preached and spent his last years giving away his vast fortune. One of his many charitable ventures was the funding of more than 2,800 public libraries. Carnegie wrote, “The man who dies rich dies disgraced.”
Russell Conwell
He was a Baptist minister in Philadelphia, and became an extremely wealthy man by delivering his lecture, Acres of Diamonds, to paying audiences. Conwell stressed the idea that wealth was available to all people and it was not necessary to travel afar in search of it. Opportunities existed in every village and town if only people would take the trouble to look. In his view, God was responsible for directing wealth to those who could use it for beneficial purposes. So, basically, if you were rich, it was because God smiled upon you! By implication, if you were not rich, then God did not favor you. Conwell, the founder of Temple University in Philadelphia, became one of the great public speakers of his day and delivered his talk more than 6,000 times!
Horatio Alger
In 1867, he published the first of more than 100 short novels depicting rags-to-riches stories meant to inspire the nation’s youth. Bearing such titles as Ragged Dick and Tattered Tom, the novels traced the rise of street urchins to positions of wealth and prominence. The virtues of loyalty, hard work, faith, thrift and clean living were trumpeted. Alger’s work made no pretense of literary merit, but was intended to convey the idea that great rewards awaited those who applied themselves and followed the rules. Alger, whose name became synonymous with successful fortune-seeking, sold more than 100 million books.
The New South
After Reconstruction ended in 1877, the South very slowly began to industrialize. This effort was a failure for many years, with limited success in textiles. Unfortunately, the New South was the same as the Old South when it came to racial relations and white supremacy.
Settlement House
These were houses established in poor, urban areas to assist people in poverty. These houses often offered food, shelter, and basic, as well as higher, education. The charity of wealthy donors, the residents of the city, and scholars who volunteered their time paid for the houses. The most famous houses were Hull House in Chicago and the Henry Street Settlement in New York.
Hull House
A settlement house in Chicago, it was established in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Starr. The greater Hull House neighborhood was a mix of various ethnic groups that had immigrated to Chicago. There was no discrimination of race, language, creed, or tradition for those who entered the doors of the Hull House. Every person was treated with respect. The settlement provided education, health care, midwife services, food, public baths, a theater, and playgrounds, all designed to help poor immigrants adapt to life in America.
Henry Street Settlement
A settlement house in Manhattan, it was established in 1893 by Lillian Wald. Wald founded the settlement after saving an immigrant woman who had just given birth and the doctor had left because she couldn’t afford to pay him. The Henry Street Settlement performed the same functions as Hull House.
New Immigration
Starting in the 1880s and continuing until the 1910s, millions of immigrants came to the United States from Eastern and Southern Europe. Before 1880, most immigrants came from Northern and Western Europe. The New Immigrants were persecuted because they tended to be Catholic, and many had darker skin. Oh yeah, and they were takin’ our jobs!
Nativism
In reaction to the New Immigration, the American Protective Association formed in 1887. At its height, it had 2 million members and elected 20 Congressmen. The A.P.A. platform included drastic curtailment of Catholic immigration, English as a requirement for citizenship and the elimination of Catholics from public schools and public office. They were convinced that American Catholics were disloyal, favoring the Pope over the USA. The movement died down in the early 1910s, but resurfaced in 1916 with the new KKK. Nativists are still strong today, as they blame America’s problems on immigration.
Yellow journalism
(a.k.a. “yellow press”). This term comes from the newspaper wars of the 1890s between William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) and Joseph Pulitzer (New York World). Both papers were criticized for sensationalizing stories to drive up the papers’ circulation. Though the papers were loaded full of lurid crime stories, they also included stories that investigated political corruption and the terrible working and living conditions in the cities. The papers opened peoples’ eyes to the problems this country faced.
George Washington Carver
He was a famous scientist, botanist, educator, inventor, and Mr. Carver’s great-great-grandfather. He is most famous because of the research he did on crops, in an attempt to find alternatives to growing cotton. Especially well-known for his work with peanuts, he developed over 100 recipes for them, and developed over 100 inventions that used the peanut, including paints, cosmetics, and gasoline! He taught at the Tuskegee Institute for 47 years!
Booker T. Washington
He was the most dominant African-American political figure between 1890 and 1915. He represented the last group of African-Americans born into slavery. His speaking ability was legendary, and his “Atlanta Address of 1895” is known as one of the greatest speeches in American history. In his Atlanta speech, delivered to a white audience, he asked Southern whites to give jobs to blacks, instead of relying on immigrants, as the North did. His focus was on economic advancement for black people, not on civil rights. In fact, he supported the “separate, but equal” standard set forth by Plessy v. Ferguson (see #29) because he felt that blacks needed to be accommodating to whites, instead of challenging them on issues like civil rights. Washington felt that education was the path to job advancement for blacks. He became the first principal of Tuskegee Normal School for Colored Teachers (also known as the Tuskegee Institute), the first teachers’ college for African-Americans. The main focus was vocational education – take classes so you can get a job.
W.E.B. DuBois
He became the leading voice of black opposition to Booker T. Washington after 1909. DuBois said that Washington was an “accomodationist” – in other words, Booker T. sucked up to white people! DuBois was determined to fight for civil rights and also for educational opportunities beyond simple job preparation. He envisioned a “Talented Tenth,” a class of black intellectuals who would be leaders. He was one of the founders of the Niagara Movement and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910. DuBois used the NAACP to file lawsuits against Southern state governments to try to gain more civil rights for African-Americans.
Niagara Movement
In 1905, several men led by W.E.B. DuBois, met on the Canadian side of Niagara Falls to discuss full civil liberties and an end to racial discrimination. Interestingly, they had their second meeting at Harper’s Ferry to honor the memory of John Brown. The Niagara Movement lasted only 5 years, as Booker T. Washington, who had a lot of influence, feared that the Movement would anger whites.
William James
He was one of the first American psychologists and philosophers. He believed in free will instead of determinism.
Edward Bellamy
He was an American author and socialist, who was very critical of the Gilded Age. He wrote Looking Backward, 2000-1887, about a man who woke up after 113 years in a hypnotic trance. The U.S. in the year 2000 is a socialist paradise! The book includes this really awesome quote, “…buying and selling is essentially anti-social in all its tendencies. It is an education in self-seeking at the expense of others, and no society whose citizens are trained in such a school can possibly rise above a very low grade of civilization.” His book was so influential that Bellamy Clubs sprang up across the country to advance Bellamy’s agenda, and several utopian communities were founded on his model. It outsold all books of the 19th century, except Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Ben Hur, and the Bible.
Henry George
He wrote Progress and Poverty (1879), criticizing the Gilded Age and putting forth ideas on how to help the working classes. He proposed a “single tax” on land, which would allow all other taxes to go away. He felt that the increase in the value of property created poverty because as the population went up, property values went up (more people = less land per person). Furthermore, he felt that it was a great injustice that private profit was being earned from restricting access to natural resources while productive activity was burdened with heavy taxes.
Mark Twain
One of the greatest writers in American history, he is best known for The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885). He has been called “The Father of American literature.” Politically, he was a die-hard imperialist until 1900, when he realized that US promises to “help” the Philippines actually meant that we were going to subjugate it. More on this later…
Jack London
Author of Call of the Wild (1903) and White Fang (1906), London used his experiences as part of the Klondike Gold Rush as the setting for these famous novels.
Frank Norris
He was the author of The Octopus (1901), which is about how the railroads controlled the lives of individuals.
Anthony Comstock
Self-described as the “weeder in God’s garden,” Comstock spent much of his life trying to enforce Victorian Era moral standards in America. The Comstock Law (1873) was passed to “make illegal the delivery or transportation of both ‘obscene, lewd, or lascivious’ material as well as any methods of, or information pertaining to, birth control.” As U.S. Postal Inspector, he destroyed 15 tons of books, 4 million pictures, and he bragged that he was responsible for 4,000 arrests. He was often at war with Victoria Woodhull, Margaret Sanger, and Emma Goldman.
Victoria Woodhull
She became the first female broker on Wall Street in 1870, and with the money, she started a newspaper advocating sex education, free love, women’s suffrage, short skirts, spiritualism, vegetarianism, and licensed prostitution. The first hippie! She was referred to as “Mrs. Satan” by moralists of the time! By the way, most historians consider her the first female candidate for the Presidency (for the Equal Rights Party in 1872).
Margaret Sanger
She was the leader of the modern birth control movement. Sanger felt that in order for women to have a more “equal footing” in society and to have physically and mentally healthy lives, they needed to be able to decide when a pregnancy would be most convenient for themselves, instead of leaving it up to the man to decide when he was going to impregnate his wife again. Her arguments shocked Victorian Era morality, she was arrested under the Comstock Law, and she served prison time for distributing birth control. She is hated by anti-abortion conservatives, who even to this day write nasty things about her online!
National American Woman Suffrage Association
(NAWSA). In 1890, the NWSA and the AWSA, which had disagreed over the right to vote for African-American males, combined to form NAWSA. Its strategy was to push for suffrage at the state level, believing that state-by-state support would eventually force the federal government to pass an amendment to the Constitution to grant all women the right to vote. Its major leaders were Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Carrie Chapman Catt. Catt led the final push to victory – the 19th Amendment, ratified in 1920, guaranteed women the right to vote. The NAWSA had been successful at the state level – all western states had granted women the right to vote well before 1920. Sadly, Mississippi finally formally ratified it in 1984 (it took them until 1995 to formally ratify the 15th Amendment, so they must have liked women)!
Ida Wells
71 years before Rosa Parks refused to move from her seat on the bus, Ida Wells refused to leave her seat on a railroad car. This happened in 1884, one year after the Civil Rights Cases of 1883 had struck down the desegregation laws of the Civil Rights Act of 1875. Anyway, it took three men to drag her off the train! She hired a lawyer and sued the railroad. Unfortunately, the Tennessee Supreme Court ruled against her, essentially saying that she was a troublemaker. Wells is more famous for her writings in opposition of lynching (mob “justice” against black “troublemakers” that resulted in the death, usually publically, of the victim). Her most famous work is Southern Horrors: Lynch Law in All Its Phases.
Woman’s Christian Temperance Movement (WCTU)
Led by Frances Willard, one of the leading feminists of the 19th century, this is the organization that worked to try to prohibit alcohol. They were finally successful in enacting Prohibition via the 18th Amendment in 1919.
Carrie Nation
One of the most determined temperance workers, Carrie attacked salons and bars with a hatchet and smashed bottles of alcohol with rocks. She carried a Bible in one hand and a hatchet in the other, convinced she was doing God’s work. This proves that even crazy people can be famous!
Turner Thesis
Frederick Jackson Turner was an influential historian of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1893, he wrote “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,” also known as the Frontier Thesis and as the Turner Thesis. He argued that the American frontier changed the character of the American people so that we were different than Europeans. The frontier made us individualistic, inventive, rough and tough, and democratic.
Exodusters
In 1879 and 1880, about 40,000 African-Americans left the Deep South and moved to Kansas. These people are called Exodusters. They fled the South because of racial violence and the loss of voting rights.
Safety-valve theory
As industrialization increased, people began to fear civil unrest by the working classes. In Europe, workers occasionally rebelled and anarchists threw bombs at politicians. After all, these people were essentially slaves, so what did they have to lose? During the second half of the 19th century, people argued that providing cheap land in the West, like that provided by the Homestead Act, would allow discontented workers to leave the cities. Employers, who wanted cheap labor, opposed this effort. Historians argue about whether or not the safety-valve theory actually worked.
Coxey’s Army
During the Panic of 1893, Jacob Coxey of Ohio led a few hundred followers on a march on Washington D.C. He demanded that the government help the people by creating a public works program (in other words, have the government create jobs by hiring people to build roads and bridges, plant forests, etc). The US Attorney General, Richard Olney, was determined to stop this march, and he had Coxey and his followers clubbed and arrested for walking on the grass of the US Capitol! Trivia – The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is based on this march because the author witnessed it. Oz is Washington D.C., the yellow brick road represents the route Coxey took and the gold standard, the Tin Woodman represents the industrial worker, the Scarecrow is the farmer, and Dorothy’s shoes were silver (in the book), representing the struggle for free silver. The Cowardly Lion is supposed to be William Jennings Bryan and the Wizard is President Cleveland. Dorothy is supposed to be Mary Lease.
Ragtime
a type of music that is most popular in New Orleans, it was created by African-Americans and spread by German-Americans during the 1890s. In dance halls of the late-19th century, popular hang-out spots for immigrant teens, ragtime was most popular. The most popular performer was Scott Joplin.
Vaudeville
It was a form of theater popular from the 1880s to the early 1900s. It linked the poor and the rich culturally, since it was popular with both groups. Vaudeville was similar to America’s Got Talent – lots of different types of acts in the same show. It declined slowly and was replaced by the movie theater by the 1930s.
Albert Spaulding
He popularized baseball, which became a major US sport in the 1880s. The first World Series was held in 1903, won by the Boston Americans (now the Red Sox).
Negro Leagues
African-Americans had played professional baseball in the 1870s, but were kicked out during the 1880s. So, they formed their own leagues, which operated until the early 1950s.
Dr. James Naismith
He invented basketball in 1891. Basketball became a professional sport by the end of the 1890s.
Josiah Strong
He was a Protestant missionary who encouraged his colleagues that their work should be directed at America’s cities, teeming with immigrants. He wrote Our Country: Its Future and Present Crisis (1885) to encourage his fellow missionaries to do this work. The Anglo-Saxons, according to Strong, are a superior race and thereby destined to take the lands of the inferior races and to assimilate them. This process would take awhile, but in the end all of mankind would be Anglo-Saxonized. He argued that this was a good thing because Anglo-Saxons love freedom and practice a form of pure Christianity. Historians suggest that his ideas may have encouraged support for imperialistic United States policy among American Protestants. In other words, he convinced people that it was our mission to “help” the world’s less fortunate people of color by conquering them! During the 1890s, the US annexed Hawaii, conquered Cuba, took the Philippines, etc. His followers formed the Social Gospel movement, which had the aim of combating injustice, suffering and poverty in society. They were involved in the settlement movement and prohibition, for example.
William Seward
He was Secretary of State for Abe Lincoln. The reason he is listed here in the terms is because some historians consider him to be the father of American imperialism. In 1867, Seward purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million (about 2 cents per acre). People at the time made fun of it, calling Alaska “Seward’s Icebox,” “Seward’s Folly,” and “Icebergia.” He considered it his greatest accomplishment, and I agree!
Alfred Thayer Mahan
He was called, “the most important American strategist of the 19th century.” He wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History in 1890, explaining that countries with the most naval power had the greatest world power. This kicked off a shipbuilding race that helped lead to WWI.
Liliuokalani
She was the last monarch of Hawaii. In 1893, she was overthrown by about 1,500 armed American and European immigrants who wanted Hawaii to be annexed by the US. Since President Cleveland opposed this action, he refused to annex Hawaii, which resulted in the establishment of the Hawaiian Republic. The US annexed Hawaii 5 years later during President McKinley’s term.
Imperialism -why?
During the 1890s, the US joined several major European powers in the drive to conquer less powerful peoples in other parts of the world. While Europe focused on both Africa and Asia, the US confined itself mainly to the Pacific and Asia. The main reasons why: 1. Economic – manufacturers wanted access to cheap raw materials and they wanted a market for their finished products. Hawaii, for example, could supply cheap sugar to the US. Meanwhile, they might buy American-made tools to use for farming. 2. Religious – some people felt it was the duty of a superior civilization (like ours, of course!) to “civilize” less fortunate people. Making them Christian was one part of this civilizing effort. 3. Power – the US felt it needed control of coaling stations across the Pacific so that we could trade with the Far East. Since ships ran on steam power, coaling stations needed to be strategically located and controlled. 4. Prestige – other countries had colonies, and we were worried that we’d appear inferior if we didn’t man up and have our own colonies. So, if we had a lot of colonies, it showed that we had risen to the top of the Darwinian pyramid and were one of the “fit” societies.
Venezuelan Crisis
In 1895, Venezuela and British Guiana both claimed the same piece of land that included gold mines. When the British demanded the land from Venezuela, the Venezuelan ambassador to the US asked us to invoke the Monroe Doctrine to keep Britain from enlarging its territory at the expense of Venezuela. President Cleveland asked Congress to appoint a commission to determine the proper boundary, which the US would then defend on behalf of Venezuela. This crisis was significant because: 1. It upheld the Monroe Doctrine and even expanded it because it now meant that the US would go further than just telling Europe that they could not colonize here, 2. It was another victory for the use of arbitration instead of warfare between the US and Britain, 3. Britain realized that she had no friends, but a very powerful German enemy when war broke out in South Africa in 1895. So, the US and Britain started getting along so well that they eventually became allies in WWI.
Reconcentration policy
the US had long desired to gain control of Cuba. Remember the Ostend Manifesto? During the 1890s, the Spanish gave the US an excuse to invade when they began the reconcentration policy. This policy placed 300,000 Cuban civilians in concentration camps. The American press referred to the Spanish general as the “Butcher.” Hearst and Pulitzer competed for telling the most horrific stories of Spanish atrocities committed against the Cuban people. Since Americans are suckers and believe most of what they are told, especially if it is repeated often enough, the American people began demanding war.
De Lôme Letter
de Lôme was a Spanish minister. In a personal letter, which was stolen despite being under diplomatic protection, he referred to the US President : “…McKinley is weak and catering to the rabble and, besides, a low politician who desires to leave a door open to himself and to stand well with the jingos of his party.” The press printed the letter, and the country was angry! McKinley had resisted the mood of the country to go to war against Spain, but now he felt he had to. Otherwise, he’d feel weak and unmanly!
USS Maine
A battleship sent by the US to protect its interests in Cuba, it exploded in Havana Harbor in January 1898. 261 Americans were killed. Immediately, the American press and the public blamed the explosion on a Spanish mine. This was the event that triggered the Spanish-American War. The cry, “Remember the Maine! To Hell with Spain!” was used to rally the troops. Historians still argue about what caused the ship to sink. Most modern scholars believe that a boiler room explosion was what really sunk the Maine, but many others believe that the US did it to ourselves to give an excuse for war.
Spanish-American War (1898)
Even though the Spanish gave in to every single demand made by the US government, McKinley felt that he had to ask Congress to declare war because the American people were whipped up into a frenzy. He was afraid that he and the Republican Party would lose the next election if he didn’t ask for war. To show you how much this didn’t have to do with Cuba, the first place the US attacked was the Philippines! Admiral Dewey sailed the US fleet into Manila harbor, allied with Filipino rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo, and freed the Filipinos from Spanish rule. The US Army was woefully unprepared for the war. The commander of the invasion was chosen by politics instead of ability, and he weighed 300 pounds and had to be lifted onto his saddle! The supplies for the invasion of Cuba were gathered in Tampa, but it was mass chaos. The men were supplied were heavy winter uniforms (in Cuba!), and “embalmed” beef and spoiled food. Of the 5,400 American deaths in the war, about 5,000 were from spoiled food and lack of sanitation. As bad as this is, it is really important because it showed the US that we needed to make reforms in the Army. These reforms allowed the Army to be much better prepared when they were called for duty in WWI.
Teller Amendment
After receiving McKinley’s war message, Congress passed this Amendment (not a constitutional amendment b.t.dubs), declaring that the US only meant to help the Cuban people and all we wanted was for them to be free and independent. It also promised that we would not annex Cuba.
Platt Amendment
Only 3 years after the Teller Amendment, Congress passed this. It said, 1. Cuba could not make any international agreements that would impair her ability to control herself without America’s agreement, 2. Cuba could not borrow money from foreign powers (which might give foreign powers an excuse to invade later when Cuba didn’t repay its debts), 3. The US could invade any time we wanted if we felt that Cuba wasn’t politically stable (in other words, if they ever disagreed with us), 4. The US would be able to keep two naval bases in Cuba (we kept one – Guantanamo Bay)
Rough Riders
Legendary cavalry unit that made Theodore Roosevelt famous. In the movies, the Rough Riders charged up San Juan Hill to heroically force the Spanish into retreat. In real life, the Rough Riders didn’t even have horses because they were left behind in Tampa! But, the real action doesn’t matter – Teddy became famous for his heroics on the hill, which allowed him to become Vice-President in the next election.
Treaty of Paris
(1898). 1. Cuba gained its independence. 2. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded to the US. 3. The US agreed to pay $20 million for the Philippines.
Keeping the Philippines
1. McKinley decided to keep the Philippines because he felt that we needed to Christianize and civilize the natives. 2. Americans also felt proud of having an empire. 3. Businessmen thought that they could exploit the Philippines raw materials and sell American products in Philippine markets. 4. The islands gave the US a base to use for trade in the Far East. 5. We didn’t want the islands to fall into the hands of the Germans or the Japanese. This decision to keep the Philippines proved to be a huge mistake. As soon as Emilio Aguinaldo figured out that the US planned to keep the Philippines, he led the Philippine Insurrection (1899-1902) against us. Thousands of Americans died because the US declared that the Philippines was not yet capable of governing themselves. Sound familiar? We stayed until 1946!
American Anti-Imperialist League
This was an organization established in 1898 by people opposed to American annexation of the Philippines. Some Americans were appalled at the idea of controlling the Filipino people without their consent. The idea of “consent of the governed” is essential to republicanism – the idea that the people should rule themselves. In addition, they wanted to keep America isolated and out of the affairs of other nations, and they felt that the acquisition of the Philippines would suck us into Asian affairs (they were right). Famous members of the Anti-Imperialist League included William Jennings Bryan (who made it an election issue in 1900), Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twain, and Jane Addams.
“Insular Cases”
After 1900, the Supreme Court was called upon to decide whether or not people living in the newly-gained territories had the same rights under the Constitution as citizens of the states. Sadly, the Court decided that they did not. Its decision said that the “Constitution does not necessarily follow the flag.”
Foraker Act (1900)
This act established the government of Puerto Rico, now under US control.
Open Door Policy
After gaining control of the Philippines, the US looked to expand its trade with China. At the time, though, several European powers and Japan were on the verge of carving up China for themselves. So, to protect its economic interests in China, the US, represented by Secretary of State John Hay, sent notes to each of the major powers to get them to agree to respect the territorial integrity of China (in other words, to get them to agree not to split it up). The notes also stated that all nations could trade freely with China. This policy caused a lot of friction between the US and Japan, but it took quite a few years for it to result in war.
Big-stick Diplomacy
Theodore Roosevelt became President following the assassination of McKinley in 1901. His foreign policy is often summed up by his expression, “speak softly, but carry a big stick.” In other words, use diplomacy, but show the other side that you are ready and willing to use military force.
Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
(1901). This was a treaty between the US and Britain. The Treaty nullified the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850 and gave the United States the right to create and control a canal across the Central American isthmus to connect the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. In the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, both nations had renounced building such a canal under the sole control of one nation.
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
(1903). This treaty established the Panama Canal Zone. The US agreed to pay $10 million and an annual $250,000 for the 12-mile wide canal zone. The US was granted sovereignty (control) over the land forever. This created a lot of friction between the US and Panama, which eventually led to the US returning the Panama Canal Zone to Panama on Dec. 31, 1999.
Panama Canal
After the US acquired the Philippines during the Spanish-American War, we needed a route to get there more quickly. At the time, Panama was part of Colombia, and Colombia voted down a treaty that would have allowed the US to build a canal. So, the US allied itself with a group of wealthy Panamanian families and started a revolution to free Panama from Colombia! When the Colombian Navy tried to bring forces to stop the revolution, it was blocked by the US Navy. About 30,000 workers died building the canal, which is about 48 miles long. The canal was completed in 1914.
Roosevelt Corollary
The Monroe Doctrine (1823) said that no European country could reestablish colonies in this hemisphere. The Roosevelt Corollary was an update and extension of the Doctrine, made by Theodore Roosevelt in 1904. The RC asserted that the US had the right to intervene in Central American and Caribbean countries any time they were unable to pay their debts to other countries. Basically, the US told the Europeans that they could not go into these countries to force them to pay their bills. The US would do it, instead. The RC was used to justify American invasions of Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic during the 1900s-1934, when FDR’s “Good Neighbor Policy” replaced it. Unfortunately, Teddy Roosevelt believed that the US should have the same authority in North Asia, but, since we were unable to exercise our power there, he secretly agreed to a Japanese Monroe Doctrine for Asia in 1905. This allowed Japan to take over Korea and eventually led to Japanese expansionism (which led to WWII). Read The Imperial Cruise (2009) by James Bradley, and I will give you a test grade!
Portsmouth Conference
The Russians and Japanese fought a war from 1904-05 called the Russo-Japanese War. Everyone expected Russia to win easily, but Japan inflicted several defeats upon them. The war was very unpopular in Russia, so Russia wanted peace by 1905. The treaty was negotiated and signed at the Portmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine. The terms of the treaty were very favorable towards Japan, but TR did not give them everything they wanted. Both Japan and Russia were unhappy (usually the sign of a fair treaty). As a result of this treaty, Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize!!! Keep in mind that this is the guy whose foreign policy was called the Big Stick Policy, he encouraged a revolution in Panama, and invaded numerous Caribbean and Central American nations!
Gentlemen’s Agreement
(1907). In 1906, the San Francisco, California Board of Education had passed a regulation whereby children of Japanese descent would be required to attend racially segregated separate schools. This occurred in the aftermath of the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Needless to say, this angered the Japanese government, who did not like the implication that their people were inferior. Newspapers in Tokyo stated that the segregation was an “insult to their national pride and honor.” The people of California had been freaking out because the Japanese were “taking our jobs,” even though they made up only about 1% of the population. Anyway, the agreement said that the Japanese would not allow any more emigration to the US, and the US would not restrict Japanese immigration (like we had with the Chinese in 1882). So, basically, it drastically reduced the number of Japanese coming to the US without the US banning the Japanese from coming here. Also, TR pressured California to end segregation of public facilities against people of Japanese descent.
Great White Fleet
TR, the Nobel Peace Prize winner, sent a fleet of 16 battleships on a voyage around the world to impress the world with our naval power. The fleet left Virginia in December 1907, and returned in Feb. 1909. Part of the reason for sending this fleet was to show Japan that we were capable of sending our fleet anywhere to defend American interests in the Pacific. The fleet was received with great fanfare in Japan, with elementary school kids singing the US National Anthem!
Root-Takahira Agreement
Negotiated in 1908 between the US and the Empire of Japan, it did the following: 1. Affirmed the territorial integrity and independence of China (Open Door Policy), 2. Maintained free trade between the two countries (no tariffs), 3. Japan recognized the US annexation of Hawaii and control of the Philippines, 4. The US recognized Japanese special interest in Northeast China and the right to annex Korea (which it did in 1910). The Agreement did help the US and Japan get along better for awhile, but it also fueled Japan’s expansionist attitude. Unfortunately, all of the attempts by TR and Japan to get along could not overcome the racism of the Californian and American people. California passed laws to prohibit people of Japanese descent from owning land, for example. Plus, both Japan and the US had expansionist aims in Asia, perhaps making conflict inevitable.
Progressive movement
This refers to a group of mostly middle class reformers who exposed the unsafe conditions faced by factory workers, fought against child labor, and questioned the dominant role played by large corporations. It was a large and varied group of reformers who wanted to cleanse politics of corruption, reduce the power of the trusts, and help the less fortunate. They fought against prostitution, gambling, drinking, and other forms of vice. They started in the cities, fighting against bossism and organizing movements to oust crooked mayors and break up local monopolies (like the cable company today, for example). They then carried these fights to the states, and then to the nation.
Activist government
a government that exists to help the people! Many progressives wanted the government to be used to tax income, regulate industry, protect consumers from fraud, safeguard the environment, protect consumers from corporate greed, and provide social welfare. In other words, progressives believed that government, not corporations or states, was best equipped to solve social problems. Darned liberals!
Muckrakers
a term coined by Teddy Roosevelt to describe journalistic tactics of “raking the filth” in search of wrongs (kind of like the National Enquirer or Star magazines); these authors and journalists wrote searing accounts of corporate and political evils. These writings, unlike the corporate-loyal mainstream newspapers of the Gilded Age, moved the public to demand reform. The muckrakers wanted to shock the public into recognizing the shameful state of political, economic, and social affairs and to prompt the people to take action.
Ida Tarbell
She was a muckraker who wrote “History of Standard Oil” (1904). It exposed the ruthless tactics of the robber baron J.D. Rockefeller.
Lincoln Steffens
He was a muckraker who wrote “The Shame of the Cities” (1904). His stories told the tale of bribery and corruption that were strangling local governments in the nation’s great cities. “The Shame of the Cities” is a collection of articles Steffens had written for McClure’s magazine, with titles like “The Shame of St. Louis” and “The Shame of Philadelphia,” for example. It reports on the workings of corrupt political machines in several major U.S. cities. He wanted to draw attention to the public’s complicity in allowing corruption to continue. Steffens advanced a theory of city corruption: corruption, he claimed, was the result of “big business men” who corrupted city government for their own ends, and “the typical business man”—average Americans—who ignored politics and allowed such corruption to continue. Much like the average U.S. citizen today who cares more about her Candy Crush level than about who her Senator is!
Upton Sinclair
He was a muckraker who wrote “The Jungle” (1906). This novel exposed the inhumane working environment and unsanitary conditions in meatpacking plants. It led to major reforms in food safety, but did not lead to socialism, which is the purpose of the novel. Specifically, the novel led to the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act, which established the FDA to inspect food and drugs (still around today).
Jacob Riis
He was a muckraker who wrote “How the Other Half Lives” (1889). It was a photojournalistic exposé of living conditions in the slums of New York. The book explains the plight of working children in the factories and at other jobs. Some of the children were garment workers and newsies (newsboys). The effect of the book was the tearing down of New York’s worst tenements and sweatshops. The book led to improvements in sewers, garbage collection, and indoor plumbing, thanks to public reaction to Riis’ book.
Florence Kelley
Inspired by the settlement houses, she became an advocate for improving the lives of women and children (she apparently cared little for men!). She fought against sweatshops and for the 8-hour workday, the elimination of child labor, the minimum wage, and educational equality (schools for white kids were getting a lot more federal aid than other schools). She lived at Hull House and Henry Street for most of her life.
Lochner v. New York
This 1905 case involved a New York law that limited the number of hours that a baker could work each day to ten, and limited the number of hours that a baker could work each week to 60. By a 5-4 vote, the Supreme Court rejected the argument that the law was necessary to protect the health of bakers, deciding it was a labor law attempting to regulate the terms of employment, and calling it an “unreasonable, unnecessary and arbitrary interference with the right and liberty of the individual to contract.” Lochner is one of the most controversial decisions in the Supreme Court’s history, giving its name to what is known as the Lochner Era. In the Lochner era, the Supreme Court issued several controversial decisions invalidating federal and state statutes that sought to regulate working conditions during the Progressive Era and the Great Depression.
Muller v. Oregon
(1908) The case upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women’s health. The ruling had important implications for protective labor legislation. The case was decided a mere three years after Lochner v. New York. This decision is confusing because the Court had just decided in Lochner that protective state laws infringed upon a company’s contract rights, but now the Court was saying that state laws regulating female working conditions were not an infringement of contract rights! The Court rationalized this because they believed (until Adkins) that women needed the special protection of the courts because they were weak and helpless (their thoughts, not mine!).
Adkins v. Children’s Hospital
This was a 1923 United States Supreme Court opinion holding that federal minimum wage legislation for women was an unconstitutional infringement of liberty of contract, as protected by the due process clause of the Fifth Amendment (so it shot down the decision they had made in Muller). Like Lochner, the Court showed its determination to thwart Progressive legislation by striking it down as unconstitutional!
Direct primary
the citizens get to vote on the nominee for the party instead of party bosses doing it. This is an example of a reform successfully made by Progressives.
Initiative
this allows reformers to put before voters in general elections legislation that state legislatures have not yet approved. For example, if people get enough signatures on a petition to legalize marijuana in Maine, then the issue gets put on the ballot. This is an example of a reform successfully made by Progressives.
Referendum
gives voters the right in general elections to repeal an unpopular act that a state legislature had passed. For example, if the Maine Congress passes a bill to legalize cocaine, the people of Maine can get a petition together and force the issue onto a ballot. This is an example of a reform successfully made by Progressives.
Recall
this gives voters the ability to remove a public official from office who is doing a terrible job or does something unethical that doesn’t rise to the level of impeachment. For example, if we had recall in Maine, and the people of Maine gathered enough signatures, they could force Paul LePage out of power now instead of waiting until his term expires. This is an example of a reform successfully made by Progressives.
Australian Ballot
The secret ballot was brought back. The government, rather than political machines, prints the ballots and supervises elections. This is an example of a reform successfully made by Progressives.
Sixteenth Amendment
When President Woodrow Wilson signed the Underwood-Simmons Tariff into law (more on this later), the tariff was reduced significantly. This reduction would hurt the United States government budget because it relied on the revenue from the tariff. To compensate for this lost revenue, Congress ratified the Sixteenth Amendment. After the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment, Congress began a graduated income tax. The graduated income tax began with a levy on incomes over $3,000, which was well above the average family’s income. This tax made up for the lost revenue from the now reduced tariff. The amendment was actually proposed in 1909 by President Taft, but it took until 1913 for 3/4 of the states to ratify it. This is an example of a reform successfully made by Progressives.
Graduated income tax
the 16th Amendment created a national income tax. A graduated tax means that people who are wealthier pay a higher percentage of their income in taxes than poor people. Tax rates for the wealthiest Americans were once 90% (during WWII), but have declined since then to a rate of 39.6%.
Seventeenth Amendment
This allows Americans to vote directly for U.S. Senator, instead of having the state legislatures do it. This is an example of a reform successfully made by Progressives, as it holds Senators more responsive to the concerns of the people.
Eighteenth Amendment
The 18th Amendment went into effect in January 1920. It prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transport of alcohol. It was the Progressives’ wish to reduce immorality, drunkenness, and disloyalty (drinking was often associated with Germans and Irish, who were the “bad guys” in WWI). A group known as the Anti-Saloon League had fought for years to get alcohol prohibited, and they used the Great War to make it happen. Leaders of the movement to limit or ban alcohol included the Women’s Christian Temperance Movement, which sought to ban alcohol, and Neil S. Dow of Maine, who was the first leader of the Prohibition movement.
Volstead Act
It *prohibited alcohol in the United States, by enforcing the 18th Amendment*. The 18th Amendment prohibited liquors, but did not define which “intoxicating liquors.” It was suggested that a bill be added to better define the terms of the 18th Amendment. The three main purposes of the act were: *1. to prohibit intoxicating beverages 2. to regulate the manufacturing of high proof spirits to be sold for purposes other than beverages, and 3. to promote a small amount of alcohol to be produced solely for scientific use, dyes, and manufacturing* (anything other than consumption).
Nineteenth Amendment
the *right to vote for women* was guaranteed at the federal level by this amendment in 1920. Women had fought for the right to vote since the Seneca Falls Convention in New York in 1848. In 1890, *Wyoming became the first state to allow women to vote*, and several western states quickly followed. Believe it or not, *New York was the only state east of the Mississippi that allowed women the right to vote before this amendment passed in 1920*. Also in 1890, the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) was formed. Made up of young women who went door to door campaigning for their rights, NAWSA *argued that women were not equal to men, unlike earlier groups. They argued that women were different from men* (pretty smart women)! *Women, they argued, were more moral and nurturing than men and understood how to vote with virtue in their hearts*. Predictions that women would radically change politics were false. In fact, women helped elect Warren G. Harding, generally regarded as the worst President in history, with their first ballot!
Anthracite Coal Strike
Unlike his pro-business/anti-labor predecessors, *TR defended the right of labor to organize, and refused to use the army to put down strikes.* In 1902, he *intervened in this strike on the side of labor* to force management to agree to binding *arbitration* (when an arbitrator makes a decision, both sides agree to abide by it). Miners in the anthracite fields of eastern PA *wanted recognition of their union, the United Mine Workers.* They *also wanted a 10 to 20% increase in wages and an 8-hour day*. When their employers refused to negotiate, they went on strike. In the 5th month of the strike, *TR called the mine owners and the UMW to the White House*. The mine owners expected TR to arrest strike leaders if they refused to go back to work. Instead, *TR supported arbitration and warned the mine owners that if they refused to go along, 10,000 federal troops would seize their property!* The UMW *got the workers a 10% wage increase and a 9-hour day*, but still was not officially recognized by the company.
Northern Securities case
(1904) *TR ordered the Justice Department to prosecute the company of this name, a $400 million monopoly that controlled railroad lines and traffic between Chicago and Washington State*. The courts then *broke up the company under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act* of 1890. TR believed that *industrial concentration brought the US wealth, productivity, and a rising standard of living*. He believed that the federal *government should use its power to punish those that used their power improperly*, and to *protect citizens who were at a disadvantage in their dealings with industry*. The new role would *require the federal government to expand its powers*. The strengthening of the federal government, not a return to a small-scale industry, was the true aim of Roosevelt’s antitrust campaign.
Trust-buster
TR has a reputation for being one of these, *someone who went after big business and brought it to its knees, all to benefit the average Joe*. However, it is VERY important to understand that *TR did not seek to eliminate big business, but only to end its abuses*. Bigness was not necessarily bad.
Square Deal
In 1904, *TR ran for reelection by offering every American this.* The slogan resonated with voters who saw *TR as the champion for fighting against ill-gotten wealth and privilege, while still treating business fairly*. Shockingly, the Republican Party had temporarily aligned itself with the cause of the progressive reformers.
Elkins Act
TR worked to *expand the federal government’s power to regulate the railroads by strengthening the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887*. This act (1903) *made the acceptance of rebates punishable, as well as the granting of them*. *Prior to this act, the livestock and petroleum industries paid standard rail shipping rates, but then would demand that the railroad company give them rebates*. The railroad companies resented being extorted by trusts like Standard Oil and therefore welcomed passage of this. President *TR sponsored the law as a part of his “Square Deal” domestic program*, and it greatly boosted his popularity.
Hepburn Act
(1906). TR encouraged the Congress to pass this act in 1906. It *greatly increased the regulatory power of the Interstate Commerce Commission and finally made it an effective body*. Its most important *new authority gave it the power to fix maximum rates.*
Preservationists
led by *John Muir, they wanted to use federal funds to buy lands to keep them pristine.* As much as possible, the *natural features would be left alone and preserved*, and the *lands would be forever off-limits to developers and industrialists*. To preserve the West, in particular, *they encouraged TR to create 5 new national parks, 16 national monuments, and 53 wildlife reserves*. And, *the National Park Service was established in 1916 to oversee these treasures.*
Conservationists
led by *Gifford Pinchot, they cared little for national parks or grand canyons*. They wanted to *manage the environment to ensure the most efficient use of the nation’s resources for economic development.* TR created the *National Forest Service to institute a system of competitive bidding for the right to harvest timber on national forest lands*. *Conservatives and they scored a major victory with the passage of the Newlands Reclamation Act, which publicly financed irrigation projects.*
Newlands Reclamation Act
(1902). It *irrigated land in 20 Western states*. Much of the West could not have been settled without the water provided by the Act. The *West became one of the premier agricultural areas in the world*. Bureau of Reclamation statistics show that the *more than 600 of their dams on waterways throughout the West provide irrigation for 10 million acres of farmland, providing 60% of the nation’s vegetables and 25% of its fruits and nuts.*
Hetch Hetchy
In 1906, a *major earthquake and subsequent fire devastated San Francisco, showing the inadequacy of the city’s water system*. San Francisco applied to the United States Department of the Interior to gain water rights to Hetch Hetchy, and *in 1908 San Francisco was granted the rights to dam the Tuolumne River*. This *provoked a seven-year environmental struggle with the environmental group Sierra Club*, led by John Muir. Muir observed: “Dam Hetch Hetchy! As well dam for water-tanks the people’s cathedrals and churches, for no holier temple has ever been consecrated by the heart of man.” I think you can guess the outcome – *the river was dammed, the valley flooded, and thousands of species of flora and fauna were destroyed*. But, at least SF now had water!
Panic of 1907
The *stock market crashed, and prices fell to half their value of 1906*. *Conservatives claimed Roosevelt had caused the recession by destroying confidence in business*. However, the actual *cause was speculators attempting to corner the market of stock in the United Copper Company*. Don’t you hate it when facts get in the way of politics? Anyway, the *panic is important because it led to reform of the currency and banking system*, ultimately culminating in the Federal Reserve System (more on this later).
Robert M. La Follette
Known as *”Fighting Bob,” he was a Progressive U.S. Senator from Wisconsin* from 1906-1925.
Socialist Party of America
*Dissatisfied with the relatively conservative pace of the Progressive Movement, some Americans turned to socialism*. *Socialism stood for the transfer of industry from private to public control*. Socialists believed that such a transfer, usually defined in terms of *governmental ownership of private corporations*, would *allow the workers to control the wealth and power that industrialists had amassed for themselves*. Socialists became very *popular after the publication of Looking Backward 2000-1887* by Edward Bellamy. In 1912, the party’s perennial candidate (he ran 5 times), *Eugene V. Debs, attracted nearly 6 percent of the popular votes* (nearly 1 million votes) in the presidential election. The *socialists had over 300 newspapers and periodicals*. The most important was Appeal to Reason, published by Julius Wayland and sent out to 750,000 subscribers each week. *In 1905, Wayland published Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle in serial form*. Luckily, WWI came along, and the *government was able to pass laws that allowed them to arrest and imprison socialist leaders*, essentially destroying them as a political force.
Marcus Garvey
he *tried to revive the Back to Africa Movement* in the 1920s. He *called on blacks to forget about integration* – his goal was a separate black nation. *His ideas are called “black nationalism.”* The Universal Negro Improvement Association, with millions of members, *tried to facilitate the nationalist movement*. He argued bitterly with other black leaders, especially DuBois, and *made some mistakes when he expressed support for the KKK* on the grounds that neither group believed in desegregation! His *movement was a complete failure, but his talk of Black Nationalism resonated with many blacks who did not want to integrate with whites*.
William Howard Taft
*TR had promised in 1904 not to run for reelection in 1908, so he reluctantly stepped aside, despite his popularity*. TR chose a successor who would carry out “my policies.” At the Republican convention in 1908, *TR used his control of party machinery to push through Taft’s nomination on the first ballot*. The Democrats nominated William Jennings Bryan, loser in two previous elections, as their man. Taft, at 6 feet, 350 pounds, squashed Bryan in the election! Though TR was known as the “trust buster,” *Taft actually brought 90 lawsuits against trusts during his 4 years* in office compared to *44 for TR in his 7.5 years*. In 1911, the *Supreme Court ordered the breakup of Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company*, for example. Also in 1911, *Taft decided to go after United States Steel, but failed*. Interestingly, this attempt *infuriated TR*, which makes one wonder just how much of a “trust buster” he really was (TR considered US Steel to be a “good” trust). *TR and Taft split after this, leading to TR’s re-entry into the presidential race in 1912.*
Payne-Aldrich Tariff
*Taft alienated the progressives of the Republican Party by signing this into law*. This tariff, *despite Taft’s campaign promises to lower tariffs, actually raised taxes on hundreds of products* Taft then really angered the progressives by *claiming that it was “the best bill that the Republican Party ever passed.”*
Ballinger Affair
Conservationist *Gifford Pinchot criticized his superior, R.A. Ballinger, the Secretary of the Interior, for giving public waterpower sites and coal lands to private interests*. *Taft fired Pinchot for insubordination*. The public was angry because *Taft fired a friend of conservation.*
“Dollar diplomacy”
The *Monroe Doctrine had warned Europeans not to intervene in America*; the *Roosevelt Corollary maintained this warning, and added that the US alone could intervene in Latin American affairs*. Now, instead of “thou shalt not intervene,” *our policy was “we shall intervene to prevent you from intervening!”* TR’s rewriting of the Monroe Doctrine led directly to the “Bad Neighbor” policy – the US repeatedly landed marines in Cuba (4 times between 1900 and 1933), Nicaragua (2 times, once for 8 years), Haiti (2 times, once for 19 years), Dominican Republic (4 times, once for 8 years), Panama (6 times), Honduras (7 times), and Guatemala (once – weren’t they lucky!). By 1924, half of the Latin American states’ economies were being directed by some extent by the US. The Caribbean became known as a “Yankee lake.” *Our involvement in other countries around the world to protect our “interests,” such as the United Fruit Company in Central America, for example, led to our policy under Taft being known as “dollar diplomacy.”* In other words, as a nation, *we determined our foreign policy based on whether or not American corporations were threatened in other countries.* Dollar diplomacy *involved the U.S. government granting loans to nations in Latin America and East Asia to support friendly governments and to keep out other countries’ investments*. Sadly, the *US fought numerous movements for democracy and sided with dictators* to protect our own corporate interests in other parts of the world. Some countries, known as Banana Republics, became little more than American puppet states. Thank God we’ve learned from history and don’t do that sort of thing anymore!
Gavrilo Princip
He was a Serb who was a Yugoslav nationalist involved in the movement Young Bosnia to free Bosnia from Austrian rule. He is known because he assassinated the Archduke of Austria, Franz Ferdinand, and his wife Sophie. The assassinations took place in Sarajevo, Bosnia in June 1914. Princip and his accomplices were arrested and implicated many members of the Serbian military. The arrest and discovery of Serbian involvement in the assassination led to Austria-Hungary issuing the Austro-Hungarian Ultimatum to Serbia, basically telling Serbia to surrender its sovereignty or be invaded. Serbia refused and was invaded!
Black Hand
This is the name of a military secret society behind the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Founded in Serbia, it was created in 1911. Its intention was to unite all the territories populated by South Slav peoples who had been annexed by Austria-Hungary, and free them from Austrian rule. It succeeded in causing WWI! Ultimately, since Austria did lose WWI, they achieved their goals because Yugoslavia was created at the end of the war.
American neutrality
Wilson asked Americans to be neutral “in fact as well as in name” and in thought as well as in deed. Wilson worried that ethnic groups would fight each other, so it was better just to stay out of the war. Three realities doomed the neutrality policy: *A. German-Americans, anti-British Irish-Americans, and anti-Russian Swedish-Americans cheered for the Central Powers. But more Americans associated with the Allied cause.* “Remember Lafayette!” (the Frenchman who helped us in the American Revolution) was the cry. *B. Economic ties to the Allies. $2.3 billion in exports to Britain & France. Only $289,000 to Germany. Loans – $2.3 billion to Allies, $27 million to Germany.* Germany saw the US as an Allied arsenal and bank! Germany decided that it must stop contraband from the US ships! *C. pro-Allied sympathies of the Wilson administration. Wilson disliked German militarism. He felt that his ideas of internationalism stood a better chance if Britain won.* He wanted a world governing body so that countries could work together to prevent future wars. Wilsonianism is the name given to this idealist internationalism. The *ideal world* would be open in every sense of the word – *no trade barriers, democracy, no secret diplomacy, self-determination, free-market capitalism, and world peace!* Sounds like Fantasyland! But remember, these were times of idealism, when we thought if we just applied ourselves that we could solve any problem. Still, just because war was inevitable does not mean that Wilson wanted to get us into a war. Wilson did keep us out for two and a half years. He ran on a platform of “peace, progressivism, and preparedness.” The 1916 Democratic slogan was, “He kept us out of war.” Wilson defeated Republican Charles Evans Hughes by suggesting that the Republicans would drag us into the war. Close election – 277 to 254 – but Wilson wins! One month after Inauguration Day, we go to war!
U-Boats
Before World War I, Germany and Britain declared war zones in the seas around Europe. Britain planted ocean mines throughout their waters and the Germans used these to defend their waters. This is a submarine. These German submarines were the main cause of America declaring war on Germany. Germany disregarded international law by practicing unrestricted submarine warfare with them, and claimed American lives using them to torpedo American ships. The Germans referred to these “undersea boats” as Unterseeboot, which eventually were termed this.
Lusitania
This was a British passenger liner torpedoed and sunk off the coast of Ireland by a German U-boat on May 7, 1915. 1198 died, including 128 Americans. It was carrying more than forty-two hundred cases of ammunition, which the Germans used as a reason to defend their act of piracy. After all, the ship was supposed to be a passenger vessel, carrying people, furs, and cheese! As a result of the sinking, the Eastern part of the United States continued to lean toward declaring war while the rest of the country wanted to stay out of the fighting. Wilson, claiming to remain neutral, did not declare war after the incident in fear that it would be similar to the mistake of entering the War of 1812.
Sussex
After German U-boats sunk the Lusitania and another ship named the Arabic, Wilson was able to coerce Berlin to agree not to sink any more passenger ships “without warning.” Of course, warning a merchant ship meant that the U-boat had to surface. Doing so left it completely vulnerable to attack, and the British were known to violate international law by arming their merchant vessels. So, in March of 1916, the Germans torpedoed a French passenger ship named this. Wilson was livid and threatened to terminate all diplomatic relations with Germany if they continued their submarine warfare. This threat was basically threatening war. The sinking resulted in this Pledge, which was an agreement between the United States and Germany stating that passenger ships would not be targeted, merchant ships wouldn’t be sunk unless there were confirmed weapons on board, and merchant ships would not be sunk without provisions for the passengers and crew. This pledge was repealed in 1917 when Germany believed they could defeat the Allied Forces with unrestricted warfare before the United States entered the war. This event, along with many others, contributed to the decision made by the United Stated to enter the war.
William Jennings Bryan
He, a three-time Democratic Party candidate for President, supported Wilson for President in 1912. As a result of his support, he was appointed Secretary of State when Wilson won the election. Though he was Secretary of State, in control of foreign affairs, he was rarely ever consulted, with Wilson making all of the decisions for foreign policy on his own. He, on multiple occasions, attempted to negotiate a treaty with Germany to avoid war between the United States and Germany. In 1914, he wrote, “It is not likely that either side will win so complete a victory as to be able to dictate terms, and if either side does win such a victory it will probably mean preparation for another war. It would seem better to look for a more rational basis for peace.” Unfortunately, Wilson did not listen to him, despite Wilson’s claim that he wanted the US to remain neutral. He advised Wilson that Americans not be permitted to travel on belligerent ships and that passenger vessels not be allowed to carry war goods. Wilson ignored him! Are these the actions of someone who doesn’t want war?! He resigned in protest of Wilson’s actions. Pro-British Robert Lansing replaced him.
Zimmermann Note
This was one of the main causes to the United States entrance to World War I. Also known as the this Telegram, this telegram was sent by the Germans to Mexico. Germany urged Mexico to attack the United States and ally with Germany in the event that the United States declared war against Germany. They also promised the Mexicans the territory they lost to the United States back in the Mexican War. Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico were the states that Germany guaranteed would be reentered as Mexican territories. Though this note was coded and secretly sent to Mexico, the British were able to obtain and translate the note. Kindly passing the note on to the United States on March 1, 1917, the British were able to get what they wanted by having the United States enter the war on the British side. The note is named after Arthur Zimmermann, the German foreign secretary.
American entry into WWI
On April 2, 1917, Wilson called a special session of Congress. He declared that Germany was fighting a “war against mankind.” The world “must be made safe for democracy” and this would be the “war to end all wars.” On April 6, we go to war! *America went to war to reform world politics. Wilson feared that we wouldn’t get a seat at the peace conference (and thereby lose our chance to shape the post-war world) if we didn’t fight. Incidentally, Jeanette Rankin, a former suffrage organizer, became the first woman ever elected to Congress (1916). She represented Montana, voted against WWI, and was the only person in Congress to vote against U.S. entry into WWII! We had been preparing for war. War leagues and preparedness movements had encouraged Wilson to build up our armed forces. Not surprisingly, anti-war groups were active, but made to look unpatriotic. Clearly, anyone against the war was a German terrorist!
Committee on Public Information
Also known as the CPI or the Creel Committee, this was an agency founded by the government of the United States. The purpose for the committee was to influence the citizens’ public opinion about our participation in World War I. In other words, it was a propaganda arm of the US government. From April 13, 1917, to August 21, 1919, they used every type of media to stir up enthusiasm for the war effort and gain the support of the people. Though it was only 28 months, the committee was able to convince Americans to support the war and to become involved in its efforts. Overall, the committee was founded to spread “good feelings” about the war to Americans.
Randolph Bourne, “Twilight of Idols”
A graduate of Columbia University (no relation to Jason) he was an American progressive writer. Bourne is well known for his essays, including “Twilight of Idols.” In this essay, Bourne discusses how America claims to have entered the war to spread democracy and preserve it where it already was. Bourne points out that democracy was just used to justify our entrance to the war and that democracy itself was never actually examined as a war effort. The essay was an argument against John Dewey, the head of the faction of pro-war progressives who Bourne had taken a class under at Columbia. His former professors believed that the war was to fight to spread democracy, and Bourne used what he learned from his class to write the essay fighting against it. Clearly, he was a Hun-loving traitor!
Selective Service Act (1917)
This was passed by Congress to authorize the federal government to raise a national army to fight the war. The act was canceled in November 1918, at the end of the war. At the time of World War I, the United States Army was tiny compared to those of European powers. The National Defense Act of 1916 authorized for the army to grow, but by 1917 only 120,000 men served in the army. Wilson at first believed that we could use only volunteers to fight this war, but it soon became evident that volunteers alone would not suffice. According to this act, all men from the age of 21 to 30 were required to enlist for military service. By June 1917, nearly 10 million men had registered with Selective Service, and about 5 million men, including volunteers, served in WWI. Later, Congress revised the age requirements to include all men from 18 to 45! Though historically there has been a low draft success rate, this draft was overall fairly successful since only 350,000 “dodged” the draft.
American Expeditionary Force
When the United States declared war against Germany and its allies in 1917, President Woodrow Wilson sent this under the authority of General John Pershing to the Western Front. The AEF fought beside British and French allies against the Germans throughout the last years of the World War. By the end of the war, the AEF had suffered 320,000 casualties, including 53,402 battle deaths, 63,114 non-combat deaths, and 204,000 wounded. Another major cause of death for the AEF members was the influenza pandemic in 1918. More than 25,000 men from the AEF were ill from the sickness and many died.
Doughboys
This was the name given to fighters in the American Expeditionary Force. At first the nickname solely referred to infantryman, but between 1917 and 1918 the term expanded to include all American armed forces. Though it sounds like this would be a nickname used in a derogatory sense, the term was often used in diaries and letters of US servicemen. Where the term originated is still being debated.
Harlem Hellfighters
The 369th Infantry Regiment, also known as this, was the first all-black combat unit from the U.S. to enter World War I. They were shipped overseas on December 27, 1917 to Europe to fight. Since there was no official role for America’s black soldiers, General John J. Pershing assigned the troop to France. The Germans nicknamed the unit “Hellfighters” because in 191 days they never had any of their men captured and lost no ground. In the end, almost one third of the men in the unit died during the war. The French government awarded each member of the unit an honorary metal called the Croix de Guerre (Cross of War). Unfortunately, when the war was over, blacks returned to second-class citizenship in the US, dashing the hopes of men like DuBois who hoped that fighting for democracy and making the world free would lead to equal rights for African-Americans.
War Industries Board
It was a United States government agency established in July 1917 during World War I. The board’s responsibility was to coordinate purchases of supplies for the war. This organization encouraged large corporations to mass-produce to increase their efficiency. The board also encouraged corporations to eliminate waste by standardizing products. This board set quotas for production, distributed raw materials, and fixed prices. Bernard M. Baruch was the leader of the War Industries Board. As a result of the WIB, industrial production raised 20%.
Food Administration
led by Herbert Hoover, the future president. It ran programs to improve the production of food and to conserve as much as possible. The country sacrificed so much that our consumption of food dropped by 15%! It set prices on food and regulated its distribution. Americans were urged to grow “victory gardens” to help the war effort. People were also asked to tolerate meatless (“Meatless Mondays”) and wheat-less (“Wheatless Wednesdays”) meals. Yuck!
Liberty Bonds
It was a war bond that supported the Allied cause in World War I. The money from the bonds supported our war efforts. Quickly becoming a “patriotic duty,” buying a war bonds became a common contribution to the war for most Americans. People who did not buy them were viewed with suspicion.
National War Labor Board
Its purpose was to end disputes between workers and employers to ensure worker reliability during the war to remain productive. This federal agency, created in April 1918 by Woodrow Wilson, was made up of representatives from business and labor. The chairman of the board was William Howard Taft, former President. The board supported an eight-hour workday, equal pay for women, and the right to form unions. It did, however, fight against strikes because of the threat to wartime production posed by strikes. This board didn’t actually have enforcement power, but since the president and the public supported it, its decisions were followed. As a result, the strength of organized labor was increased, union membership doubled, and the AFL membership rose by 1 million!
National Woman’s Party
Led by Quaker activist Alice Paul, it was a group of women who opposed the war and female contributions to the war effort. Founded in 1916, the party fought for women’s rights. Unlike most other women’s organizations, it focused on passing an additional amendment to the Constitution that would grant women the right to vote and guarantee women’s suffrage. They fought for suffrage through marches and strikes.
Carrie Chapman Catt
A women’s suffragist during the early 1900s, she argued in front of Congress for equal rights. She was president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and fought for an additional amendment to the constitution granting women the right to vote. In her address to Congress she said, “How can our nation escape the logic it has never failed to follow, when its last unenfranchised class calls for the vote? Behold our Uncle Sam floating the banner with one hand, “Taxation without representation is tyranny,” and with the other seizing the billions of dollars paid in taxes by women to whom refuses ‘representation.’… Is there a single man who can justify such inequality of treatment, such outrageous discrimination? Not one.”
Alice Paul
She was the leader of the National Woman’s Party. She was a Quaker activist that opposed America’s involvement in the war and female contributions to the war effort. Her focus was to lobby for a constitutional amendment that would guarantee women’s suffrage in the United States. Along with Catt, her hard work led to the enactment of the 19th Amendment in 1920.
Russian Revolution – Effect on War
It had an enormous effect on World War I. Russia’s losses on the Eastern Front during the war were a major cause of the Revolution. At the conclusion of the Revolution, Russia’s conflict with Germany was solved upon the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. As a result of this agreement, Germany was able to focus its troops on France and Belgium. Removing German troops from the Eastern Front near Russia and relocating them to France and Belgium was extremely threatening to the Allies. Luckily for the Allies, however, the United States had just joined the war, which compensated for their loss of Russia. It established the first communist economic system in the world.
Communism
it is a form of government that relies on every person to work in the society, and everyone will receive an equal share in return. Its main focus is to bring everyone to equal social status. To do this, the wealth is redistributed to the nation’s poor by taking it from the upper class, bringing them down to the level of everyone else. These countries were eager to spread it because the system would be more efficient if the entire world participated. After the war, fear of it replaced fear of the Germans, and the US suffered through the first Red Scare.
Espionage and Sedition Acts
The first act (June 15, 1917) was passed immediately after the United States declared war against Germany to make the world safe for democracy. The act authorized officials to arrest people whose opinions were allegedly threatening national security. This act was controversial because it went against the 1st Amendment. Along with this act, the second was also extremely controversial. Passed May 16, 1918, the second act was an addition to the first act and said that “uttering, printing, writing, or publishing any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language intended to cause contempt, scorn, contumely, or disrespect for the U.S. government or the Constitution” was illegal and grounds for arrest.
Eugene Debs’ Arrest
Along with the many Socialists and Wobblies that voiced opposition to the war, Eugene did as well. He delivered a series of speeches against the war effort, which got him arrested. Charged with “impeding the war effort,” he was convicted and sentenced to ten years in federal prison. Ten years in prison for opposing the war! Rapists serve about 5 years! On Christmas Day in 1921, President Warren G. Harding freed him and 23 other prisoners “of conscience.” While in prison in 1920, he received nearly 1 million votes for President!
Schenck v. United States
He was the leader of the Socialist Party and printed, distributed, and mailed leaflets to nearly 150,000 eligible for the draft. The letters advocated opposition to the draft, which was illegal according to the Espionage Act of 1917. The Court upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 as constitutional. The Court ruled that the defendant did not have his 1st Amendment right to freedom of speech against the draft because of the Espionage Act. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes expressed the Court’s unanimous decision that the First Amendment could be restricted in time of war. The “clear and present danger” standard for free speech was established. If words “are of such nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantial evils that Congress has a right to prevent,” then free speech could be limited. Yikes! We were becoming like the society we were trying to defeat! I will have to re-examine the 1st Amendment to try to find the part that says that it can be suspended during wartime, but, then again, I am not as wise as the Justices!
Debs v. United States
This was a Supreme Court decision that upheld the Espionage Act of 1917. He, leader of the Socialist Party, fought the draft during World War I. In Canton, Ohio, he made a speech that protested U.S. involvement in the war. After the speech, he was arrested under the Espionage Act of 1917. After being convicted, he was sentenced to ten years in prison.
Great Migration (African-American)
This was a long-term movement of African Americans from the South to the North. This from the South transformed many of the northern cities like Chicago. Chicago took more than 500,000 of the 7 million African Americans from the South to the North. People wanted to escape the poverty in the South and find jobs in the industrialized North.
Big Four
They were the leaders of the Versailles peace negotiations in 1919. David Lloyd George of Great Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, and Woodrow Wilson of the United States were this (Great Britain, France, Italy, and the US). The Allies at the Paris Peace Conference numbered more than 20; they, however, were the decision makers in the Peace Conference.
Fourteen Points
Toward the end of WWI, Woodrow Wilson addressed Congress with a speech called this. On January 18, 1918, Wilson delivered the speech to a joint session of Congress to assure the world that the war was being fought for moral reasons and that peace would come to Europe as a result of the fighting. They espoused a belief in the right of all peoples to self-determination. Wilson supported the creation of new nations to reflect ethnic boundaries. They included: freedom of the seas, open covenants (no secret treaties), adjustment of colonial claims with respect for native populations, free trade, reductions in armaments, and impartial mediation of colonial claims. It proposed a League of Nations, an association of nations that would aid in implementing the new principles and in resolving future controversies.
Treaty of Versailles
It was a peace treaty at the end of WWI. Resolving the conflict between the Allied Powers and Germany, it was signed on June 28, 1919. Each international power that had sided with Germany in the war signed other, separate treaties. It had many provisions. One of the most controversial of the provisions was that Germany was forced to accept sole responsibility for causing the war, disarm, and pay reparations to some of the Entente Powers. These reparations were valued at about $31.4 billion dollars, which is approximately $400 billion US dollars in 2013. Many believed this sum was too excessive for Germany to pay because it would destroy their economy. They were right!
Henry Cabot Lodge
He, who was famously known as “Cabot,” was born in Boston, Massachusetts. His most important political role was chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. As the chairman, he had an enormous role in the debate over whether or not to join the League of Nations. His personal stance was against the League of Nations, and he was successful in opposing it. He was a “reservationist” who intensely disliked Wilson. Reservationists changed the treaty so much that Wilson would not support it.
Irreconcilables
They were a group of 16 Senators who opposed the League of Nations. Senator William Borah, Hiram Johnson and Robert LaFollette led the group. These Senators included men who had opposed US entry into World War I, and continued to argue that America avoid entangling itself in European affairs. Another contributor to their opposition for the League of Nations was their hatred toward Wilson, the President who proposed and supported the League of Nations. They were mostly conservative Republicans (except Fighting Bob!) and Wilson was a Democrat. Wilson neglected to take any Republicans with him when he traveled to Europe to the peace conference, and they resented this. Unlike the reservationists, they rejected the treaty completely. Both groups together defeated it, and the US did not sign the Treaty of Versailles.
League of Nations
This (a precursor to the United Nations) was the most important point to Wilson in his 14 Points. This intergovernmental organization was a result of the Treaty of Versailles at the conclusion of World War I. Its main goal was to prevent war (avoiding another world war) by “collective security, disarmament, and settling international disputes.” Other topics to be discussed by them were labor conditions, treatment of native inhabitants, trafficking of people and drugs, global health, prisoners of war, protection of minorities, and the arms trade. Though Wilson suggested and supported it, the United States didn’t end up joining it because of the Irreconcilables and Wilson’s own stubbornness (he would not compromise).
John Maynard Keynes
Germany was forced to pay $31.4 billion in reparations. At the time, he, perhaps the best-known economist of the 20th century, wrote The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919). He stated that the loss of Germany’s colonies, the loss of the Rhineland and Saar, the loss of its navy, and the huge reparations all would lead to German economic collapse. He was right!
Election of 1920
It is seen as a referendum on the Treaty of Versailles. The Democrats ran James Cox of Ohio, who had supported the League, against Republican Warren G. Harding of Ohio, who seemed opposed to it. Republicans wanted to “return to normalcy,” and be done with international affairs. Harding won easily. Interestingly, federal prisoner number 9653 at the Atlanta Penitentiary, Eugene V. Debs, received over 900,000 votes as the Socialist candidate! Harding went on to be one of the worst Presidents in U.S. History.
Russian Revolution
a.k.a. Bolshevik Revolution (fall 1917). Lenin, leader of the new Soviet Union (USSR), as Russia was now called, made peace with Germany in early 1918 – Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. This withdrew Russia from the war. America felt betrayed. Wilson refused to recognize the USSR; instead, he sent troops to Russia to support the White Army, and he blockaded Russia. The Soviet Union’s Red Army defeated the White Army by 1921.
Red Scare (1919-1920)
The American propaganda machine begun by the CPI quickly shifted from labeling dissenters as “pro-German” to “pro-Bolshevik.” Wilson’s administration quickly labeled political enemies as “Reds,” “Communists,” and “Bolsheviks.”
A. Mitchell Palmer
He was the Attorney General for Woodrow Wilson. He is best known for directing the ______ Raids, attempts by the United States Department of Justice to arrest and deport radical leftists, especially anarchists. The raids and arrests occurred in November 1919 and January 1920 under the leadership of this Attorney General. Raids were conducted in 30 cities and 23 states without warrants (as required by the 4th Amendment). He claimed that the Justice Department had seized bombs, but it soon came out that the raids managed to seize a grand total of 4 pistols! So, constitutional liberties were thrown out the window because of the threat posed by four pistols!!! More than 500 foreign citizens were deported, including a number of prominent leftist leaders. The Justice Department’s unlawful activities included arresting suspected radicals, beating suspects, and holding suspects in unlawful incommunicado detention (holding people without granting them their constitutional right to an attorney). Interestingly, he, a Quaker, was nicknamed the “Fighting Quaker” until after alleged anarchists bombed his house. Then, he became known as the “Quaking Fighter.”
Buford
a ship used to deport aliens to Russia. 249 alleged alien radicals were shipped on the so-called “Soviet Ark” to Russia.
Seattle General Strike of 1919
Feb. 1919 – 1st general citywide strike in the U.S. – started in the shipyards. Workers wanted a wage increase after not getting one in two years. They were refused, so they went on strike! The shipyards closed. Most of the city’s approximately 130 local unions walked out to support the shipyard workers. 65,000 people stopped working in a city of 315,000 people! Stores closed and streetcars stopped running. Most local and national press, corporate-owned, called the strikers “Bolsheviks.” The strike was a revolutionary plot to overthrow the existing capitalist system, they said. Mayor Ole Hanson armed the police force and threatened martial law and the use of federal troops. Cops and vigilantes rounded up “Reds” (i.e. labor leaders). The IWW hall was raided and its leaders arrested. Federal agents shut down the labor-owned newspaper, the Union Record, and its staff was arrested. These unconstitutional acts broke the strike. Seattle had been saved from communism! “Americanism had triumphed over ‘Bolshevism,'” said Mayor Hanson.
Boston Police Strike
(Sept. 1919). Cops wanted higher pay. The city Commissioner then fired 19 cops for trying to form a union. Riots broke out in Boston after the strike began, with no cops to stop them! Calvin Coolidge said that the strike was a threat to public safety. He referred to the cops as communists! He called in the National Guard to replace the strikers. Coolidge becomes a national hero! *Shows the conservative mood of the country.
Great Steel Strike of 1919
AFL, a conservative union, led the strike, which included most of the Midwest – 350,000 workers. They wanted higher wages, 8-hour day, and union recognition. Obviously, that made them commies! The company portrayed workers as dangerous radicals who threatened the American way of life (which apparently meant working yourself to death for virtually no pay in wretched working conditions). The strikers got nothing.
Sacco-Vanzetti Trial
In S. Braintree, MA. Nicola _____ and Bartolomeo ________ were a shoe factory worker and a fish peddler. They were Italians, atheists, anarchists, and draft dodgers – 4 strikes against them! They were convicted of murdering a guard and paymaster during a robbery. Both men were carrying pistols when they were arrested, and ____’s gun was of the same caliber as the murder weapon used to kill one of the murder victims. But, several witnesses claimed that ________ was working at the fish market, selling eels during the time of the robbery. The prosecution questioned the men about their political beliefs again and again during the trial, outraging people around the world that this was a political, not criminal, trial. Demonstrations took place throughout Europe! Thousands of French police were needed to keep a mob from storming the American embassy in Paris (10,000 cops and 18,000 soldiers). Albert Einstein, H.G. Wells, and even the Vatican spoke out on behalf of them. Future Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter accused prosecutor Frederick Katzmann of exploiting the public’s fear of communism and prejudice against immigrants to prosecute them and criticized Judge William Thayer for allowing it to happen. Judge Thayer, openly biased against the views of both men, formally sentenced them to death on April 9, 1927. In June, in a final attempt to save the lives of the two men, millions of supporters petitioned Massachusetts Governor Alvan T. Fuller to commute the death sentence. The battle to save them ended when they were executed in the electric chair on August 23, 1927. Today, many historians believe that _____ may have been guilty, and ________ was almost certainly innocent. Nearly everyone agrees, however, that the evidence was insufficient to convict the men. In 1977, Governor Michael Dukakis signed a proclamation that recognized the faults of the trial and cleared their names.
Ku Klux Klan
A hate group that was re-established in 1915 by William J. Simmons. They hired a public relations firm in 1920 – membership exploded. 5 million members by 1923. Anti: foreign, black, Catholic, Jewish, pacifist, Communist, internationalist, evolutionist, birth control, gambling, adultery, and bootlegging. Pro-American! Yeah! They very much resembled the American Party of the 1850s and conservatives in general. Lots of ritual – Imperial Wizards, Grand Goblins, King Kleagles, and other “Kreatures” made it up. They were involved in parades and cross burnings and wore sheets. Their slogan – “Kill the Kikes, Koons, and Katholics.” They had chapters in all 48 states. They used vigilante justice against bootleggers, adulterers, and wife beaters! They forced schools to teach creationism and do Bible readings. In 1925, Grand Dragon of Indiana, David Stephenson, was convicted of kidnapping and rape. At that time, 1/3 of all white men in Indiana were Klansmen! They declined very rapidly after the Stephenson scandal and after the leaders were caught embezzling membership money. *This was a manifestation of intolerance and prejudice of the 1920s. And, so, just so we have this straight – in the 1920s, cops and workers were disloyal commies, while violent racists were 100% American.
Perry Race Riot
This was a racially motivated conflict in December 1922 in _____, Florida. Charles Wright, a 21-year-old escaped convict, was arrested and jailed for murder. A mob, several thousand strong, made up of local and out-of-state whites, seized the accused man from the sheriff, and extracted a confession from Wright by means of torture. Wright claimed to have acted alone and was subsequently burned at the stake and the crowd collected souvenirs! Following this, two more black men were shot and hanged; whites then burned the town’s black school, Masonic lodge, church, amusement hall, and several families’ homes.
Rosewood massacre
This was a violent, racially motivated conflict that took place during the first week of January 1923 in rural Levy County, Florida. At least six blacks and two whites were killed, and the town of ________ was abandoned and destroyed in what contemporary news reports characterized as a race riot. The whole thing started when a white woman, discovered bleeding on her floor, claimed that a black man had assaulted her.
Scottsboro Boys
They were 9 black teenage boys accused of rape in Alabama in 1931. On March 25, 1931, several people were hoboing on a freight train. Several white boys jumped off the train and reported to the sheriff they had been attacked by a group of black boys. The sheriff deputized a posse, stopped and searched the train, arrested the black boys, and found two white girls who accused the boys of rape. The boys were tried by an all-white jury and found guilty. All but one of them served prison time. The Alabama legislature pardoned the boys posthumously…in November 2013!
Emergency Quota Act of 1921
Immigrants from Europe were restricted to a quota of 3% of the persons of their nationality who had been living in the US in 1910. This was still relatively favorable to SE Europeans, since many of them had already come by 1910. Based on that formula, the number of new immigrants admitted fell from 805,228 in 1920 to 309,556 in 1921-22. The 1910 formula was used instead of 1920 because 1910 was before the Jews arrived from Eastern Europe. The practical effect was to ban Jewish immigration. Sadly, this law was the one that kept many Jewish people from escaping to America during the Holocaust.
Immigration Act of 1924
The quota was reduced to 2%, and the census year was moved from 1910 to 1890 – before most New Immigrants had come to America. Great Britain and Ireland, for example, could send 65,000 immigrants per year, while Italy was only allowed 5,800. The act was a triumph for those who believed that blond-haired, blue-eyed people were of better blood. The Act also completely stopped immigration from Japan. Mass “Hate America” rallies erupted in Japan!
“Wets” and “Drys”
Ws were people who supported legalization of alcohol. They tended to be from urban areas and were often immigrants. Ds were people who supported Prohibition, and tended to be whites from rural America.
Speakeasy
It was an illegal bar during Prohibition. It got its name because one had to whisper a code word or name through a slot in a locked door to gain admittance.
Rumrunner
It was a person who smuggled alcohol into the United States. It usually is used to describe people who brought alcohol into the United States across the water.
Bootlegger
It was a person who smuggled alcohol into the United States. It usually is used to describe people who brought alcohol into the United States across land.
Moonshiner
A person who produces alcohol illegally. They use stills to produce their product, and these are sometimes made of old car radiators, full of chemicals and lead. To test for the presence of lead, savvy people would put a small amount on a spoon and light it. If the flame was red, then they knew it contained lead. “Lead burns red and makes you dead.”
“noble experiment”
This is the nickname given to Prohibition. National Prohibition not only failed to prevent the consumption of alcohol, but led to the extensive production of dangerous unregulated and untaxed alcohol, the development of organized crime, increased violence, and massive political corruption. Amazingly, some people today insist that Prohibition was a success! By the time Prohibition was repealed, nearly 800 gangsters in the City of Chicago alone had been killed in bootleg-related shootings. And, of course, thousands of citizens were killed, blinded, or paralyzed as a result of drinking contaminated bootleg alcohol.
Al Capone
He was a famous Chicago gangster who became wealthy and powerful by engaging in illegal activities like bootlegging and prostitution. He became a highly visible public figure. He made donations to various charitable endeavors using the money he made from his activities, and was viewed by many to be a “modern-day Robin Hood.” He was convicted on federal charges of tax evasion in 1931 and sent to Alcatraz.
St. Valentine’s Day Massacre
On *Feb. 14*, 1929, Al Capone’s men from the South Side of Chicago dressed up like police officers and lured Bugs Moran’s North Siders into a garage, where they executed seven of them. Although Capone was not on the scene, his public relations took a hit because it was obvious that it was his organization that had committed the murders.
John Dewey
a major educational reformer, he believed that students thrive in an environment where they are allowed to experience and interact with the curriculum, and all students should have the opportunity to take part in their own learning. He advocated for an educational structure that strikes a balance between delivering knowledge while also taking into account the interests and experiences of the student.
Leopold and Loeb
(1924) Both the sons of millionaires, 19-year-old Nathan _______ Jr. and 18-year-old Richard ____ kidnapped and murdered 14-year-old Bobby Franks because they wanted to commit “the perfect murder” to get a “thrill.” Not nearly as smart as they thought they were, the two young men made many blunders and were caught almost immediately. They pleaded guilty and through his eloquence, their lawyer, Clarence Darrow, saved them from the electric chair and they each received life plus 99 years. ____ was murdered in prison and _______ was paroled in 1958.
Fundamentalists
they are *people who interpret the Bible literally*. This group of religious conservatives rose in the 1910s as a reaction to the increasing influence of scientific thought that seems to contradict the Bible. For example, Christian these believe that the universe was created in six calendar days, while scientists argue that the development of the universe took place over billions of years. One issue that really angers them is evolution.
Scopes Trial
also known as the “monkey trial,” this involved the teaching of evolution in Tennessee. Tennessee’s Butler Act prohibited public school teachers from denying the Biblical account of man’s origin. John T. ______, a substitute teacher, was tried for violating the Butler Act. His defense attorney was Clarence Darrow and the prosecution included William Jennings Bryan. During the trial, Darrow called Bryan to the stand and asked him questions from the Bible, including asking him where Cain’s wife came from. Bryan, gauging the effect the session was having, snapped that the purpose of Darrow’s questioning was “to cast ridicule on everybody who believes in the Bible.” Darrow, with equal vehemence, retorted, “We have the purpose of preventing bigots and ignoramuses from controlling the education of the United States.” ______ was convicted, but the decision was overturned on a technicality. The trial split religious groups into fundamentalists and modernists, people who think that evolution and science is consistent with the Bible.
Bruce Barton
He was an advertising executive who wrote, The Man Nobody Knows in 1925. He called Jesus Christ the “best adman of all time,” depicting him as a salesman and model for a businessman. He is in this unit because, for the first time, mass consumerism became part of American life during the 1920s.
Black Sox Scandal
In September 1920 rumors got out that the 1919 World Series had been fixed. The rumors were that the White Sox players had been bribed to play to lose so that the Cincinnati Reds would win. White Sox stars confessed to participating and everybody was disappointed. Baseball stars had become idolized, and young fans especially had lost heroes that they wanted to believe in. The White Sox players went to trial and were acquitted – many believe that the jury was bribed. The public became more fed up with baseball when the confessions of the players were stolen from the state attorney’s office. Team owners knew they needed to do something so they created the position of baseball commissioner to help people believe in the sport again.
Kenesaw Mountain Landis
The first baseball commissioner, he was a federal judge known for honesty and toughness. He said that no player who even thought about throwing a game would ever be able to play pro baseball. He banned several White Sox players, including Shoeless Joe Jackson, from ever being inducted into the Hall of Fame. His words and tough actions led to people having confidence in their heroes once again. He and Babe Ruth together brought back baseball’s popularity.
Babe Ruth
His powerful hitting helped people forget all about the Black Sox. In the 1910s, he was one of the best left-handed pitchers in the major leagues, set a record for scoreless innings, and could hit home runs as well. When he was sold from the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees after the 1919 season, his hitting started the Yankee dynasty. In 1927, he broke his own record for home runs by hitting 60. He lived the life of an athlete, eating, drinking, and womanizing, and he constantly fascinated the public. He still holds the all-time record for slugging percentage and on base percentage.
Murderers’ Row
Nickname for the New York Yankees for their power-hitting lineups after 1921. The lineup included Ruth and Lou Gehrig.
Jack Dempsey
The *boxing equivalent of Babe Ruth*, he *won forty-nine out of sixty pro fights with one tie*. He had a tough background and started out being paid to fight in saloons for spectator contributions. In 1914, he turned pro, and in 5 years he fought a heavyweight champion, Jess Willard, whom he knocked out in the third round. He fought in the first million-dollar gate fight against the veteran Carpentier. The fight had a lot of publicity because it was a veteran against a military avoider. He won in the fourth round and the *New York Times used its first thirteen pages to cover it!* He wasn’t showy in his technique, he just did simple, shocking moves that were effective against opponents. He won another million dollars against Argentinean Luis Firpo, after being knocked out of the ring and into the press section. After this he didn’t fight for three years, and then he faced Gene Tunney. Tunney wasn’t a fighter and was well-read, but defeated him because he was out of shape. They battled again at the first $2 million gate fight with over 100,000 fans in the stadium, 60 million listening on the radio, and prisoners being allowed to listen when they weren’t supposed to. The fight was long and tough, with Tunney being knocked down but rising and then ultimately defeating him. He retired in fear of going blind if he took any more hits. He ended up looking good compared to Tunney in the public eye – people thought that Tunney was a show-off and it made up for D’s draft dodging.
Red Grange
Football’s greatest player of the time. He turned pro in 1925 and joined the Chicago Bears, and since he was so popular he helped the NFL gain respectability. He brought the largest crowd out to see a pro football game, and that record was broken when even more people paid to see him in another game. He put pro football on the map. He was known as the “Galloping Ghost.”
Big Bill Tilden
Named the greatest tennis player of all time, he was the first American to win the men’s singles at Wimbledon (and he won it twice more), got six straight national singles titles, and led every elite Davis Cup team from 1920-1926 to victory. When, in 1928, he was disqualified from the Davis Cup competition, France was so upset that they couldn’t see him play that the US ambassador to France had to intervene with the US Lawn Tennis Association to make sure he’d be reinstated.
Helen Wills
*1920s’ best women’s tennis star*. She won seven national singles titles, eight Wimbledon singles titles, and four French titles. People would climb roofs and trees if they couldn’t get tickets just to be able to see her matches, and scalpers got $50 per ticket.
Gertrude Ederle
Winner of three gold medals at the Paris Olympics, she proved to many that women aren’t the weaker sex when she swam the English Channel in 1924. Even with the struggles from the tides, she broke the men’s time record by an hour and fifty-nine minutes. She was paid $2,000 per week by swimming in special appearances in a time when the average worker made less than $1000 per year.
Chain stores
Stores such as Piggly Wiggly and J. C. Penney that have many stores across the nation and are popular due to the ability to sell products for lower prices than locally owned stores could. They could sell for lower prices because they could buy in bulk and then store those large amounts, both things that smaller stores couldn’t do. In the 1920s, they stores grew rapidly. They used techniques like buying on credit to make purchases easier for their consumers and that made them more popular as well.
Buying on credit (a.k.a. buying on installment)
A form of paying for something by paying a down payment and then making monthly payments with low interest. In the ’20s many people had newfound hope in the economy and rushed to stores to put ten percent down on products and make monthly installments. Before this era people were often too afraid to be in debt to take the chance of doing this. This technique greatly helped the automobile industry grow – around 2/3 of automobile purchases were made on credit and ½ of appliance purchases were made this way.
Frederick W. Taylor
He was a mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. He is regarded as the father of scientific management, which deemed work deserving of systematic observation and study. By applying his methods, companies were able to get more productivity out of their workers. He believed in transferring control from workers to management. He set out to increase the distinction between mental (planning work) and manual labor (executing work). Detailed plans specifying the job, and how it was to be done, were to be formulated by management and communicated to the workers. He regarded workers as too stupid to plan how the work was supposed to be done. So, needless to say, he was no hero to the labor movement!
Henry Ford
Founding the Ford Motor Company in 1903, he was responsible for bringing the automobile into an affordable price range by utilizing the assembly line to cut the cost of making his Model T. Resistant to change, he sold his Model T in only black, but he ended up cracking under public pressure and produced an updated car, the Model A, in 1927. He was an anti-Semite (hater of the Jewish people), published The International Jew to attack them, and won the Grand Cross of the Iron Eagle from Nazi Germany.
Effects of the automobile
the automobile had a huge effect on American mobility, culture, and the economy. It was responsible for the booming glass, rubber, refining, and steel industries of the 1920s, in addition to directly employing millions of people in its plants.
Charles A. Lindbergh
The *biggest hero of the 1920s. Known as the Lone Eagle*, he was the *first to fly across the Atlantic*. There was a huge parade upon his return to the US; businesses made him huge financial offers; street names, schools, and a town in Texas were named after him; and his accomplishment was known by the New York Evening World as “the greatest feat of a solitary man in the records of the human race.”
Lindbergh kidnapping
In 1932, *Charles Lindbergh, Jr., 20-month old son of the famous aviator, was abducted from the family home*. It was *one of the most highly publicized crimes of the 20th century*. Baby Lindbergh’s body was found 2 months later.
KDKA
the *first radio station in the nation*, it is in Pittsburgh. Radio became huge in the 1920s, as people would gather around the family radio to listen to news and sports.
The Jazz Singer
A *mostly silent movie that included some spoken dialogue and some singing by the star, Al Jolsen*. It was the *first talkie*. It was very popular and doomed the silent film.
Charlie Chaplin
A famous comedian and *silent film star* during the 1920s. He played a character known as the *Little Tramp*.
Rudolph Valentino
An *exotic Italian immigrant, he was the greatest star of the 20s*. His role in *The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse made him a star* and his role after that in *The Sheik made sure he’d keep his fame*. Later films just increased his popularity and sex appeal, but he *died young. 50,000 people went to the funeral and several women committed suicide.*
Flappers
were a “new breed” of *young women in the 1920s who wore short skirts, bobbed their hair, listened to jazz, and flaunted their disdain for what was then considered acceptable behavior*. They were seen as brash for wearing excessive makeup, drinking, treating sex in a casual manner, smoking, driving automobiles, and otherwise flouting social and sexual norms.
Jazz
the *most popular form of music during the 1920s*. In fact, the 1920s is often called “The ____ Age.”
Creole Jazz Band
A *band led by Joe “King” Oliver and including Louis Armstrong*, it played before huge audiences in Chicago.
Louis Armstrong
*One of the most famous black jazz musicians*, he was a *trumpet player who grew up in New Orleans and joined King Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band*. The way he played with spirit created a rising star.
Bessie Smith
*One of the most famous black jazz musicians*, she was a singer who had a background in poverty and then became known as the *Empress of the Blues*. Her first recording sold over 2 million copies.
Duke Ellington
One of the most famous black jazz musicians, he was a *pianist-composer-bandleader who started his own band in Washington* in 1918 and was successful by 1923. *Radio broadcasts of his performances helped increase the Cotton Club’s popularity.*
Cotton Club
*One of Harlem’s most famous nightclubs* that opened in 1927, it was a *center of African American culture’s growth in the 1920s*. Radio broadcasts of *Duke Ellington’s performances helped increase its popularity.*
Eugene O’Neill
*Theatrical writer who introduced a serious side to Broadway* in the 1920s with shows like *Beyond the Horizon, Anna Christie, and Strange Interlude*. His drama The *Emperor Jones had a black starring character, helping African Americans appear on Broadway.*
Paul Robeson
A very *popular black performer who was a former Rutgers football star and a Columbia Law School graduate*. He *starred in shows like Show Boat and Porgy and Bess* and performed in many concerts; his very deep voice excited audiences.
Harlem Renaissance
it was a *cultural movement in Harlem, New York following WWI* and lasting into the Great Depression. During the 1920s, it was *called the “New Negro Movement.”* Civil rights leader and NAACP president James Weldon Johnson referred to the period as a *”flowering of Negro literature.”* The most famous figures were *Langston Hughes and Claude McKay.*
Langston Hughes
A *great poet and playwright of the Harlem Renaissance*, he famously wrote about the period, “the negro was in vogue.”
Claude McKay
His 1922 poetry collection, *Harlem Shadows, was among the first books published during the Harlem Renaissance.* He was a great novelist and poet.
H.L. Mencken
A *writer who ridiculed the American middle class*, which is also called the bourgeoisie. To make fun of them, he nicknamed them the “booboisie.” He and George Jean Nathan published Smart Set magazine and American Mercury magazine.
F. Scott Fitzgerald
The *famous novelist who wrote The Great Gatsby*, which chronicled the lives of the rich during the 20s. Gatsby was about how the *ideal of the self-made man was an illusion, and that powerful people with established wealth and social standing really ran America*. He also wrote This Side of Paradise.
Ernest Hemingway
*One of the greatest American writers, he established a literary style* (narrative prose) that *influenced many authors* after him. His most famous works include The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, For Whom the Bell Tolls, and The Old Man and the Sea. He *won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954*. He made popular the phrase “the Lost Generation” to refer to the people who came of age during WWI.
Sinclair Lewis
The author who *critically portrayed the faults of the middle class and critiqued life in small town America*. He won the Nobel Prize in 1930 for novels such as Main Street, Babbitt, and Elmer Gantry.
William Faulkner
He wrote *The Sound and the Fury, As I Lay Dying, Light in August, and Absalom! Absalom!, among other works. Modern Library lists all four of these novels in the top 100 best English language novels of the 20th century*. He *won the Nobel Prize for Literature twice!*
Theodore Dreiser
His novels often featured *main characters, who succeeded at their objectives despite a lack of a firm moral code*. For example, in An American Tragedy, the *main character sleeps with several women and convinces one of them to have an abortion because he loves someone else!* He is most famous for *An American Tragedy* and *Sister Carrie*. Both novels are in the top 100 English language novels of the 20th century.
Frank Lloyd Wright
he was an *architect who designed more than 1,000 structures*. He *believed in designing structures in harmony with humanity and its environment*, a philosophy he called organic architecture. This philosophy was *best exemplified by his design for Fallingwater* (1935), which the Smithsonian said is one of the top 28 places “to visit before you die.”
Florida Real Estate Boom
In the 1920s, the *United States’ economy was booming*, and it was only natural that people were beginning to believe such prosperity was infinite. In 1920, *Florida became the popular U.S. destination and residence for people who don’t like the cold*. The population was growing steadily and *housing couldn’t match the demand, causing prices to double and triple in some cases*, which was not exactly unjustified at this point. But, *news of anything doubling and tripling in price always attracts speculators*. So, once people began pumping huge amounts of money into the real estate market, it took off. Soon, everyone in Florida was either a real estate investor or a real estate agent. Unfortunately, the rules are the same whether you pay too much for a stock or for a piece of land: you have to make that much more to claim a profit. This did happen for a while, and *land prices quadrupled in less than a year*. Eventually, however, there were no “greater fools” to buy the ridiculously overpriced land, and *prices began to adjust ever so subtly*. Speculators realized that there was a limit to the boom, and began to sell their properties to solidify their profits while they could. Then, *everybody simultaneously saw the writing on the wall, and panic selling ensued*. With thousands of sellers and very few buyers, *prices came down with a sickening thud, twitched a bit, and then crawled down even lower*. (from investopedia.com)
Buying on margin
It was a *form of credit purchase to buy shares of stock*. Often the requirement was a *10 percent down payment* to open an investment account. Eager *brokers would borrow money from banks to loan to clients for the rest of their margin purchases*. The *stock itself became the collateral, making the practice very risky*. If the market stood still or went down, the broker wouldn’t be able to pay back his loans and would then demand the money from the investor. *Often the money would not be there and the buyer would be ruined financially*. This left the market itself subject to collapse; *too many investors could go broke at the same, which would lead to disaster*. High interest also proved to be a risk to investors buying on margin; those who were surprised by a drop often could not pay back the interest and principal amount.
Andrew Mellon’s policies
He was the *Secretary of the Treasury* for all three Republican presidents of the 1920s, *Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover*. He came into office with a goal of reducing the huge federal debt from World War I. To do this, he needed to *increase the federal revenue and cut spending*. He believed that *if tax rates were too high, then the people would try to avoid paying them*. He observed that as tax rates had increased during the first part of the 20th century, investors moved to avoid the highest rates—by choosing tax-free municipal bonds, for instance. If the rates were set more reasonably, taxpayers would have less incentive to avoid paying. His theory was that by *lowering the tax rates across the board, he could increase the overall tax revenue.* He thought that the top income earners would only willingly pay their taxes if rates were 25% or lower. He proposed tax rate cuts, which *Congress enacted in the Revenue Acts of 1921, 1924, and 1926*. The *top marginal tax rate was cut from 73% to 58% in 1922, 50% in 1923, 46% in 1924, 25% in 1925, and 24% in 1929*. *Rates in lower brackets were also cut substantially, relieving burdens on the middle-class, working-class, and poor households*. His policies are known as supply-side economics or “trickle-down” economics. The basic idea is that cutting taxes for the very wealthy will allow them to have more money to invest in building factories or buying products that the lower classes produce. His basic criticism is that his premise – we need to cut taxes on the wealthy because they otherwise won’t pay them – is flawed. Clearly, if the government wanted to force the wealthy to pay taxes, it could do so by eliminating loopholes in the tax code. But, at least he cut spending, which allowed for deficit reduction, unlike Reagan during the 1980s and Bush during the 2000s.
Return of the Old Guard
*Conservative businessmen had controlled the Republican Party before Theodore Roosevelt* assumed the presidency in 1901. They were called the *Old Guard*. TR and Taft were part of the Progressive wing of the Republican Party, which dominated the party until the 1920 election. *Harding’s election that year brought back the Old Guard*. It was as if the Gilded Age had made a comeback. Republicans followed *pro-business policies during the 1920s, like high protective tariffs, busting up unions, and cutting taxes for the wealthy.*
Ohio Gang
The *group of people who came with Warren G. Harding to the White House in 1921*, they were his *friends and supporters*. They were *not qualified to serve in the offices to which he appointed them*. The *O.G. included Harry Daugherty, Albert Fall, Charles Forbes, and Jessie Smith.*
Harry Daugherty
In one of Harding’s biggest lacks of judgment, he chose him as his *Attorney General*. It was clear that he was *not chosen for his mind, but rather for his friendship with Harding*. He was involved in *multiple scandals during the Harding presidency, such as the one involving Jesse Smith*. He was *forced from the office after Harding’s death, but refused to testify on self-incrimination grounds and was acquitted of criminal charges.*
Jesse Smith
He was a *close friend from Ohio of Attorney General Harry Daugherty*. Although he *held no official government position*, Smith *used his access to Daugherty to meddle in the business of the Justice Department*. He *became very rich through illegal means. Smith shot and killed himself in Daugherty’s Washington apartment in 1923*.
Charles R. Forbes
He was *chosen by Harding to head the Veterans Administration* and was a decorated *World War I veteran*. Forbes *robbed the VA by receiving bribes from contractors and selling off government assets at low prices*. He was *forced out of office* when Harding found out *and later went to prison*.
Albert Fall
A *New Mexico Senator appointed Secretary of the Interior* during the Harding presidency. Fall *collected $400,000 in bribes from people who wished to exploit the oil reserves on federal property at Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hill, California*. This scandal rocked Harding’s presidency. *Fall was forced from office after Harding’s death and later went to prison.*
Teapot Dome
This was a *huge scandal during the Harding administration. It involved Secretary of the Interior (Fall) and the Secretary of the Navy (Denby)*. *Fall convinced Denby to transfer the properties of Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California to the Interior Department*. Those properties sat atop huge oil reserves. *Fall then sold the reserves to Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny. He received a $100,000 bribe from Doheny and about three times that from Sinclair*. Details about the bribes leaked out around 1923, and in 1929, Fall was found guilty and sentenced to one year in jail.
Carrie Phillips
Before becoming president, *Harding had an affair with Phillips while he was living in Marion, Ohio*. She was *his neighbor* and many people in Ohio knew of the relationship. *After Harding was nominated for the Presidency, the Republican Party gave Phillips and her husband a trip to Europe*. This got them out of the country for the duration of the campaign, allowing Harding to go into office scandal free.
Nan Britton
When *she was just 14-years-old, she and Harding began an affair* (I would use the word “rape”) that would continue while Harding was president. *she had his daughter in 1919, nine years after they first started seeing on each other*. The facts of this scandal came out after she *published her book The President’s Daughter.*
Republican policies toward business
Under the Harding administration, the *policies made it so corporations could prosper*. The *Anti-Trust laws set by previous administrations were often ignored and poorly enforced*. Republican *presidents appointed men who sympathized with the managers of the railroads to the Interstate Commerce Commission*. They basically believed in *laissez-faire* – the government should keep its hands off business and allow it to do whatever it pleased.
Republican policies toward unions
During WWI, *labor received vast government support*. In the *postwar decade, the rights the unions received were taken away*, causing numerous strikes to occur, like the Boston Police Strike and the Great Steel Strike. *Harding’s big business bias lead to the deterioration of unions in the 1920s.*
Adjusted Compensation Act of 1924
When World War I ended, the *veterans were one of the only groups of public employees to receive government benefits*. The veterans had created the *American Legion*, which became known for its tenacious *lobbying for veterans’ benefits*. Their argument was that they *deserved compensation for fighting because they lost “dough” when they became “doughboys.”* This led to *Congress passing a bonus bill; however, Harding vetoed it*. Finally, after fighting for a few more years, the *this of 1924 was passed*. This *bill guaranteed that the veterans would get a bonus 20 years after the law went into effect*. This *added 3.5 billion dollars to the cost of the war*. The conservative *Calvin Coolidge vetoed the bill when he took office, however, Congress overrode his veto.*
Washington Disarmament Conference
*A conference held from 1921-1922*. *Nine nations attended to discuss interests in the Far East, and disarmament of the navies*.* Harding’s Secretary of State, Charles Evans Hughes, came prepared with a ten-year plan for the navies*. It decided that the *ratio of battleships and aircraft carriers between the US, Britain, and Japan would be upheld at 5:5:3*. Japan was not happy about this, calling it the “Rolls-Royce, Rolls-Royce, Ford,” ratio. They finally *decided on the Five-Power Naval Treaty of 1922*. It said that the *ratio would be put in place, along with compensation for the Japanese, and Britain and American promise to keep from fortifying their Pacific and Far East territories* (the other two powers were *France and Italy, each with a 1.7 ratio*). Also, the *Four-Power Treaty kept the status quo in the Pacific between the US, Britain, Japan, and France, and each member agreed to respect the others’ territories in the Pacific*. The last treaty of the conference was the *Nine-Power Treaty, which kept the Open Door Policy in China*. Supporters of Harding were very happy with the treaties and conference, but there was a big hole in their plan. The *treaties only set ratios on battleships, so smaller warcraft had no restrictions whatsoever. Many nations started to crank out cruisers, destroyers, and submarines – except the US.* We didn’t want to put money into wartime supplies if there was no chance of war. The conference was a *huge success in disarmament, but the 9 Power Treaty angered Japan, who had ambitions in China, and soon violated the treaty.*
Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922)
It *raised tax rates on imported products from 27% to 38.5%*, reversing Wilson’s efforts to lower tariffs. It also raised taxes on farm produce. The tariff was designed to equalize the cost of American and foreign production; the President was allowed to raise or reduce rates up to 50%. It was a *reversal of the Progressive Era focus on lowering tariff rates, as in the Underwood Tariff*.
Effect of Republican Policies on Tariffs
Republicans wanted higher tariffs. However, higher tariffs in the 1920s were hard on European nations, just recovering from WWI. Since the rate was so high, Americans had to pay much more for foreign goods than for homemade ones. This slowed the trading with European countries to a trickle. In response, European nations built up their own tariffs. This became a vicious circle, and contributed to the international economic distress of the postwar period.
Silent Cal
Calvin Coolidge became president after Harding’s death (some people think he may have been murdered or committed suicide – there’s a cool article on Trutv.com about it). Coolidge believed in virtues of honesty, morality, industry, and frugality, which was appealing after Harding’s corruption. He promoted big business to lower taxes and the national debt, but that only partially worked, as critics point out that he should have been able to eliminate all the debt with the economy as good as it was. He said, “The man who builds a factory builds a temple” and “The man who works there worships there.” Because of Coolidge’s booming economy, citizens were forgetting about the Teapot Dome Scandal as they were mesmerized by prosperity.
Farming Woes
After the war, *demand for farming goods decreased substantially and farmers made much less money*. Their problems were compounded by *overproduction, caused by new technological innovations like the tractor*. *Overproduction and lower demand for food after the war caused prices to drop dramatically*. Farmers wanted relief, so *they went to Congress in 1921 and tried to get laws passed to help them. Capper-Volstead Act: exempted farmers from anti-trust prosecution*. *McNary-Haugen Bill: was not passed because Coolidge vetoed it twice. It would have kept agricultural prices high and the government would buy the surplus and sell it abroad.*
Robert LaFollette
he was a Progressive candidate for the 1924 election. The American Federation of Labor endorsed him. He had support from the Socialist Party and price-pinched farmers. His platform called for government controlled railroads, relief for farmers, and lashed out at monopolies and anti-labor injunctions. They also urged the constitutional amendment to limit the Supreme Court’s power to invalidate laws passed by Congress. He lost the election by a landslide in electoral votes. “Fighting Bob” was knocked out of the ring!
Dawes Plan
(1924) He negotiated this as he was about to become Coolidge’s running mate. It rescheduled German payments (extended the amount of time Germany had to pay its war reparations) and opened the way to more private American loans to Germany.
Young Plan
(1929) this was a program for settlement of German reparations debts after World War I. It became apparent that Germany could not meet the huge annual payments, especially over an indefinite period of time. The Young Plan reduced further payments to $8 billion over 59 years, but the Great Depression ended war payments from all countries except Finland. Finland was the only country to repay the US for WWI!
Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
A pact between America and 61 other countries that renounced the use of war as a means of national policy. It didn’t ban the use of defensive war, however. So basically, you had to right to go to war if someone attacked you, but you weren’t allowed to attack a nation for any other reason. The problem was defining what “defensive” means. For example, Japan bombed their own railroad in Manchuria, China in 1931 and said China did it so they could declare war on China.
Al Smith
He was the Democratic nominee in 1928, running against Republican Herbert Hoover. He was a liberal four-time governor of New York, and he drank during Prohibition. He was Roman Catholic, so he wasn’t popular with Protestants. Republican opponents asserted that if he was elected, the Pope would move into the White House.
Herbert Hoover
He had been director of the Food Administration during WWI and Commerce Secretary for Coolidge. He was very popular with the press, which printed many pro-him articles. In 1928, both candidates were pro-business, and each promised to improve conditions for farmers, reform immigration laws, and maintain America’s isolationist foreign policy. They differed on Prohibition, and he appealed to racism in the South to win white votes. He was the first Republican to win Texas ever. Southern whites began voting Republican and blacks started to switch to the Democratic Party.
Federal Farm Board
The Agricultural Marketing Act was passed in June 1929, which established this. The board had half a billion dollars in funds and it lent money to farm organizations seeking to buy, sell, and store agricultural surpluses. It established the Grain Stabilization Corporation and the Cotton Stabilization Corporation. It did this to buy up extra food to keep the prices high.
“Black Tuesday”
This was the day (October 29, 1929) when the stock market crashed. It had crashed on the 24th (this day), but rallied on Friday and Monday. It did not rally again for a long time after Tuesday. This was caused when the British raised interest rates to “bring back capital lured abroad by American investments,” thereby scaring investors. This caused “Wall Street to become a wailing wall of gloom, and doom replaced boom, and suicides increased alarmingly. A ‘sick joke’ of the time had hotel room clerks ask registrants, ‘For sleeping or jumping?'”
Causes of the Depression
1. One cause was “Black Tuesday,” it caused a business depression, and over 4 million people lost their jobs by 1930. Within two years, that number had tripled. Over five thousands banks collapsed within the first three years. 2. Another cause was an overproduction of food and goods. 3. Also, not enough money was going into workers’ wages, causing less purchasing. 4. More people were far in debt from buying on credit. 5. Also, Europe still hadn’t recovered from WWI. 6. To top it all off, a drought scorched the Mississippi Valley in 1930, causing many people to need to sell their farms.
“Hooverville”
These were towns made by homeless people during the Depression. Homes were shacks and made up of whatever they could find. They sprang up all over the country. People obviously blamed Hoover for the Depression, which is how these shantytowns got their name.
Hoover Blankets
Hoover was blamed for the failing economy and people losing their homes. The homeless slept under newspapers (these) during the Hoover Administration.
“Rugged Individualism” and Hoover
Hoover believed that our country shouldn’t hand out relief money to poor people that lose their jobs. He thought that countries that did give handouts made their people lazy. He said that the people were there to help the government; the government wasn’t there to help the people. Needless to say, the people were somewhat hostile to these sorts of statements!
Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930
It was a protective tariff to assist farmers and industry. It became the highest protective tariff in the nation’s peacetime history since the abominable Tariff of 1828. It raised the average duty from 38.5% to around 60%. Henry Ford and over 1,000 economists begged Hoover to veto the bill, but Hoover caved in to his party and signed it. Unfortunately, the rest of the world retaliated with tariffs against American products, helping to worsen the Depression.
“Trickle-Down”
A conservative idea that the best way to boost the economy is to give tax breaks to the wealthy. The theory is that the wealthy will then take the extra money and invest it into business infrastructure to improve the economy, thereby creating jobs for the rest of the people. The term comes from the 1930s, when people were angered by Hoover’s reluctance to help unemployed people, while he gave $500 million to bail out the banks, railroads, and insurance companies. It is often used interchangeably with “supply-side” economics.
Hoover Dam
(Boulder Dam) A huge dam in Nevada, it was planned during the Coolidge administration and constructed under Roosevelt. Controversially, it was named in honor of him in 1947. It took thousands of men to build and over one hundred lives were lost during construction. It was made to create a lake for irrigation, flood control, and electric power. It provided thousands of jobs during the Depression.
Muscle Shoals Bill
a bill Hoover found socialistic. It wanted to dam the Tennessee River, and use the dam to generate electricity that it would then sell to the people. Hoover opposed this and vetoed the bill because he disagreed with the government selling electricity in competition with its own citizens’ private companies. If the bill had passed, it would have provided the same sorts of benefits provided by the construction of the Hoover Dam. That’s why, during FDR’s administration, the Tennessee Valley Authority was created.
Invasion of Manchuria
In September 1931, the Japanese imperialists rapidly overran the Chinese region of Manchuria, thereby violating the Open Door policy and the League of Nations Covenant. In the Mukden Incident, the Japanese bombed a section of a Japanese-owned railroad in Manchuria. Japan then blamed the Chinese for attacking the railroad, and claimed that war was necessary for self-defense. This stunned Americans and urged us to use measures such as boycotts and blockades to protest Japanese militarism. But, we refused to use force to help the Chinese, which only encouraged the Japanese to continue their aggression with China.
Stimson Doctrine
He, the Secretary of State, protested Japanese expansion by proclaiming this in 1932. The Doctrine said that the US wouldn’t recognize any territorial gains achieved by force. This was put forward after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria.
Good Neighbor Policy
Hoover was interested in troubled nations south of the Rio Grande. Shortly after his election in 1928, he went on a goodwill tour of Latin America. He eventually formulated this. This replaced the Big Stick diplomacy under TR, Dollar diplomacy under Taft, and Bad Neighbor policies of Harding and Coolidge. He supported non-intervention in the domestic affairs of Latin America. However, the Hoover administration is often not given credit for the this because the Smoot-Hawley Tariff, passed during Hoover’s administration, was very unpopular in the Americas. Many historians instead credit Franklin D. Roosevelt with actually starting this.
Federal Farm Board
to appease unhappy farmers and to head off more radical legislation that might have actually helped the farmers, Hoover called Congress into special session to pass the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929. This act established a Federal Farm Board to: A. loan money to farmers’ cooperatives to promote the orderly marketing of farm goods. B. discourage production of crops that had depressed prices. C. purchase surpluses of cotton and wheat to prevent price declines. It was a total failure – after two years, it gave up and wheat and cotton prices fell to below what it cost to plant them.
Hoover’s Steps to Fight the Depression
Hoover acted more vigorously than any President before him, yet still woefully inadequately. His philosophy was that it wasn’t the government’s job to relieve suffering of the people. He also felt that the Depression would be short-lived – “Prosperity is just around the corner” was a favorite saying of his to justify doing little to help the people. He believed that the cause of the Depression was international debts owed by nations from WWI, so the problem could not be fixed here at home. He did the following: A. Reconstruction Finance Corporation (1932) – to lend money to banks, insurance companies, railroads, and other large corporations to prevent bankruptcy and to help create jobs. The RFC lent over $1 billion to corporations, which led critics to label it “the millionaires’ dole.” In other words, people weren’t happy that Hoover was willing to give huge loans to corporations and nothing to starving individuals. The program was too little too late, though some banks, railroads, and insurance companies probably did manage to stay in business because of the program. B. Home Loan Bank Act of 1932 – established Home Loan Banks to refinance home mortgages for people in danger of losing their homes to foreclosure. C. Norris-Laguardia Anti-Injunction Act of 1932 – outlawed “yellow-dog” (antiunion) contracts and forbade the federal courts from issuing injunctions to restrain strikes, picketing, and boycotts. D. Declared a 1-year moratorium on paying international debts in 1931. But, he made the huge mistake of signing the Smoot-Hawley Act, which deepened the Depression.
Bonus Army
Soldiers from WWI were promised a bonus for their services in a law passed in 1924 by Congress. The deferred bonus, according to the law, was to be paid in 1945. However, veterans wanted their money immediately, since they were suffering like everyone else in the Depression. Hoover was opposed to giving the veterans their bonuses. About 15,000-20,000 of the veterans marched to Washington, and they became known as the “Bonus Expeditionary Force.” The BEF arrived in Washington during the summer of 1932. They built shacks on vacant lots. Hoover convinced most of them to go home, but between 1,000-2,000 stayed. Hoover declared the soldiers a danger to public health, referred to them as communists, and ordered General Douglas MacArthur to evict them. In the “Battle of Anacostia Flats,” MacArthur tear-gassed, bayoneted, and burned the shacks of the former soldiers. An 11-month-old baby was killed during the melee. Interestingly, Hoover had ordered MacArthur to stop once the veterans had crossed the river, but MacArthur ignored the order. Later on, during the Truman administration, MacArthur was again insubordinate. This time, though, Truman fired him. Hoover didn’t, and the public blamed him for the disaster (blame he deserved, in my opinion). This event, added to the misery of the Depression, hand-outs to corporations, and refusal to help common people, led to the complete collapse of Hoover’s popularity.
Election of 1932
Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York (D) versus Herbert Hoover of Iowa (R). Republicans praised Hoover’s anti-Depression policies and made weak promises to end Prohibition (people wanted to drink their sorrows away and Prohibition had become quite unpopular). FDR was governor of New York, former nominee for VP, and served as asst. secretary of the Navy during WWI. Hoover’s slogans were “The Worst Is Past, “It Might Have Been Worse,” and “Prosperity Is Just Around the Corner.” He blamed the fear of a Roosevelt presidency as a reason for the depth of the Depression! FDR promised a balanced budget (which he soon broke), promised a New Deal for the “forgotten man,” which he did do, and inspired optimism and hope (“Happy Days Are Here Again” was his theme). He also promised to get rid of Prohibition, which he did do after becoming President with the 21st Amendment. The election was a blowout; FDR won 472-59 and Hoover won only 6 states (including Maine – ugh!). Blacks voted for Democrats for the first time in US History.
Amendment 20
because it took from the first week of November until March 5, 1933 for FDR to be President, the people became impatient for change. The Depression worsened. As a result, the Constitution was changed to reduce the length of this period so that Inauguration now takes place on January 20.
Roosevelt’s Inaugural Address
(1933) “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” One of the greatest speeches ever. He restored hope to the American people.
Bank holiday
FDR declared a 4-day bank holiday, where all banks would be closed. The act to make this happen was the Emergency Banking Act of 1933, and it was one of the first acts of the FDR presidency. The Federal Reserve committed to supply unlimited amounts of currency to reopened banks, creating de facto 100 percent deposit insurance. Much to everyone’s relief, when the institutions reopened for business on March 13, 1933, depositors stood in line to return their stashed cash to neighborhood banks. Within two weeks, Americans had re-deposited more than half of the currency that they had squirreled away before the bank suspension. The stock market registered its approval as well. On March 15, 1933, the first day of stock trading after the extended closure of Wall Street, the New York Stock Exchange recorded the largest one-day percentage price increase ever with the Dow Jones Industrial Average gaining 15.34 percent. The nationwide Bank Holiday and the Emergency Banking Act of March 1933, ended the bank runs that had plagued the Great Depression.
FDR’s Cabinet
Cordell Hull – Secretary of State. Harold Ickes – Secretary of the Interior. Frances Perkins – Secretary of Labor. 1st female Cabinet member in US History. Overall, a great cabinet, testifying to FDR’s leadership ability.
The Brain Trust
a group of unofficial advisors on matters of economic and social reform. Newspaper reporters referred to them as the Brain Trust because its members were academics. Columbia University professors Raymond Moley, Adolph A. Berle Jr., and Rexford Tugwell were the most influential. Quite a contrast to the Ohio Gang!
New Deal Philosophy
Instead of choosing the rightist policies of the fascists (like Italy, Germany, Henry Ford, Prescott Bush, and Charles Lindbergh) or the leftist policies of the extreme socialists and communists (like the USSR), FDR took a middle course of preserving both private enterprise and democratic institutions. It has been said by many historians that Roosevelt saved capitalism because he kept it from destroying itself or because another man might have ended it for socialism. Instead of the old “trickle-down” (supply-side) economics, FDR went with Keynesian economics. John Maynard Keynes – economist who advocated that depression-ridden governments should spend their way back to prosperity. He argued that public works projects would increase employment, which would increase consumer spending. This, in turn, would create more demand for products, and more hiring of workers to make those products. FDR and the Democrats argued that the New Deal philosophy operated so that money made its way into the hands of the “forgotten man,” and they criticized the old trickle-down approach by saying that it was a giveaway to the rich and a failure because too little of the money filtered down to the masses.
Relief, Recovery, and Reform
The mission of the New Deal was to *provide relief to persons in need by providing them with money, loans to make mortgage payments, or jobs*; *recovery to the nation as a whole by passing laws to assist business, labor, and agriculture to reestablish their strength*; and *reform of institutions, such as banking and the stock market, to regulate to protect from abuses and make for economic stability.*
The Hundred Days
The *first 100 days of FDR’s presidency, it was when 15 major bills were passed by Congress to provide relief, recovery, and reform* to the nation. Trust me, for Congress to pass any bill in 100 days is amazing. 15 major bills in 100 days shows just how much of an emergency the Great Depression was and how hard FDR was fighting it.
Civilian Conservation Corps
(CCC). This agency *provided work for men between the ages of 18 and 25*. They were employed in such projects as *reforestation, soil conservation, flood control, and road construction*. Over *2 million men worked for the CCC between 1933 and 1941*, and *most of their wages were sent home to support their families.*
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
(FERA). *Provided relief funds for food, clothing, and shelter to the unemployed until they could find work*. Harry Hopkins, who headed the administration, authorized spending over $3 billion in this program to try to get people back on their feet.
Civil Works Administration
(CWA). *Millions of Americans were provided jobs doing raking and other make-work tasks. It was a branch of the FERA and headed by Hopkins, who was criticized by conservatives for having people dig holes and fill them back in!* They did do *park improvements and road repair*, though, so it wasn’t completely useless work. And, most importantly, it *gave people jobs and an income.*
Home Owners’ Loan Corporation
(HOLC). It *helped non-farm homeowners refinance their mortgages so they wouldn’t lose their homes* (which also helped out the banks who would have lost a lot of money when they would have seized homes they couldn’t have sold).
Father Charles Coughlin
a *Catholic priest and radio celebrity who reached 40 million listeners, Coughlin was a vocal critic of FDR’s relief efforts*. He felt that the *New Deal was communist, and communism and Wall Street were the “twin faces of Satan!”* He was a *fascist, who frequently praised Mussolini and Hitler during his broadcasts*. FDR saw him as a serious threat and even tried to get the Pope to shut him down. *Coughlin’s slogan was “Social Justice.”*
Senator Huey P. Long
Known as the *”Kingfish,”* Long was a *popular politician from Louisiana*. He said that FDR wasn’t doing enough to relieve the suffering of the people. *His program was known as the “Share Our Wealth” program*, which *promised to make “Every Man a King.”* According to Long, *every man would receive $5,000, which would be collected by taxing the wealthy*. Long was *criticized for his dictatorial tendencies and for his hatred of Jews* (just like Coughlin). Soon after announcing his intention to run against FDR for the Democratic nomination for President, *Long was assassinated in Sept. 1935.*
Dr. Francis E. Townsend
Another critic of FDR, he *wanted to give every person over 60 years old a $200 per month pension, as long as all the money was spent each month*. It would have been *paid for by a 2% national sales tax*. Even though Townsend failed, *his ideas led directly to the Social Security Act of 1935.*
National Industrial Recovery Act
(NIRA). *Created the National Recovery Administration (NRA) in June 1933*. The *NRA supervised the creation of codes of fair competition by employers, employees, and consumers in each industry*. After the President approved the codes, they became law. The *codes accomplished the abolition of child labor, limiting of production, control of prices, and establishment of minimum wage and maximum hours for workers*. *Participation in the NRA was voluntary*, which was a huge mistake, but the only way Republicans would agree to vote for it. *Participating firms displayed the Blue Eagle (symbol of the NRA) and used the motto of the agency, “We do our part.”* *Section 7A of the NIRA was a huge win for labor – it allowed them to bargain collectively*. The US Supreme Court in the *Schechter Poultry Corp. v. US case (also known as the “sick chicken” case) struck down the NRA*. The Court *claimed that the NIRA granted the President too much power and that it illegally regulated intrastate trade*. Roosevelt – mad!
Public Works Administration
(PWA). *Established for the construction of roads, schools, hospitals, dams, bridges, and other projects to stimulate the economy.* *Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes led the PWA*, spending about *$5 billion on nearly 35,000 construction projects employing 500,000 people between 1933 and 1939.*
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
(AAA). *Designed to help farmers increase profits by reducing production* (less production meant higher prices). The AAA was authorized to: A. *control production of several crops, hogs, and cattle by paying cash subsidies to farmers who voluntarily restricted acreage planted or reduced livestock*. B. *pay farmers to plant grasses on untilled land to provide cover to topsoil and reduce erosion and dust storms*. Farm *prices improved almost immediately, but unfortunately the Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in 1936 in United States v. Butler*. Roosevelt – angry!
Farm Credit Administration
(FCA). *Provided loans for farmers for production and marketing*. The goal was to *enable farmers to refinance farm mortgages that were in jeopardy of being lost to foreclosure.* From 1933-1935, the *FCA helped refinance about 20% of the farm mortgages in the nation!*
Dust Bowl
*drought in the Great Plains added to high winds led to a period of tremendous topsoil wind erosion during the 1930s*. Hundreds of thousands of *people from Oklahoma and Arkansas fled their homes, many to California*. The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck is the most famous telling of the plight of the Dust Bowlers.
Federal Housing Administration
(FHA). *Established by the National Housing Act of 1934*, it was to *insure mortgages made by private lending institutions for the building of new homes and the improvement of existing homes*. By 1941, the government had *insured $3.5 billion in mortgages.*
Glass-Steagall Banking Act
It *increased the authority of the Federal Reserve Board to prevent member banks from engaging in excessive speculation* and it *created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) to guarantee bank deposits up to $5,000* (today it is $100,000). This spelled the *end of needing to keep money in the mattress!*
Securities Exchange Act
Passed in 1934, it *created the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)*. The SEC *registers and supervises the sale of new issues of stocks and bonds. It also authorized the Federal Reserve Board to control the practice of buying on margin.*
Tennessee Valley Authority
(TVA). The TVA *provided relief (in the form of low electricity rates), recovery (in providing a market for appliances to areas that now had electricity), and reform (in regulating the prices utilities could charge for electricity).* The project *built dams to provide low-cost electricity to people in parts of seven states on the Tennessee River and its tributaries*. It also *prevented disastrous floods on the lower parts of the river via dam projects*. And, the project *improved navigation on the Tennessee River and provided cheap nitrate fertilizer for farmers*. The project was *spectacularly successful, leading to similar projects on the Columbia and Missouri Rivers.*
Rural Electrification Administration
created a *national program to bring electricity to areas bypassed by private utilities* (because rural areas weren’t profitable enough). It led to *nearly 100% of the US having electricity by 1950.*
Second New Deal
the *name given to the 2nd stage of the New Deal taking place after the Democrats’ overwhelming victories in the Congressional elections of 1934*. During this time, the *Democrats passed almost any bill they wanted, and FDR was free to continue to experiment with solutions to the Depression.*
Social Security Act of 1935
It *allowed American retirees to have a pension like every other industrialized nation*! It gave us the system we have today.
National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (Wagner Act)
*After the NIRA was declared unconstitutional, Senator Robert Wagner introduced legislation to guarantee that workers would have the right to bargain collectively*. It: *A. created the National Labor Relations Board for collective bargaining rights*. B. *investigated complaints of unfair labor practices and issued orders that such practices be stopped.* Predictably, employers whined that the Wagner Act unfairly benefited the working class over the business class. Aww…boo hoo!
Fair Labor Standards Act
It established a *minimum wage (.25, to be raised to a whopping .40 by 1945!), and established the 40-hour workweek*. It also *required time and a half overtime after 40 hours*, *prohibited labor by anyone under 16*, and *restricted the labor of those under 18 to non-hazardous jobs.*
Committee for Industrial Organization (Congress of Industrial Organizations)
(CIO). Formed by *John L. Lewis*, boss of the United Mine Workers, it *broke from the AFL in 1936*. Using a new technique known as the *sit-down strike at the Flint, Michigan, General Motors plant*, the CIO was *recognized by GM, followed soon by United States Steel.*
Election of 1936
*Alfred Landon of Kansas (Republican) versus FDR (D)*. Only Maine and Vermont voted for *Landon, who opposed the New Deal, calling it “socialist.”* The electoral vote was 523 to 8!
Court Packing Plan
With his overwhelming victory, FDR felt that he had a mandate from the American people, yet the conservative Supreme Court kept striking down his legislation. In February 1937, FDR asked Congress to pass legislation that would expand the Supreme Court from nine justices to a maximum of fifteen justices. If an incumbent judge failed to retire when he reached seventy, FDR could appoint another, arguing that a justice’s age made it harder for them to keep up with their workload. The American people and the media saw through this attempt to swing the balance of the Supreme Court in favor of FDR. FDR faced much scrutiny and eventually backed off of the “court-packing bill” and compromised for reform of lower court procedures, leaving the Supreme Court untouched. The Court controversy weakened FDR’s relations with the Congress, and gave more conservative Democrats the courage to stand up to some of his New Deal measures.
Eleanor
(FDR’ s wife) became a *very powerful political figure*. She *held a White House conference to talk about the emergency needs of women*, she fought for issues including *anti-lynching legislation, compulsory health insurance, child labor reform, and fought against racial discrimination*. Eleanor also had a *great deal of influence over her husband* (But then again, so did many other females – good times at Warm Springs!).
The Roosevelt Recession
The *nation’s economy had significantly improved by 1937*. The Secretary of the Treasury called for a *reduction in the nation’s deficit*. FDR was very uneasy about a growing national debt, so he called for *large reductions in federal spending, particularly in the WPA and farm programs*. The *reduction caused the stock market to collapse in 1937, and industrial output and farm prices plummeted*. FDR began to blame the new depression on a “strike of capital,” which he said meant that businessmen didn’t want to invest because they wanted to hurt him, but in actuality it was because of the federal spending cuts. In 1938, Republicans gained more power during the congressional election, making it harder for FDR once again. *Luckily for the economy, World War II broke out in 1939, creating a need for increased production, thereby ending the Depression.*
The London Economic Conference
66 nations met in 1933 to attack the global depression. The European nations wanted to rid themselves of “crushing debt burden” (from WWI). Since most of this burden was owed to the US, Americans were not in favor of this. Though your book delights in blaming the failure of the LEC on FDR, it should be noted that leaders of both political parties did not favor debt elimination. In addition, the European powers wanted to inflate the value of the dollar, so that their currencies would be more competitive against it (“currency stabilization”). Currency stabilization would have revived European trade at the expense of American trade. As mentioned, the LEC failed and the Depression deepened in Europe.
Tydings-McDuffie Act
(1934) Congress passed this act to guarantee the Philippines independence by 1946, but the US would be allowed to keep its naval bases in the country. Unfortunately, part of the motive for giving them their freedom was the desire of large companies to protect themselves from Philippine imported sugar. It also reclassified Filipinos as aliens and restricted their immigration to the US.
bond drives
On May 1, 1941, the first Series Savings Bond was sold to President Franklin D. Roosevelt by Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau. The War Finance Committees, in charge of the loan drives, sold a total of $185.7 billion of securities. This incredible mass selling achievement that helped finance the war has not been matched before then or to this day. By the end of World War II, over 85 million Americans had invested in war bonds, a number unmatched by any other country. Information about bond drives reached the public in two forms – advertisements created and endorsed by government agencies, and those created by private companies and organizations.
Revenue Act of 1942
This act made so income taxes were increased to 88% for top earners, and middle and lower class people were forced to pay taxes for the first time since the Progressive income tax had been created.
War Production Board
Worked on rationing things like tires, gas, plastics, metals (esp. chrome and copper), and nylon. It organized drives for scrap metal and paper. During one drive in Chicago, each kid gathered on average 63 lbs of paper. Women could not wear nylons; they painted lines down the backs of their legs (nylons had seams back then) to make it look like they were wearing them!
Office of Price Administration
Froze wages for most non-union workers. Froze prices that companies could charge. Also, Americans rationed food like meat, butter, cheese, veggies, sugar and coffee. All Americans really sacrificed to win the war, unlike today where people don’t even know when there’s a war going on!
War Labor Board
Allowed labor unions limited wage increases. It also administered wage control in national industries such as automobiles, shipping, railways, airlines, telegraph lines, and mining. The Board was originally divided into 12 Regional Administrative Boards, which handled both labor dispute settlement and wage stabilization functions for specific regions.
Dwight David Eisenhower
He served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe, and was responsible for planning and supervising the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944-45. He was charged with planning and carrying out the Allied assault on the coast of Normandy in June 1944 under the code name Operation Overlord. He went on to serve as the 34th President of the United States, beginning in 1953, succeeding Truman and preceding JFK.
Douglas MacArthur
He was an American general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and later played a prominent role in the Pacific Theater of World War II. He is best known for leaving the Philippines just before the Japanese invaded, declaring, “I shall return.” He was designated to command the invasion of Japan in November 1945, and after the US won, he officially accepted their surrender on September 2, 1945. After that, he ran Occupied Japan from 1945-1951. President Harry S Truman removed him from command in April 1951 for publicly disagreeing with Truman’s Korean War policy.
Final Solution
refers to the Nazi plan to engage in systematic genocide against the European Jewish population during World War II, which led to the Holocaust. By spring of 1942, the systematic extermination of the Jews had begun, although hundreds of thousands already had been killed by death squads and in mass pogroms. About 6 million Jews were killed during the War, and another 4 million Slavs and gypsies.
Second Front
(aka Western Front) The Western Front refers to the war in Britain, France and Italy. The first phase saw the defeat of France by Germany in 1940, followed by Germany’s aerial assault on Great Britain (“Battle of Britain”). The second phase of large-scale ground combat began in 1943 with the Allied invasion of Sicily. This action resulted in Mussolini’s removal from power and the eventual full-scale invasion of Italy in 1944. The next phase was in June 1944, with the Allied landings in Normandy (D-Day), and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945. The Soviets, who took the brunt of the German assault, pleaded with the West for a second front since the Germans invaded Russia in 1941. Since it took them so long, while millions of Soviets died, it was one cause of friction between the Allies and helped cause the eventual Cold War.
D-Day
AKA Battle of Normandy, code-named Operation Overlord, was the long- awaited Allied invasion of France. The initial invasion began on June 6, 1944, beginning with overnight parachute and glider landings, massive air attacks, naval bombardments, and early morning amphibious landings. The US, Britain, and Canada landed on several different beaches like Utah Beach, Pointe du Hoc, Omaha Beach, Gold Beach, Juno Beach, and Sword Beach. The success of the invasion led to Allied control of France and the invasion of Germany.
Stalingrad
It was a battle between Germany and its allies versus the Soviet Union, that took place between August 21, 1942 and February 2, 1943. It is often considered the turning point of World War II in the European Theater and was arguably the bloodiest battle in human history, with combined casualties estimated above 1.5 million. The capture of Stalingrad was important to Hitler for several reasons: 1-It was a major industrial city on the banks of the Volga River and its capture would secure the left flank of the German armies as they advanced into the oil rich regions. And 2- the fact that the city bore the name of Hitler’s nemesis, Joseph Stalin, would make the city’s capture even sweeter. Too bad for Hitler – the Russians held the city and began to inexorably push the Germans back toward Germany.
Winston Churchill
He was a British politician as well as a noted statesman and orator, who was the Prime Minister from 1940-1945 and again from 1951-1955. When WWII broke out, he was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty and became Prime Minister after the resignation of Neville Chamberlain. His spirit lifting speeches and tactical prowess helped lead the Allies to victory over the Axis powers.
Casablanca Conference
This conference was held in Casablanca, Morocco. Present at the conference were FDR, Winston Churchill and French generals Charles de Gaulle and Henri Giraud. Also invited was Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, but he declined the invitation. The “Casablanca Declaration” called for the Allies to seek the unconditional surrender of the Axis powers, to aid the Soviet Union, the invasion of Sicily and Italy, and recognized the joint leadership of the Free French by de Gaulle and Giraud.
Unconditional Surrender
This is surrender without any conditions except those provided by international law. Countries at war normally only accept these conditions unless incapable of fighting on. It could be argued that demands of unconditional surrender cause an enemy to fight longer. Some historians have claimed that “unconditional surrender” prolonged the war because it kept German generals opposed to Hitler from negotiating with the Allies.
Cairo Conference
This conference was held in Cairo, Egypt. Present here were FDR, Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek (a.k.a. Jiang Jieshi) of China. It addressed the Allies position against Japan during WWII and decisions on postwar Asia. The “Cairo Declaration” stated that Japan be stripped of all Pacific islands seized or occupied since WWI, all territories stolen from China be returned and that Korea would become free and independent.
Teheran Conference
This conference was held in Teheran, Iran in 1943. Present here were FDR, Churchill and Stalin of the Soviet Union (“The Big Three”). The discussion was centered around the opening of a second front in Western Europe. It was also organized to plan the final war strategies against Nazi Germany and their allies.
Okinawa
The battle of Okinawa was a battle fought on the Japanese-controlled islands of Okinawa between the United States (aided by the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand) and the Japanese Empire. The battle was the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific Theatre of WWII and lasted from late March to June of 1945. The Japanese commander knew that defending the entire island would be impossible, so he based his defenses around the capitol, where he heavily fortified his position with artillery in caves throughout the high cliffs that surrounded the fortress. Both sides suffered heavy casualties as the Americans fought their way up hills fortified with artillery and machine guns. While the American forces struggled to capture Kakazu Ridge, General Ushijima went on the offensive and attacked the 32nd Army by night with organized strikes across the entire American line. Though the attacks were well planned out, they failed in the end due to superior American firepower. Okinawa was captured June 21, 1945, though small forces of Japanese soldiers continued fighting. The U.S. suffered of 72,000 casualties, 12,513 of which were either killed or M.I.A. This is over twice as many casualties as Iwo Jima and Guadalcanal combined. The Japanese lost over 66,000 troops with over 7,000 captured. This was the first time in the war that the Japanese surrendered in the thousands. Over 140,000 Okinawa civilians were killed during the battle. The capture of Okinawa was important because it provide airfields within range of the Japanese homeland and a port for ships.
Battle of the Bulge
The Battle of the Bulge was a last ditch offensive by the Germans against the United States and the United Kingdom near the end of WWII fought in Belgium, Luxembourg, and Germany. After the Normandy Invasion, the Allied forces began liberating Europe at a much faster pace than originally anticipated. This proved to be a problem because the Allies soon began running low on supplies, which limited their offensive capabilities, allowing the Germans to form a decently organized defense line. The German offensive began in December of 1944 and lasted until January 1945. The Allied victory forced the Germans to retreat back to Germany and allowed the Allies, along with the Russians on the Eastern front, to began their push towards the German homeland. The London Economic Conference: 66 nations met in 1933 to attack the global depression. The European nations wanted to rid themselves of “crushing debt burden” (from WWI). Since most of this burden was owed to the US, Americans were not in favor of this. Though your book delights in blaming the failure of the LEC on FDR, it should be noted that leaders of both political parties did not favor debt elimination. In addition, the European powers wanted to inflate the value of the dollar, so that their currencies would be more competitive against it (“currency stabilization”). Currency stabilization would have revived European trade at the expense of American trade. As mentioned, the LEC failed and the Depression deepened in Europe.
Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project was a U.S. military project aimed to win the race to develop atomic weapons. The project took place between 1941-1946 and famous physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer headed the scientific research. The first successful atomic detonation was in the New Mexican desert, code named Trinity. The second successful bomb was code named “Little Boy,” and was dropped over Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945. The third and final bomb, code named “Fat Man,” was dropped over Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945. The project was born out of the fear that the Germans were researching nuclear weapons in the late 1930’s (they were!). The project had many of the greatest minds in physics including J. Robert Oppenheimer, Albert Einstein, and Enrico Fermi. Many of the scientists working on the project were refugees from German-controlled countries.
J. Robert Oppenheimer
J. Robert Oppenheimer was a world famous physicist known for his role in the Manhattan Project. He is known as the father of the atomic bomb for his role as the director of research during the Manhattan Project.
Yalta Conference
took place in February 1945, between FDR, Churchill, and Stalin near the Black Sea in Russia. Roosevelt asked for Soviet support in the Pacific War against Japan, specifically invading Japan proper; Churchill pressed for free elections and democratic governments in Eastern Europe (specifically Poland); and Stalin demanded a Soviet sphere of political influence in Eastern Europe as essential to the USSR’s national security. At Yalta, all three agreed that Germany’s surrender would be unconditional, and Germany and Berlin would be split into four zones of occupation (the other zone would go to France). Stalin seemed to promise free elections in Poland, but Churchill was suspicious (justifiably, as it turned out).
Potsdam Conference
was held at _______, Germany, from July 17 to August 2, 1945. President Truman (FDR had died just before the end of the war in Europe), Prime Minister Clement Attlee (he replaced Churchill part of the way through the conference), and Stalin represented the Big Three. The conference was characterized by a lot of tension and mistrust, foreshadowing the Cold War. The nations did agree on the prosecution of Nazi war criminals, the trials for which would be held at Nuremberg, Germany. Also, Germany would be demilitarized. The Western allies, especially Churchill, were suspicious of the motives of Stalin, who had already installed communist governments in the central European countries under his influence. Poland’s government in exile was not allowed to return to rule Poland; instead, Poland was to be ruled by the communists chosen by the Soviet Union. The Potsdam Conference turned out to be the last conference among the Allied leaders. During the conference, Truman mentioned an unspecified “powerful new weapon” to Stalin; Stalin, who had known of its existence long before Truman did, encouraged the usage of any weapon that would hasten the end of the war. Towards the end of the conference, Japan was given an ultimatum (threatening “prompt and utter destruction,” without mentioning the new bomb), and after Japan rejected conditional surrender, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and August 9, 1945, respectively.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were the first-ever nuclear attacks in the history of the world. They were attacks by the U.S. on the Empire of Japan over two well-populated cities. The bombings took place after the intense conventional bombings of 67 other Japanese cities, including Tokyo. The Enola Gay dropped the first bomb, dubbed “Little Boy,” on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. 90% of Hiroshima’s buildings were damaged or destroyed and over 70,000 people were killed. Some 120,000 total were dead by the end of the year due to the bomb. Hiroshima was chosen for bombing because of its industrial importance. Three days later, on August 9, 1946, Nagasaki was bombed with a second atomic bomb named “Fat Man’. Nagasaki was chosen because of its industrial importance and because it had a large port. Nagasaki suffered between 45,000-80,000 casualties. These attacks were aimed to force the Japanese surrender before a land invasion was necessary (in hopes of avoiding another Iwo Jima). On August 12, 1945, the Japanese surrendered before any more bombs were dropped.
VE Day
(Victory Europe) was on May 7, 1945, when the WWII Allies accepted the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitler. He committed suicide on April 30, 1945 during the Battle of Berlin.
VJ Day
was the victory over Japan Day on August 15, 1945, which ended fighting in WWII when Emperor Hirohito accepted the terms of the Potsdam Declaration. The formal Japanese signing took place on September 2, 1945, in Tokyo Bay on board the battleship the USS Missouri.
Partitioning of Korea
was the separating of Korea between the occupying forces of the US in the South and the USSR in the North, which made South Korea and North Korea. The dividing line was the 38th parallel, which today is the demilitarized zone separating North and South Korea.
Charles de Gaulle
was a French general and statesman who led the Free French Forces during World War II and later founded the French Fifth Republic and served as its first President. In France, he is commonly referred to as Général de Gaulle or simply Le Général. He is a great hero in French history because of his efforts to defeat the Vichy French government – the French government that collaborated with Hitler – and its leader Philippe Petain, and because he stood up to the United States while president in the 1960s.
Churchill’s “iron curtain speech”
In 1946, Winston Churchill gave the iron curtain speech at Westminster College in Missouri where he was receiving an honorary degree. It is today regarded as one of the most influential speeches of all time. It was delivered less than a year after the end of WWII. It described the line in Europe between the democratic nations of the West and Soviet communist countries in Eastern Europe. This is where the name “iron curtain” came from. The iron curtain was a boundary that divided Europe into two separate areas from the end of WWII until the end of the Cold War. The speech is also known as the “Sinews of Peace” speech.
Bretton Woods conference
It was a meeting at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire in July 1944. It took place during WWII and its purpose was to make financial arrangements for the postwar world. At the conference were attendants who represented 44 states and governments, including the Soviet Union. They created the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). This project was to make long-term funds available to states urgently needing such aid. It also created the International Monetary Fund (IMF); this was to finance short-term imbalances of international payments.
Dumbarton Oaks Conference
It took place in 1944. The conference was at Dumbarton Oaks mansion in Washington DC. Representatives of China, Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States attended. This is where proposals were made to organize the United Nations.
United Nations Security Council
The United Nations is mainly responsible for the maintenance of international peace and security. The Security Council started with 11 members. 5 are permanent members China, France, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and the United States. The six non-permanents were elected by the United Nations General Assembly to serve for two-year terms. In 1965 an amendment was made to the United Nations charter that increased the Council membership to 15. The nonpermanent members were chosen to represent specific regions. 5 were from Africa or Asia, 1 was from Eastern Europe, 2 from Western Europe, and 2 from Latin America. Each member has one vote and the 5 permanent members hold the veto power. Any state may bring a dispute to the council. The council’s first steps are to try to find a peaceful resolution. They may even authorize international peacekeeping forces. If these steps fail, then the Security Council is allowed to take military action against the offending nation. The UN headquarters is in Manhattan.
Nuremberg Trials
These were a series of trials for the prosecution of members of the leadership of Nazi Germany. The trials were held in the city of Nuremberg and lasted from 1945-1949. 24 of the most important captured leaders of Nazi Germany were tried. Stalin wanted to execute 50,000-100,000 of the captured Nazi German Military officers! Alas, only 12 were sentenced to death by hanging.
Voice of America
It is a radio and television broadcasting service. VOA was organized in 1942 under the Office of War Information with news programs aimed at the areas that Nazi Germany and Japan controlled. They began broadcasting on February 24, 1942, and still broadcast today.
Satellite Nations
A nation that is supposedly independent, but is controlled in its political and economical aspects by another nation. It was used to refer to the countries controlled by the Soviet Union during the Cold War, including Poland, Hungary, Romania, and other Eastern European nations.
Marshall Tito
From 1945-1980, he was the leader of Yugoslavia. Before assuming the leadership of Yugoslavia, during WWII, he organized the Yugoslav Partisans, which was a resistance movement to the Nazis. In 1945, Tito signed an agreement with the USSR that allowed Soviet troops to come into Yugoslav territory, but only temporarily. Tito’s Yugoslavia, along with Albania, were the only communist countries of Eastern Europe that were not satellite nations – they kept their independence from the USSR (Soviet Union).
George F. Kennan, Policy of Containment
He was known as the “Father of Containment.” Kennan worked for the State Department. He argued, and the Truman Administration listened, that the Soviet Union desired to spread communism throughout the world, and that communism must be contained to where it already existed. This policy of containment directly influenced the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan.
Truman Doctrine
It was a proclamation that said that the United States would help Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to keep them from becoming communist. Truman called upon the U.S. to “support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures,” which meant that the US was determined to keep communism from spreading.
Marshall Plan
Basically, this was to rebuild the European economies to prevent them from falling to communism, and even the Soviet Union was offered assistance to help rebuild (they turned it down). It started in July 1947 and lasted for 4 years. This was a 13 billion dollar investment to help the European countries, and every country except Germany that took the money saw its economy rebound to pre-WWII levels. Unfortunately for Eastern Europe, Stalin forbade them from accepting the money (because he believed that the US was trying to undermine communism). The Marshall Plan was a spectacular success at keeping Western Europe from becoming communist.
Point Four
In January 1949, President Truman announced the Point Four Program. The program was mentioned in his Inaugural Address, and got the name Point Four because it was the fourth foreign policy objective that he talked about in his speech. The program’s purpose was to provide economic help to poor countries. It was one of the many things done to help repair the destruction World War II had caused.
Creation of Israel
After World War II, the League of Nations created a “national home for the Jewish people.” In 1947, the United Nations said that the Mandate of Palestine could be separated into two states, one Jewish, and one Arab. However, the Arab League rejected the plan. Then, on May 14, 1948, Israel declared its independence anyway. The Arab-Israeli War broke out, and the new state of Israel won. This victory for Israel extended its borders even further than the United Nations plan would have. Since then, Israel has been under almost constant attack from other Middle Eastern nations and terrorist groups.
Division of Germany
Following the war, Germany was divided into four zones, one each controlled by France, Britain, the U.S., and the Soviet Union. In practice, because France and Britain were so devastated by the war, the US took control of their zones. The USSR controlled East Germany and the US controlled West Germany. The city of Berlin, located 100 miles inside East Germany, was also divided into four zones, with the US controlling West Berlin and the USSR controlling East Berlin. The two regions became separate countries in 1949, and West Berlin remained free throughout the Cold War.
Berlin Airlift
(1948-49). Also known as “Operation Vittles.” The Soviets, who controlled all of the land surrounding Berlin, put a blockade on all land and water routes into Berlin to try to get the West to give up on keeping their sections of Berlin. But, President Truman decided to fly supplies into Berlin, and the Soviets were forced to back down. This was called the Berlin Airlift. The West dropped thousands of tons of supplies every day to the city, and Stalin was forced to back down after 11 months. It was a public relations disaster for Stalin – the US even dropped candy bars for the German children to win their little hearts! (Known as “Operation Little Vittles.”)
NATO
(1949) Created in the wake of the Berlin Airlift, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, was a military alliance that created a system called “collective security.” The members agreed that an armed attack against any one of them in Europe or North America would be considered an attack against them all. Countries included the U.S., France, Britain, and 9 other states.
SEATO
SEATO, or the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, was an international organization for collective defense. Their main goal was to block any more Communist gains in Southeast Asia. SEATO was basically a Southeast Asian version of NATO. Unlike NATO, it didn’t work well and dissolved by 1977.
ANZUS
Short for The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty, ANZUS is a military alliance between Australia and New Zealand, and Australia and the U.S. to help each other with defense matters around the Pacific Ocean. It still functions today.
Chinese Revolution
In 1949, the Chinese Communists overthrew the Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-Shek (Jiang Jieshi). The Truman administration sent huge amounts of financial assistance to the ridiculously corrupt Chiang Kai-Shek because he was not communist. Mao Zedong led the communists. The revolution was very important to American domestic politics, because Republicans blamed Truman for “losing” China. Of course, it is stupid to say that Truman lost something the US never controlled, but hey, it is politics.
Mao Zedong
was the first Chairman of the People’s Republic of China. He brought the Communist Party of China to victory in the Chinese Civil War following WWII. Mao defeated the Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-Shek in 1949, and he established communism in China. Mao eventually murdered millions in his “Cultural Revolution.”
NSC-68
A famous document proposed by the National Security Council to Truman; it recommended that the U.S. should quadruple military spending. We soon built up a force of 3.5 million men, and spent 50 billion dollars a year on defense.
Korean War (Causes)
Japan had effectively occupied Korea since 1904. In the last days of World War II, an agreement was reached between the United States and the Soviet Union: the Soviets would occupy North Korea only as far south as the 38th parallel. The United States asked the United Nations to settle the issue of a divided Korea. Despite Soviet objections, a United Nations commission voted for elections in Korea. The war started when the North invaded the South to try to unify the whole country under communist rule.
Pusan Perimeter
The Battle of Pusan Perimeter was fought in August and September 1950 between the U.S and South Korea vs. North Korea. The North Koreans had quickly driven South Korean and UN forces into a little corner of South Korea. The Pusan Perimeter was the area in extreme southeast Korea. It was named after the coastal city of Pusan. The combined efforts of the U.S. and South Korea slowed the southward drive of the North Koreans and ended in a difficult but successful defense of the Pusan Perimeter. The fighting was intense and American casualties were 4,599 battle deaths, 12,058 wounded, 401 reported captured, and 2,107 reported missing in action.
Inchon
The battle began on September 15, 1950, and ended on September 28. It was the United Nations vs. North Korea. The majority of UN ground forces participating in this assault were US Marines, commanded by Douglas MacArthur. The attack was an amphibious assault many miles behind enemy lines. The Battle of Inchon ended a string of victories by the invading North Koreans and began a counterattack by United Nations forces that led to the recapture of Seoul.
Truman- MacArthur Controversy
Truman rejected MacArthur’s request to attack Chinese supply bases north of the Yalu River (on the border between North Korea and China), but MacArthur nevertheless promoted his plan to the Republican House leader, who leaked it to the press. Truman was concerned that further escalation of the war might draw the Soviet Union further into the conflict (who was already supplying weapons and providing warplanes with Korean markings and Soviet pilots). In April 1951, Truman fired MacArthur from all his commands in Korea and Japan. Relieving MacArthur of his command was among the least politically popular decisions in presidential history. Truman’s approval ratings plummeted, and he faced several calls for his impeachment. MacArthur returned to the United States to a hero’s welcome. Most historians today give Truman great credit for firing MacArthur because the President is the Commander-in-Chief, and having soldiers doing whatever they please would be bad for democracy.
Gandhi
India was under British rule at the time of World War II, so when England got involved in the war, India was immediately involved. Gandhi didn’t want India involved in the war just because Britain was. He thought that India shouldn’t fight in a war that was being fought for democratic freedom when India was still under British rule. Gandhi believed in using nonviolent resistance (like MLK did later) to achieve his goals. Gandhi successfully gained independence for India after WWII.
GI Bill of Rights
This is also known as the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944. The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 provided federal money to WWII veterans for higher education. Nearly 8 million veterans’ educations were funded, costing the government $15.5 billion. It was one of most successful government programs in US history.
Sunbelt
An area containing fifteen states. The crescent shaped belt stretched from Virginia through Florida and Texas to Arizona and California. After WWII, the population in the Sunbelt quickly rose, and California alone accounted for a fifth of the nation’s population growth. The South and West were granted lots of federal money, especially in the defense industry.
Frostbelt
An area in the north. The location of old industrial zones, the population of the Frostbelt grew at half the rate of that of the Sunbelt, as many Americans left the industrial regions for warmer climate and the new defense jobs in the South.
Rustbelt
The industrial region of the Ohio Valley. Receiving little federal money and growing at a slow rate, the region was doing poorly.
Levittown
The first standardized suburb, designed by the Levitt brothers and built on Long Island. Thousands of homes were built using the same schematics, forming row upon row of nearly identical homes. This method cut construction costs and allowed Americans to move into a new home for a cheaper price. These suburbs became popular in the late 1940s.
“White flight”
The movement of white families from inner cities to the suburbs. Blacks from the South moved in to the cities and lived in the homes and apartments that the whites left behind.
Baby Boom
The name given to the period from 1946-1964 when lots of babies were born. This was one year (maybe nine months?!) after all the veterans returned home. All the veterans were rushing to get married and start new lives. They wanted to build homes and start families.
Taft-Hartley Act
Passed in 1947, the act outlawed closed shops (businesses in which joining the union was required) and required union leaders to take a noncommunist oath. Truman vetoed but was overridden by Congress. The fact that he did this got support from organized labor, which ended up being important in his election victory in 1948. The Taft-Hartley Act was a major rollback of the rights that had been won for workers during the Depression (Wagner Act).
Right-to-work laws
They are laws enforced in 24 states that don’t allow trade unions and employers to make membership or payment of union dues required before or after hiring the person. Until the Taft-Hartley Act, the workers at some workplaces were required to be a member of the union as a condition of employment. The right-to-work laws give people more freedom; they can choose to join or not join unions. It also helps companies pay less in wages and avoid spending money on safety equipment.
Effect of Executive Order 8802
This Executive Order was issued by President Franklin Roosevelt to prohibit racial discrimination in the national defense industry. After the order was issued, the nation was forced to look at racism as an issue and Americans went crazy. There were race riots in Detroit, New York, Philadelphia, and other major cities. Whites were enraged and showed their anger through boycotts. On the other hand, blacks were finally securing a small amount of jobs in the industrial economy, and they were prepared not only to keep this new right, but fight for more. It allowed President Harry Truman to issue Executive Order 9981, which ordered the “equality of treatment and opportunity in the Armed Services for people of all races, religions, or national origins.” This action caused southern Democrats to break from the party and form the States’ Rights Party, also known as “Dixiecrats.” More on those losers later…
Executive Order 9981
An order issued by Truman in 1948 that forbade racial segregation in the Army. Truman ended segregation in federal civil service and ordered equality of treatment and opportunity in the armed forces after six black veterans were lynched in 1946. After Truman heard about the lynching of the black war veterans, Truman responded by saying, “My God! I had no idea it was as terrible as that.” Congress was reluctant to pass legislation concerning civil rights, but with the persistence of Truman, civil rights legislation was passed. After Truman, however, Eisenhower showed no real interest in working with civil rights reform.
1948 election
Truman decided he wanted to run for president for the Democrats (he’d already been serving as President since 1945). The Democrats only nominated him because Eisenhower didn’t want to run. Truman was for civil rights, social welfare spending, and commitment to labor. The southern Democrats didn’t like his position on civil rights. The southerners decided to split and nominated their own candidate, Strom Thurmond of South Carolina. Their new party was known as the “Dixiecrats.” Progressives nominated Henry Wallace. Republicans had Thomas E. Dewey, and everyone thought he was a sure victor because the Democratic Party was split and Truman was unpopular. On the night of the election, the Chicago Tribune printed the headline, “Dewey Defeats Truman,” even though Truman received more than two million more votes than anyone else. Truman won because he said he would expand Social Security and increase social welfare.
Dixiecrats
Known as the States’ Rights Democratic Party. It was a party for southern Democrats that was segregationist and socially conservative. Their campaign slogan was “Segregation Forever!” Their candidate was Strom Thurmond, who ended up being a US Senator for 48 years. In opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1957, he conducted the longest filibuster ever by a lone Senator, at 24 hours and 18 minutes in length, nonstop. In the 1960s, he opposed the civil rights legislation of 1964 and 1965 to end segregation and enforce the voting rights of African-American citizens. He always insisted he had never been a racist, but was opposed to excessive federal authority, and he attributed the movement for integration to Communist agitators. So, he just loved the black people, but didn’t trust the power of the federal government and those commies running the Civil Rights Movement. Yeah, okay. In 1948, Thurmond stated: “All the laws of Washington and all the bayonets of the Army cannot force the Negro into our homes, into our schools, our churches and our places of recreation and amusement.” Yep, he’s not a racist! Sadly, he managed to win 39 Electoral votes.
Progressive Party-Henry Wallace
Wallace ran for president in 1948 for the Progressive Party. He was Secretary of Agriculture for FDR from 1933-1940 and was vice president from 1941 to 1945. During the 1948 election when he ran for the Progressive Party, he wanted to end segregation, have full voting rights for blacks, and guarantee government health insurance. He refused to be in front of segregated audiences and give speeches, and was pelted with eggs on trips to the South. Although he gave a great effort, he came up short in the election. He ended fourth with only 2.4% of the popular vote and 0 Electoral votes.
Fair Deal
It is the name given to Truman’s domestic policy. In a 1947 speech to the NAACP, which marked the first time a President had ever addressed the group, Truman said, “Every man should have the right to a decent home, the right to an education, the right to adequate medical care, the right to a worthwhile job, the right to an equal share in the making of public decisions through the ballot, and the right to a fair trial in a fair court.” Commie!
Americans for Democratic Action
It was established in 1947. The main objective was support for the advancement of liberal causes. One of the most famous members was Eleanor Roosevelt. In 1948, ADA selected civil rights as its main issue and tried to persuade the Democratic Party and the Republican Party to support civil rights legislation. Truman shared the views of ADA and his Fair Deal proposals included legislation on civil rights, fair employment practices and opposition to lynching, which is one reason why the South abandoned the Democratic Party.
National Security Act
This act added the Department of Defense to the Pentagon, and added a Secretary of Defense to the Cabinet. It also formed the National Security Council, which advised the president on security issues, and the Central Intelligence Agency to gather information on other countries. The Department of Defense replaced the Department of War.
Loyalty Review Board
A large federal investigation program launched by Truman in 1947. It was believed that Soviet spies were embedded in the government, and a list of ninety “disloyal” organizations was formed. The Loyalty Review Board investigated 3 million employees, and 3,000 of them resigned or were dismissed. These investigations prompted local governments to grow paranoid as well, and many new government employees were forced to take oaths of loyalty.
HUAC
The House Un-American Activities Committee. It was a committee set up in the House of Representatives to investigate corruption. In 1947, the committee held nine days of hearings into alleged Communist propaganda and influence in the Hollywood motion picture industry. Several members of Hollywood were blacklisted by the industry because they were supposedly communists. Eventually, the studios boycotted more than 300 artists—including directors, radio commentators, actors and lots of screenwriters. Some, like Charlie Chaplin, left the US to find work. Only about ten percent succeeded in rebuilding careers within the entertainment industry.
Alger Hiss
He was a U.S. lawyer, civil servant, administrator, businessman, author, and lecturer. In 1948, Whittaker Chambers, a government informant and former Communist Party member, testified to HUAC that he had secretly been a Communist while in federal service. He denied the charge. When Chambers repeated his claim in a radio interview, he filed a lawsuit against him. Chambers was not prosecuted because of being a cooperative government witness, but he was. After a mistrial, he was tried a second time. In January 1950, he was found guilty on both counts of perjury and received two five-year sentences, of which he eventually served 44 months. The case heightened public concern about Soviet espionage penetration of the U.S. government. As a native-born, well-educated, government official, he did not fit the profile of a typical spy.
McCarran Internal Security Act
(1950) required the investigation of people thought to be engaged in “un-American” activities. Members of “Communist” groups could not become citizens. Citizen members of these groups could be denaturalized in five years. The Congress overrode President Truman’s veto to pass this bill. Truman called the bill “the greatest danger to freedom of speech, press, and assembly since the Alien and Sedition Laws of 1798.”
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
were American Communists who got international attention when they were both executed after being found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the Nuclear Bomb to the Soviet Union. The Rosenberg’s guilt and suitability of their sentence have been controversial and debated among scholars, but information released since the end of the Cold War does seems to confirm the charges of espionage against Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
Cult of domesticity
This term has to do with the “celebration of eternal feminine functions.” This means that women should possess certain qualities, such as being an educated housewife who raises the kids, instead of working for wages and nagging. It was the idea that women should stick to their conventional roles in the family, like taking care of the children and the house while their husbands provided for them, and maintaining a cheerful, positive attitude to keep their husbands happy. It was idealized in the 1950s in all forms of media, including television.
Betty Friedan – The Feminine Mystique (1963)
It was a best seller and it sparked the modern women’s movement. When writing this book, Friedan did extensive research and found that men dominated editorials, even in women’s magazines! In The Feminine Mystique, Friedan criticized the popular belief that women should find meaning and happiness in their lives through the conventional roles of a mother and wife. She believed that women confined to the narrow role of being housewives were never fully able to develop their own personal identities or educations. The book was written after Friedan handed out questionnaires at a college reunion she attended and found that most women were unhappy with their lives and didn’t know the reason why.
Consumer culture (credit, food, travel, television)
American culture changed in the 1950’s with the advent of fast food, easy credit, the television, and new leisure activities. The first McDonald’s was opened in 1948 by Maurice and Richard McDonald in San Bernardino, California and soon became one of the largest food chains in the country. Breakthroughs in transportation, like the Boeing 707 passenger jet made getting around easier. Boeing also created a modified 707 for President Eisenhower, which became Air Force One. In 1949, Frank McNamara developed the Diners Club Card, the first credit card that could be used across multiple companies. Anyone carrying a Diners Club Card could eat at any restaurant that accepted the card without money. The Diners Club would pay the restaurant, and the cardholders would pay Diners Club when they were sent a bill. The most popular invention of the time was the television. Most families owned one by 1960. Religion, sports, music, and politics could easily be brought to homes across America thanks to the TV, and companies soon found out that it was a very successful advertising medium, as well.
Elvis Presley
He became the “King of Rock” during the 1950s. He fused “black rhythm and blues with white bluegrass and country styles.” This new musical style was called rock and roll. This music was mostly popular amongst the young generation of baby boomers who were growing up with Elvis. Listening and dancing to rock and roll became an enormous part of this new American culture. Elvis was known for his pouty lips, and “sexually suggestive gyrations.” When Elvis performed for TV, the producers either blurred out or did not show his hips at all because they believed it was inappropriately sexual. Many referred to Presley as “The King of Rock and Roll” or just simply “The King.” On August 16, 1977 Elvis died. He was on the toilet in the bathroom in his Graceland mansion when he fell off onto the floor and died in a pool of his own vomit. A tough way to go! The official coroner’s report said that Elvis died of “cardiac arrhythmia,” but later it was revealed that this was a cover-up by the family, and that the actual cause of death was a mixture of ten different prescription drugs in doses that no human body could handle.
John Kenneth Galbraith
He was an economist from the Keynesian school of economic thought. He is known for writing the book The Affluent Society in 1958, where he argued the people should be more concerned about helping the poor rather than spending money on material goods.
Adlai Stevenson
He was a Democrat who ran against Dwight D. Eisenhower for the presidency two times (in 1952 and 1956) and lost both times. During the 1952 election, Eisenhower’s sleazy running mate, Richard Nixon, accused Stevenson of being both a communist and a coward. After losing again in 1956, he planned to run for a third time, but John F. Kennedy won the nomination instead.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
He was a five-star general in the U.S. Army, serving during World War II. Eisenhower was the supreme commander of the Allies in Europe, and planned Operation Overlord. His military fame helped him win the election of 1952 against Adlai Stevenson. Stevenson didn’t stand a chance against Eisenhower because Ike was the most famous American at this time. “I like Ike” buttons were seen across the nation. Perceived as a grandfatherly figure, Ike left most of the “nasty” campaigning to his scummy running mate, Nixon. Ike promised to go to Korea to end the war if elected. He did, but he was unable to reunite the country, leaving Korea divided at the 38th parallel, but successfully negotiated an armistice between the two belligerents. Eisenhower was not a very political president; he cared more about social harmony than social justice.
Richard Nixon
He was a Republican politician in the 1940s-1970s. He was the running mate with Dwight D. Eisenhower in the election of 1952, running for vice president. Since Eisenhower was a “beat-around-the-bush” kind of guy who avoided confronting situations head on, he filled the role. As Eisenhower peacefully campaigned, he politically destroyed their opponents. He accused opponents of cultivating corruption, caving in on Korea, losing China, and coddling communists. He made Stevenson a main target of his bashing by jeering, “Adlai the appeaser.” He also said that Stevenson had “a Ph.D. from (Secretary of State) Dean Acheson’s College of Cowardly Communist Containment.” He was caught in a political pickle himself when news surfaced about him having a “slush fund” that he had acquired while holding a seat in the Senate. When the public heard, they were enraged, so he reacted by addressing the people with his “Checkers Speech.” The Checkers Speech was an address to Americans where he won back popularity after his scandal by referring to his family dog (a cocker spaniel) named Checkers. Luckily for him, the American people were suckers!
Checkers Speech
This was a speech made by then Senator Richard Nixon regarding the accusation that he was connected to a fund set up by his backers to reimburse him for political expenses. It is called the “Checkers Speech” because he stated that he intended to keep one gift from this fund, a black-and-white dog, named Checkers. It is said that this speech to the nation saved Nixon’s career and more importantly, his candidacy. This story and the seeming sincerity that he showed during the speech won popularity and saved his reputation for the election.
“I Shall Go to Korea”
This was a promise made and kept by presidential candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1952. He promised that if he were elected, he would go to Korea and negotiate an end to the war. Negotiations took seven months, and Eisenhower had to hint that America would use nuclear weapons if the war continued. However, it is argued that his hints were so subtle that the Koreans didn’t understand them and ended the war for their own reasons. Unfortunately, after the armistice was signed, Korea remained divided into North and South Korea along the 38th parallel.
38th parallel
It now serves as the line dividing the two Koreas. Interestingly, Nixon had attacked Acheson of “Cowardly Communist Containment” in the election of 1952, yet the result of his party’s efforts in Korea was to contain the communists!
Joseph McCarthy
He was a Republican senator from Wisconsin who accused people of being communists or communist sympathizers. With the Republicans essentially using him as a weapon against the Democrats, McCarthy destroyed the careers of many government officials, as well as others, by accusing them of being communists. President Eisenhower did nothing to stop him and didn’t even want to get involved. Despite the fact that very few communists were ever found in the government, the majority of the public supported McCarthy’s actions, since the public is easily frightened and not too bright. During this time period, he was known for making claims that made headlines, like accusing Secretary of State Dean Acheson of knowingly employing 205 Communist party members. After the election of 1952, McCarthy even accused General George Marshall of being part of a conspiracy! Countless actors, politicians, officials, and writers were ruined when “Low-Blow Joe” announced that they were reds. Most importantly about the McCarthy scandals was the fact that President Eisenhower responded by doing nothing! Eisenhower secretly loathed the man, but instead of standing up to him, he ignored his behavior. What kind of a leader is that?! Eisenhower justified his inaction by saying, “I will not get in the gutter with that guy.” However, McCarthy lost popularity very quickly when he attacked the U.S. Army for harboring communists and homosexuals. After the McCarthy-Army hearings, the Senate censured him for his actions. McCarthy died of chronic alcoholism in 1957.
Margaret Chase Smith
She is notable because she is the first woman to be elected to both the U.S. House and the Senate, and also the first woman from Maine to serve in either one. She was also the first woman to compete for a major party presidential nomination (the Republican nomination in 1964). Smith was the first Senate member to speak out against the actions of Joseph McCarthy. She delivered a speech called the Declaration of Conscience to the Senate in 1950, in which she argued that McCarthy targeted everyone exhibiting the traits of “Americanism” (the rights to criticize, hold unpopular beliefs, protest, and think freely). While other senators had supported her speech, its effect was diminished because the Korean Conflict had just started. McCarthy called her “Moscow Maggie!”
McCarthy Army hearings
These were a series of hearings held in the U.S. Senate by the Subcommittee on Investigations. When McCarthy made the mistake of attacking the US Army, his career spiraled to an end. This was the first televised Senate hearing in US history. The US Army charged McCarthy with pressuring them into giving favored treatment to G. David Schine, a former McCarthy aide who had been drafted. McCarthy, on the other hand, charged the US Army with holding Schine as a hostage to pressure McCarthy into not exposing communists. The climax of the trials was when Joseph Nye Welch (Army Chief Counsel) and McCarthy had a showdown. McCarthy had accused him of being a “pixie” during the hearings! Welch said to McCarthy, “Until this moment, Senator, I think I never gauged your cruelty or recklessness… Have you no sense of decency, sir, at long last? Have you left no sense of decency?” When McCarthy attempted to retaliate, Welch cut him off and the people applauded for Welch.
Emmitt Till
He was a fourteen-year-old from Chicago murdered for saying “bye, baby” to a 21-year-old white woman at a small grocery store. The woman’s husband and his half-brother beat Till and gouged out one eye. They then shot him in the head, tied a 70-pound cotton gin fan to his neck with barbed wire, and threw his body in the Tallahatchie River, where it was found 3 days later. Till’s mother insisted on holding an open-casket funeral, which, because the evidence of the violence was so graphic, sparked a major advance in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. The two people who kidnapped Till were acquitted of their crimes by an all-white Mississippi jury in the trial, but later admitted to killing him. Till’s casket is in the Smithsonian.
Jackie Robinson
He was the first African American in history to play Major League Baseball, signing with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947. Robinson was a skilled player, playing in 6 World Series, being chosen to play in 6 All-Star Games, and earning his spot in the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962. Because of his skill, Robinson’s participation in Major League Baseball raised some questions about its segregation and eventually helped bring about the desegregation of professional sports. His number 42 is now retired for all MLB teams.
Rosa Parks
Parks is famous because of her “refusal to move.” She boarded the Cleveland Ave bus in Montgomery on December 1, 1955. After paying the bus fare, Parks sat in an empty seat in the first row of “black seats” in the back of the bus. As the bus continued on its route, all the seats in the white section filled up. When the bus driver realized that the white section was full, he entered the black section and ordered the first four blacks to move back so the whites could sit down, following common procedure. When the other three blacks moved, Parks slid over to the window seat and refused to give up her seat. When the bus driver asked her why she wasn’t moving, she responded by saying, “I don’t think I should have to stand up.” The man then threatened that if she didn’t give up her seat, he would call the police. To that she responded, “You may do that.” Rosa Parks standing up to these ridiculously racist rules of the time led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Parks was arrested and escorted off the bus. She was later arrested again for organizing the bus boycott. Today, Parks is a major icon of the Civil Rights Movement.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
This was a boycott of the Montgomery bus system that lasted from December 1, 1955, when Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white person, to December 20, 1956. A group called the Montgomery Improvement Association, led by Martin Luther King, Jr. was created to organize the boycott. It lasted for over a year, and severely damaged the city’s transit companies, continuing until the city of Montgomery desegregated the bus system.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
He was an iconic figure in the civil rights movement, but an unexpected one to say the least. He grew up in a fairly wealthy family in Atlanta, Georgia and attended high-ranking institutions in the North, so he was shielded from a lot of the turmoil that was going on in the South with respect to the treatment of blacks. Nonetheless, he was an amazing orator and that helped shoot him to the center stage of the movement. King was a reverend at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama before becoming the leader of the Montgomery Improvement Association to organize the bus boycott. During the boycott, King was arrested and had his house bombed. Continuing the battle for civil rights, King created the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957 to unite African-American churches under his cause. Inspired by Gandhi, King believed that non-violent protest would open the public’s eyes to the injustice of segregation. He organized many marches for civil rights, and was one of the organizers of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in 1963. During this march, King gave his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. The march was successful, and Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964. King also protested the Vietnam War and tried to lessen poverty. On April 4, 1968, King was assassinated in a hotel room in Memphis, Tennessee.
Earl Warren
Earl Warren was the Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court from 1953-1969. Warren shocked Americans by confronting topics such as segregation and racism. After nominating him for the Court, President Eisenhower was not supportive of Warren; he publicly snubbed him and privately scorned him. Unlike many other politicians at the time, Warren courageously confronted issues that the Court and President Eisenhower were looking to avoid. Conservative Americans who stood behind Eisenhower in avoiding these touchy subjects made signs that read, “Impeach Earl Warren!” His most famous impact on the culture was his Court’s decision (the Warren Court) in the famous court case Brown v. Board of Education (1954). Warren also made steps as the Chief Justice to ensure that people maintained the rights guaranteed to them by the Constitution even while being arrested, and required that police read a person their rights (called Miranda Rights because of Miranda v. Arizona, the case that the practice originated from). Warren also ruled in Gideon v. Wainwright that people unable to afford an attorney get a free one appointed for their defense. Warren also outlawed mandatory school prayer under the First Amendment (Engel v. Vitale). Many conservatives hate his guts. They say that he was “legislating from the bench,” which is bad unless it involves naming George Bush president or getting rid of Obama’s health care plan.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
This was a very controversial Supreme Court decision that ruled segregation of public schools, unconstitutional. The justices ruled that segregation in schools was “inherently unequal” and therefore unconstitutional. This court case outlawed the previous decision in the Plessy v. Ferguson case (1896) where it was constitutional to segregate as long as the facility was “separate but equal.” The justices then said that desegregation in schools needed to be put into effect immediately (but it took several years). This case led Earl Warren to be hated among many white Americans but also historically famous.
Central High School
Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, was the site of major racial tension after the decision in the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) case. After the justices declared that segregation in schools was unconstitutional, they declared that the desegregation of schools start immediately. In the Border States, the majority of the schools complied with the new rules. In the Deep Southern states, however, it was a fight. Orval Faubus, the governor of Arkansas, mobilized the Arkansas National Guard to keep the students from enrolling. Viewing this as a direct threat to federal authority, President Eisenhower sent in federal troops to escort the students to their classes. Enormous mobs of white students gathered to scream and jeer at the students as they entered the high school.
SCLC
This is the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a civil rights group founded by Martin Luther King, Jr. It was formed on January 10, 1957 and played a large role in the American Civil Rights movement. The organization united black churches, the largest and most successful black institutions of their time, behind the civil rights cause. It still exists today.
Woolworth’s
A chain store in Greensboro, North Carolina where four black students sat down at the “whites only” lunch counter and demanded service. When the store refused to serve them, the four of them refused to leave, sitting in their same seats until the store closed that day. The next day, they returned with twenty more people and were again refused service, so they remained in the same place all day. Each day, more and more people showed up, until there were over 300 people there. This was the beginning of the popular “sit-in” movement, and this protest strategy spread around the country. In April 1960, black students in the South formed a committee to enforce the sit-in efforts, SNCC.
SNCC
The SNCC, also known as the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, pronounced “snick”, was an organization founded by southern black students in 1960. The committee was focused on promoting the efforts started by the sit-in movement. African American students demanded equal treatment in restaurants, transportation, employment, housing, and voter registration. Beginning with the students that held a sit-in at Woolworth’s, SNCC became enormously important for civil rights activists over the next decade.
Eisenhower’s “dynamic conservatism”
In 1953 when Eisenhower became president, he pledged to begin a philosophy of “dynamic conservatism.” He said, “In all those things that deal with people, be liberal, be human,” whereas when it came to “people’s money, or their economy, or their form of government, be conservative.” This philosophy was meant to find the happy medium between conservatism and liberalism. “Dynamic conservation” favored the continuation of the main programs of the New Deal (because Ike knew it would be political suicide to try to kill programs like Social Security) while also attempting to move the federal government out of other areas of peoples’ lives. Many critics said that Eisenhower was “the bland leading the bland.” However, he did take some positions inconsistent with his party’s beliefs – he raised Social Security spending, while decreasing defense spending, for example.
Operation Wetback
Operation Wetback was a massive herding of illegal Mexican immigrants in the United States and returning them back to Mexico. The Mexican government had been worried that too many illegal immigrants headed to the United States were undercutting the bracero program of legally exported farm workers. That program allowed Mexicans to come into the U.S. legally and work as temporary workers under contract. Eisenhower responded to this worry by initiating a round up of illegal Mexican immigrants. The operation was called “Operation Wetback,” referencing the route that the Mexicans had to face to enter the country; the immigrants had to cross the enormous Rio Grande in order to get into the US. About 1 million Mexicans were returned to Mexico in 1954.
Revoke of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
The IRA of 1934 had encouraged Native Americans to reorganize their tribes and return to their old way of life. However, Eisenhower threw all that out the window and terminated the tribes as legal entities. He returned to the idea of trying to assimilate the Native Americans into society. That’s how things were under the Dawes Severalty Act back in 1887. FDR’s administration had reversed the Dawes Act in 1934, promoting tribal identity. Ike’s policies did a lot of damage to the Native Americans, as they lost much of their land and thousands of Native American children were adopted into white families.
Interstate Highway Act of 1956
A $27 billion dollar plan that provided for 42,000 miles of motorways, it laid down thousands of multilane, modern roads, provided numerous construction jobs and promoted the suburbanization of America. This act was a public works project that was similar to the New Deal. The Interstate Highway Act of 1956 benefitted the trucking, automobile, oil, and travel industries. The industries the act robbed were railroads, especially passenger trains. Also, it left many busy cities dead and desolate. It even led to more air pollution. Another concern was energy consumption, caused by an increase of traveling. Still, it was a great accomplishment for those of us who don’t like to drive through every dinky little town when we travel!
John Foster Dulles
He was the Secretary of State for President Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959. Dulles created the “rollback” policy against communist countries; he supported an effort to free the “captives” of communism and take back countries that had fallen to a communist regime. He promised not to merely stem the “red tide,” but to try to “roll back” its gains. At the same time, however, the Eisenhower administration promised to cut military spending and balance the budget. These two promises contradicted each other! In order to “roll back” communism, the government would have to increase military spending. Under the plan, Ike would build up an air fleet of super bombers (called Strategic Air Command (SAC)) that would be equipped with nuclear bombs that could flatten cities.
Massive retaliation
Massive retaliation was an active doctrine in the United States during Eisenhower’s presidency. Massive retaliation meant that if an enemy nation attacked the United States, we would retaliate with forces overwhelmingly stronger than the enemy’s attack, including nuclear weapons. During Eisenhower’s presidency in 1956, Hungary rose up against the Soviets. According to massive retaliation and rollback, the United States should have taken action against the Soviets. The US decided to turn a blind eye, and the Hungarians were crushed by the Soviets. So, essentially, we talked the talk, but failed to walk the walk!
Dien Bien Phu
In March 1954, an important French garrison was trapped at Dien Bien Phu in the northwestern region of French Indochina (Vietnam). The French were trapped, and Secretary Dulles, Vice President Nixon, and the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff wanted America to intervene by sending in American bombers to assist the French. Eisenhower, however, did not support intervention because he was worried about beginning a war in Asia so soon after Korea. He also feared that Britain would not support American and French efforts (he was right), which was yet another reason he held back. Dien Bien Phu fell to the Vietnamese nationalists, and a conference in Geneva cut Vietnam in half at the 17th parallel. For now, Ike contented himself with continuing Truman’s policy in Vietnam of sending money to the anti-communists.
Geneva Conference (1954)
A multinational conference was held, known as the Geneva Conference, to decide what to do about Vietnam. It was decided to divide Vietnam in half at the 17th parallel. Ho Chi Minh in the north agreed, under the condition that Vietnam-wide elections would be held within two years to reunite the country. In the south, Ngo Dinh Diem controlled the region and he opposed elections. The promised election never happened because the US and South Vietnam knew that free elections would have resulted in an overwhelming victory by Ho Chi Minh, a communist. Though the United States never signed the Geneva agreement, Eisenhower promised military and economic support to the Diem regime, under the condition that it instituted social reforms.
Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh was the prime minister and president of North Vietnam. During WWII, he and the Vietnamese nationalists fought the Japanese, who finally withdrew from Vietnam in 1945. He helped rescue an American pilot from the Japanese, and also worked with the American OSS to gather intelligence on the Japanese. Within hours of the Japanese surrender, Ho declared the independence of Vietnam, as the French prepared to return (they had held Vietnam as part of French Indochina since the early 19th century). The declaration of Vietnamese independence was based on the US Declaration of Independence, and some of the words were identical to the US document. Unfortunately, despite the fact that the US knew that Ho was a nationalist who primarily wanted a free and independent Vietnam, FDR reluctantly supported French return to control of Indochina. He did so because Churchill did not want to set an example of colonies being freed (Britain still controlled India, for example), and because Ho was a communist.
Ngo Dinh Diem
corruption – After the Geneva Conference in 1954, Ngo Dinh Diem was the president of South Vietnam, and Ho Chi Minh was the leader of the region north of the 17th parallel. Ngo Dinh Diem rejected an offer to serve in Minh’s postwar government before the Geneva Conference because he didn’t support his policies and he was strongly anticommunist. In 1956, the country was supposed to reunite and hold a nationwide election. Diem knew that because of Minh’s popularity, he had no chance at winning the election against him. So what did he do? He called the election off! He hated communism and believed that once Ho won the election, the entire nation would transform to communism. He was very dictatorial, and his corruption eventually embarrassed the US government enough that the Kennedy administration allowed South Vietnamese generals to assassinate him in 1963. As a result of losing Ngo, the South became increasingly unable to stop communist incursions. Ho Chi Minh said, “I can scarcely believe the Americans would be so stupid (to be behind the assassination).”
Nikita Khrushchev
After Stalin’s death in 1953, an enormous power struggle in the Soviet Union followed. He, after several years of struggles, won the battle and was the next leader of the Soviet Union. In 1956, he delivered the “Secret Speech” which denounced Stalin’s cruelty and unnecessary purges. He disagreed with many of Stalin’s old policies, and, like President Eisenhower, believed that missiles would be less costly and more effective than having a large army or navy. For the first several years of his rule, the USSR and USA got along a little better in a period known as the “Thaw.” Unfortunately, Eisenhower screwed it up with the U-2 Incident.
Hungary 1956
In 1956, the people of Hungary rebelled against their Soviet leaders. The revolution was successful at first, and the pro-Soviet Hungarian government was overthrown. Negotiations with the Soviets to withdraw their troops were scheduled to begin, but the Soviets suddenly decided to crush the rebellion. Badly in need of support, Hungary requested help from America. Unfortunately, America was unable to help because of their new “massive retaliation” policy. President Eisenhower decided that the Hungarian revolution was not a good enough cause to use nuclear weapons, which is pretty ironic considering Nixon’s criticism of the containment policy of Truman and Acheson. The Soviets crushed the rebellion in 1957. So much for “rollback”!
Mohammad Mossadegh and Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi
Mossadegh was the democratic leader of Iran who started resisting the Western companies (like Exxon and Shell) that controlled all of the petroleum in Iran. He wanted the oil in Iran to be controlled by the people of Iran. To combat this threat to the oil companies, the CIA engineered a coup and overthrew Mossadegh. He was the prime minister of Iran from 1951-53. The CIA replaced Mossadegh with the Shah of Iran, Mohammed Reza Pahlevi. Pahlevi was clearly a dictator. The U.S. wanted him in control became he was friendly to the West and the U.S. He was willing to protect the oil in Iran for the western democracies. This led to the Iranian people resenting the U.S. and its government. Pahlevi stayed in power until he was overthrown by the Iranian revolution in 1979. The CIA’s actions in Iran and Guatemala during this period led to “blowback” – foreign resentment of American interference in their affairs to support dictators.
Suez Crisis
President Gamal Nasser of Egypt wanted to build a massive canal on the Nile River to provide irrigation and power to the region. He sought support from America and Britain to fund the construction of the Aswan High Dam. America’s offer was withdrawn, however, when Egypt began recognizing and supporting communist countries. In response, Nasser nationalized (took control of) the Suez Canal, which was owned mostly by France and Britain. America’s French and British allies kept America in the dark when they began planning an attack on Egypt. They staged a joint assault on Egypt in late October 1956. The French and British had made one mistake. They assumed that their American allies would help them out with supplying oil as they had done in the previous two world wars. Their Middle Eastern supplies were disrupted and they were in desperate need of oil. Since America was so upset that they were left in the dark by their allies, President Eisenhower decided not to help them at all and said, “Let them boil in their own oil.” The oil-less troops were forced to surrender and withdraw from Egypt. Once the troops were gone, a United Nations police force was sent into the area to maintain order.
Eisenhower Doctrine
In 1957, the United States Congress, along with Ike, declared this. This promised that the United States would aid any Middle Eastern nation fighting the threat of communism. Any nation could request and receive economic and military assistance from the United States if they said that they were resisting communism. Unfortunately, we gave money to some really awful dictators because they said they were resisting communism, much like we give money to dictators today who say they are fighting terrorism.
OPEC
In 1960, a group of nations came together to form an alliance in the petroleum industry. Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, and Iran joined with Venezuela to form the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. By the early 1970s, its power had grown so great that they had the ability to paralyze the US economy, which they did in 1973, when prices quadrupled.
Jimmy Hoffa
The Teamsters was an American labor union that was investigated, and it was revealed that it was guilty of gangsterism, fraud, and brass-knuckles tactics (yeah!). The AFL-CIO had expelled the Teamsters for choosing leaders like him. As a leader of the union, he was an extremely corrupt and violent man. He was later convicted for jury tampering, and he served time in prison. He served a small portion of his sentence, then mysteriously disappeared. On July 30, 1975, he was declared missing. He was legally declared dead though he was never actually found. Many people believe he is buried in the west end zone of Giants stadium!
Landrum-Griffin Act of 1959
Since labor unions had been infected with corruption, even labor’s friends agreed that there was a need for thorough housecleaning. Eisenhower, seeing an opportunity to weaken labor, persuaded Congress to pass this, officially known as the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act. After hearings in a Senate committee, it was uncovered that dishonest union officials were using violence and misusing labor funds. The new act was designed to hold labor leaders responsible for preventing bullying tactics that were common in labor unions. The law also prohibited “secondary boycotts,” a boycott by a trade union initiated by workers in one industry and supported by workers in a second industry, and stopped certain picketing practices. It also banned commies from being union leaders.
Sputnik
On October 4, 1957, Soviet scientists took the world by surprise when they sent a “baby moon” into orbit. This beeping “baby moon” was named this I and weighed about 184 pounds. About a month later, they outdid themselves when they sent a second satellite, this II, weighing about 1,120 pounds and carrying a dog, into orbit! This was an enormous breakthrough in space science because the Soviets were the first scientists to successfully send satellites into orbit. Americans were scared. The Soviets were already a huge world power and threatened to spread communism. Now, they were displaying more advanced science discoveries as well, which put a significant damper on American confidence. Essentially, Americans were upset and intimidated by the growing power of the Soviet Union all around. They had never been outdone by another nation when it came to advancement in technology and science. This event led the nation into “rocket fever.” Americans were so intimidated that they became obsessed with launching a rocket into outer space and outdoing the Soviets. As a result, Eisenhower established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which spent billions of dollars for missile, and outer space, advancements. It also led to a much greater focus on science and math in public schools and less focus on “frills” like the arts and music!
NASA
America figured that if the Soviets could send heavy objects into outer space, then we could too! With “rocket fever” infecting the nation, Eisenhower decided to establish a National Aeronautics Space Administration and direct billions of dollars to missile development. After many humiliating attempts and failures, the United States was finally able to successfully put a small, grapefruit-sized satellite into orbit in 1958 (Explorer 1). By the end of 1950s, the U.S. had outer space missile technology. NASA later led all kinds of Apollo projects.
National Defense and Education Act (1958)
The Sputnik success sparked a comparison between the American educational system and the Soviet educational system. The American system was criticized for being too easygoing in comparison to the rigid courses of the Soviet Union. It was said that the American schools substituted square roots for square dancing! (Now it would be physics for football in our town!) Congress had rejected the demands for federal scholarships before Sputnik, but then in 1958, the National Defense and Education Act (NDEA) authorized $887 million dollars in loans to college students who were in need. Some of this money also went to the improvement of teaching the sciences and languages. We could use another Sputnik today!
“Spirit of Camp David” – the Thaw
As the Cold War continued on, Khrushchev, the leader of the Soviet Union after Stalin’s death, was eager to meet with President Eisenhower to plan a “summit conference” with the Western leaders. The President invited him to America in 1959. At the UN, Khrushchev suggested complete disarmament, but didn’t offer any support of how to obtain this goal. The main result of this tour was the meeting at Camp David, a presidential retreat in Maryland. At the meeting, Khrushchev announced that a decision on what to do about Berlin (it was still divided) would be extended indefinitely. The world was relieved to hear this, especially Americans. This cooperative attitude was termed “this.” Unfortunately, this period ended with the U-2 Incident.
U-2 Incident/Gary Powers
On May 1, 1960, this occurred. The incident took place during the presidency of Eisenhower and during the leadership of Khrushchev in the Soviet Union. A United States spy airplane was shot down over the Soviet Union’s airspace. At first, the United States tried to cover up the plane’s actual purpose by denying that it was sent on a mission to spy, claiming that it was a weather plane that had strayed off course. Eisenhower officials vehemently denied that the plane was a spy plane, thinking the pilot had died in the crash. Later, they were no longer able to cover up the mission because the Soviet Union recovered the remains of the plane, which was still quite intact, and the pilot who survived when the plane went down. Francis Gary Powers, the pilot of the spy plane, miraculously survived the crash when the plane was shot down. Eisenhower’s White House was caught in a clear lie. The incident was an embarrassment to the United States and made us look quite foolish. When Ike refused to apologize for lying, the Thaw ended. This led to the building of the Berlin Wall, Soviet missiles sent to Cuba, and an escalation in the arms race.
Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán
He was the President of Guatemala elected in 1950 and overthrown in a CIA-organized coup in 1954. As president, he enacted a land-distribution policy, evenly distributing the land between the rich and poor people of his country. The land distribution threatened American industries in Guatemala, particularly the United Fruit Company (now known as Chiquita), one of the largest American fruit companies. To protect American interests, the CIA engineered a coup and overthrew him, replacing him with a council of military leaders.
Fulgencio Batista
His career included President, dictator, and military leader of Cuba. He was closely allied with the United States. The US supported him throughout his presidency. He had encouraged huge investments of American capital, and in turn, Washington gave him support. In 1959, however, Fidel Castro engineered a revolution to overthrow him. Once Castro was in power, he denounced the “Yankee imperialists” and began taking property from Americans for his land redistribution program. Losing patience with Castro, Washington said enough was enough and cut off the heavy US imports of Cuban sugar. This just made Castro more upset with America, so he retaliated with further wholesale confiscations of American property. An enormous migration of anti-Castro Cubans left Cuba for the United States between 1960 and 2000. Most of the 1 million Cubans migrated to Florida. The United States placed a strict embargo on all Cuban products and is still faithful to it today, though in recent weeks, Cuba and the United States have begun to reconcile.
Fidel Castro
He was a political leader in Cuba who organized a revolution to overthrow the American-supported dictator, Fulgencio Batista. He stopped all relations with the U.S. and started an isolation policy. To America’s surprise, he declared Cuba a satellite state of the USSR. He confiscated all American property in Cuba. America broke diplomatic relations with Cuba in 1961, and embargoed trade with Cuba. Americans called for military action against him, but Soviet leader Khrushchev threatened retaliation if any action was taken. He was leader of Cuba until 2008. His brother Raul is now in power.
U.S. embargo of Cuba
The United States, in response to Fidel Castro’s land distribution program and his alliance with the USSR, did this to Cuban trade and cut off diplomatic relations with Castro’s government in 1961. It is still in effect today, and will remain in effect until Cuba takes steps to democratize its government. It has been in place for over 50 years, so it obviously has not been successful.
“Kitchen debate”
A debate that took place between vice-president Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev in a fake kitchen of a model house at the American National Exhibition in Moscow in 1959. In the debate, both Nixon and Khrushchev argued the economic accomplishments of their countries. The debate was televised, and Nixon gained popularity for it.
1960 election
John F. Kennedy was the Democratic candidate from Massachusetts and Richard Nixon was the Republican candidate from California. Nixon was Eisenhower’s Vice President, so he was the obvious choice for the Republican Party. Kennedy was a youthful and handsome candidate who won much of his support because of his appearance and from the Catholic population. Kennedy was the first Catholic candidate since Al Smith (1928). In the end, Kennedy won the Presidency by 0.1% of the popular vote. His victory was 303 electoral votes to 219 electoral voted for Nixon. Most historians say that the election was decided by the televised debates, where Nixon looked shifty and sweaty, while JFK looked calm and commanding. Also, a lot of controversy exists on the election returns in Illinois, which went to JFK, but were possibly fraudulent.
22nd Amendment
The 22nd Amendment to the Constitution was ratified on March 21, 1947. This Amendment, passed during Truman’s presidency, set a term limit for presidents in the United States. Before this amendment, a president could run for as many terms as he wanted. Usually, presidents stopped running after they served their second term, but Franklin D. Roosevelt won four times. With this new amendment, however, a president could only serve two terms and then was no longer eligible to run for office. During Eisenhower’s second term, many people were worried that since there was no hope for Eisenhower’s reelection he would be ineffective in his second term and just play golf the whole time. To the people’s surprise, however, Eisenhower was actually more effective in his second term than in his first. If Republicans had not forced through the 22nd Amendment, Eisenhower would have been re-elected in 1960. Kind of ironic!
Best and the brightest
This refers to *President Kennedy’s youthful* Cabinet. Kennedy, being the youngest President ever elected, assembled a team of young advisors including *Robert Kennedy as Attorney General* and *Robert McNamara as the head of the Defense Department*.
Robert Kennedy
This man was appointed Attorney General by JFK, his brother. He was a young Harvard graduate whose main focus was to *reform the FBI*. It deployed about a thousand agents for internal security work, but *only targeted a few organized crime violations and paid virtually no attention to the civil rights violations in the South* (because he was a Democrat, he didn’t want to lose southern votes, which were Democratic). *He also worked hard to take on the Mafia*, which some conspiracy theorists say is what caused JFK’s assassination. Finally, he was the AG who ordered the FBI to bug Martin Luther King’s phone.
Robert McNamara
He was a business executive at Ford Motor Company. He was also the *Secretary of Defense under President John F. Kennedy and President Lyndon B. Johnson* from 1961 to 1968. Originally pro-war in Vietnam, he began to express reservations about LBJ’s policies, which led to him being ushered out the door in 1968. *Many people blame him for U.S. escalation of the Vietnam War.*
New Frontier
Kennedy wanted to help the nation move into the 1960s, setting forth the challenge of a ‘this’. He told the nation, *”Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country.”* The original intent of the New Frontier was to *boost the economy, provide national defense, and enhance the space program*. Kennedy proposed the creation of the *Peace Corps, an army of idealistic volunteers to help underdeveloped countries.* He also started the *Alliance for Progress, which provided aid in health and education in Latin America.* In addition, Kennedy promoted a multimillion-dollar project to *land an American on the moon*. In 1969, two Americans successfully landed on the moon. Or did they?!
1961 Inaugural Address
It was John F. Kennedy’s address. It is regarded as one of the best Inaugural Addresses in the nation’s history, even though it was of such short length (under 15 minutes). It includes the *”Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country.”* quote.
Berlin Wall
East Germany built it and separated East Berlin from West Berlin; it stood from 1961 to 1989. The wall had guard towers placed along the concrete barrier; *it was constructed to prevent emigration and defection from communist East Germany.*It was a physical symbol of the “Iron Curtain,” which was the division of European territory between communist and non-communist nations.
Charles de Gaulle
He was the president of France in the 1960s. During World War II, *he led the Free French Forces against the Nazis*. In 1958, he founded the French Fifth Republic and was its *president from 1959 to 1969*. In 1963, *vetoed the British application for Common Market membership because he was scared that the “special relationship” between the United States and Britain would give the US more control over European affairs*, which was not desired. This is one reason *why the Brits still use the £ today, instead of the €*. He deemed the Americans unreliable so he developed his own small atomic force to preserve French freedom of action. He also demanded an independent Europe free of “Yankee Influence.”
“flexible response”
Flexible response is an array of military “options” that would precisely match the gravity of the crisis at hand. Kennedy’s foreign policy meant that the US military would adapt to the problem at hand and figure out a specific solution to the specific problem. For example, Kennedy bolstered the Special Forces. They were an elite anti-guerrilla outfit trained to “survive on snake meat and to kill with scientific efficiency!” This flexible response policy evaluated every possible decision to confront a specific crisis. It replaced Ike’s massive retaliation policy, which failed because we didn’t want to fight a nuclear war for every little crisis we had to face.
Walt Whitman Rostow
He was an economic historian. He is known as the most influential modernization theorist. In his book, The Stages of Economic Growth, he charts the route from traditional society to the “age of mass consumption.” This modernization theory provided a framework for policy makers, especially for the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. Modernization became an excuse for the US to invade “backward” countries to “modernize” them.
Alliance for Progress
JFK created the Alliance for Progress as a sort of Marshall Plan for Latin America. One of the goals was to lessen the gap between the very wealthy and the very poor. This would, hopefully, squelch any communist movements. Other goals involved improving the per capita income of the southern countries, and protecting democratic (i.e. non-communist) governments. However, Latin America was apprehensive of US interference (gee, I wonder why), and little was accomplished.
Bay of Pigs
(1961) It was an invasion of Cuba backed by the CIA. 1,200 anticommunist Cuban exiles from America invaded Cuba in an attempt to overthrow the communist government of Fidel Castro. However, the invasion quickly failed and the exiles had to surrender. JFK made the decision not to provide air support for the ground invasion. This was a huge blunder. It took the armed forces of Cuba only three days to stop the invasion. It was only 3 months into the Kennedy Administration, and had been planned by the Eisenhower Administration. This event led to more Cuban support of the communist government of the Soviet Union. Soon after, the Soviets had missiles installed in Cuba to help defend against the United States.
Cuban Missile Crisis
When Fidel Castro took over Cuba and pledged allegiance to the Soviet Union, Cuba became the perfect launching site for nuclear attacks on America, being a mere 90 miles south of Florida. Taking full advantage of this opportunity, Khrushchev shipped atomic weaponry to Cuba, and pointed the missiles at the United States. If the US attempted to attack Cuba, they would be bombed. This also gave the Soviet Union the upper hand in other parts of the world; Khrushchev could now force America to back off in places like Berlin. To counter, Kennedy set up nukes in allied countries, such as Turkey, and threatened to bomb the Soviet Union, saying that any attack from Cuba would be seen as one ordered by Khrushchev, and the USSR would pay. These two leaders entered a battle of wills and game of nuclear chicken, with perhaps the entire world at stake. Finally, Khrushchev backed down, creating a compromise whereby he would remove his missiles from Cuba, and America would remove the blockade around Cuba, as well as remove the nukes from Turkey (though this provision was kept secret from the American people).
Voter Education Project
An organization formed by civil rights groups such as SNCC, the NAACP, CORE, and the SCLC and funded by the Kennedy Administration in hopes that it would end protests and demonstrations and re-focus civil rights efforts on voter education. The VEP provided money for black voter registration and education. It helped register over 700,000 new black voters. In the Deep South, the organization’s efforts led to more violence, as people in the Deep South were more resistant to black voter registration.
James Meredith
A black Air Force veteran who attempted to enroll in classes at the University of Mississippi. After being denied multiple times, the NAACP filed a lawsuit claiming that he was being denied because of the color of his skin. The U.S. Supreme Court agreed with them, but then Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett tried to block his entrance. After negotiation between Barnett and Attorney General Robert Kennedy, Meredith was allowed into the university. This caused rioting, and the Army and National Guard had to be called in to ensure his safety. Armed men escorted him to class!
Birmingham, 1963
In 1963, Martin Luther King, Jr. launched a campaign against discrimination in Birmingham, Alabama. Half of Birmingham’s population was black, yet only a small part of that population was registered to vote. Demonstrations in Birmingham came to a halt when police and firefighters with dogs and fire hoses attacked demonstrators. After this event, President Kennedy gave a televised speech, where he addressed the nation on black voter registration. The amount of retaliation from white people, including the KKK, against the demonstrators caused the effort in Birmingham to fail, but it did bring negative national attention to Alabama.
March on Washington
It was a large political rally in support of civil and economic rights for blacks. It took place in Washington D.C. on August 28, 1963, and it was where Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech on the steps to the Lincoln Memorial. The March led to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Medgar Evers
He was an African American World War II vet and civil rights activist from Mississippi. A white supremacist group assassinated him in 1963. This was significant because he was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery, which gained national attention to the civil rights movement. Bob Dylan wrote a song about Evers in 1963 and sang it at the March on Washington.
16th Street Baptist Church Bombing
In September 1963, this church in Birmingham, Alabama was bombed, killing 4 African American girls in the process. The KKK had planted dynamite with a time fuse under the steps. This was a major turning point in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and was a major contributor to the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Lee Harvey Oswald
On November 22, 1963, President Kennedy was riding in an open limousine in Dallas, Texas, when he was shot in the head by a hidden rifleman. The assassin was Lee Harvey Oswald. The government said that he acted and planned the assassination alone. He was arrested for the crime but denied involvement. We will never know exactly what happened because he was killed two days after the assassination. Jack Ruby, a nightclub operator, took it upon himself to avenge Kennedy, and shot Oswald to death in front of television cameras.
Jack Ruby
He was a nightclub operator from Dallas, Texas, who, after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, killed Lee Harvey Oswald. Oswald was being transferred from one jail to another and cameras and photographers were surrounding him as he was making his way. Ruby, an admirer of Kennedy, felt that he needed to avenge him, so when Oswald got out of the police car, Ruby drew his gun and killed him on live television. This occurred on November 24, 1963, two days after the assassination of Kennedy. Ruby claimed that a high-level government conspiracy existed, and he claimed that he was injected with cancer cells. Interestingly, he died of cancer three years later!
Warren Commission
Lyndon B. Johnson established this committee to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The committee brought President Johnson an 888-page report on the killing of Kennedy; the report concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald was the only man responsible for killing JFK and wounding Texas’s Governor John Connally, and that Jack Ruby acted on his own in the killing of Lee Harvey Oswald. Many Americans are convinced that the Commission intentionally covered up the evidence to hide a massive conspiracy!
Civil Rights Act of 1964
it outlawed discrimination and segregation in most public buildings. It gave the federal government more power to stop segregation in public schools. Also, the bill created the EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission). This helped eliminate some forms of job discrimination. It also ended extra requirements for blacks to be able to vote. President Kennedy originally called for this bill, but died before its passage, mostly because Southern Congressmen blocked it. In honor of JFK, LBJ promised to uphold his policies and helped the bill pass. LBJ was a Southerner from Texas and knew that signing the bill would lose the South for the Democratic Party for a long time. He signed it anyway because it was the right thing to do!
Title VII
This was the portion of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that banned discrimination in employment against anyone based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origins. Title VII also protects against bias in the workplace based on pregnancy, sex stereotyping, and protects against sexual harassment. However, Title VII does not defend against bias based on sexual orientation.
Affirmative action
Affirmative action, or “positive discrimination,” is when an action is taken that favors those who are normally discriminated against. Specifically, these were actions taken to help women and minorities gain a better foothold in schools and in the workplace. It is controversial: if you are not supposed to discriminate against anyone based on their race, color, religion, etc., why is it okay to discriminate for them? Some see it as unfair that a black person should get a job instead of a white person because he is black, just as it would be unfair to give the white man the job because he is white. On the other hand, others believe that white people in positions of power need to be forced to accept black people into schools and employment. If some redneck hillbilly hates women, for example, then he must be forced to do the right thing and not discriminate.
War on Poverty
An effort started by President Johnson to address American poverty. Johnson made a continuation of FDR’s New Deal called the Great Society, a compilation of programs that would help the welfare of the American public. He created Medicare, Medicaid, Head Start, and Job Corps. LBJ gave a speech that inspired Congress to pass the Economic Opportunity Act, which formed the Office of Economic Opportunity, which administered all of the programs of the Great Society and provided funds targeted against poverty.
Michael Harrington
The author of The Other America, written in 1962. The Other America called to attention the fact that 20% of the American population lived in poverty. It was one of the influential forces behind President Lyndon Johnson’s War on Poverty.
Goldwater’s conservatism
Republican Barry Goldwater was LBJ’s opponent in the 1964 election. He was very conservative, and attacked Johnson’s Great Society programs. He also denounced Social Security, the civil rights movement, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the nuclear test-ban treaty (a 1963 measure designed to stop atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons). Because of his views, Johnson’s supporters portrayed him as a trigger-happy cowboy who was likely to start a nuclear war. LBJ crushed him in the 1964 election.
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
In August 1964, U.S. Navy ships were cooperating with South Vietnamese gunboats in electronic surveillance along the coast of North Vietnam. The North Vietnamese reportedly fired upon two American destroyers on August 2nd and 4th. What happened is still unclear to this day. Secretary of Defense McNamara admitted in 2003 that the August 4 attack never happened. In a private conversation in 1965, Johnson wisecracked about the incident by saying, “For all I know, the Navy was shooting at whales out there.”
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
After the August 4 “attack,” Johnson deemed the supposed attack “unprovoked.” He ordered a “limited” retaliatory air raid against the bases in North Vietnam. He proclaimed that he sought “no wider war,” which implied that his opponent Goldwater did. He also used the incident to urge Congress to pass the all-purpose Tonkin Gulf Resolution. With only two dissenting votes in both houses, the President was handed a “blank check” to use further force in Southeast Asia. The Tonkin Gulf Resolution gave the president power to use any force necessary against North Vietnam. Johnson described the Tonkin Gulf Resolution as, “like grandma’s nightshirt- it covered everything.” Maybe this would be funnier to me if it were not used to justify a conflict that resulted in 55,000 American deaths. So, basically, based on a complete lie, Congress gave LBJ the authority to do whatever he wanted in Vietnam.
Robert Weaver
Johnson convinced Congress to create two new cabinet offices, the Department of Transportation and the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Robert C. Weaver, a respected economist, was appointed the Cabinet secretary to HUD. Weaver was the first black Cabinet secretary in the nation’s history.
Great Society
During Johnson’s presidency, he pursued a legislative policy called the Great Society. Taking advantage of huge Democratic majorities in the House and Senate, Johnson urged Congress to pass a flood of legislation comparable to that passed during Roosevelt’s 100 Days during the New Deal. The Great Society program targeted aiding education, medical care for the elderly and incapable, immigration reform, and promoting a new voting rights bill. Among the important pieces of legislation of the Great Society program were the doubling of the appropriations (money) for the Office of Economic Opportunity, the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, Medicare, Medicaid, and Project Head Start. Conservatives opposed the Great Society programs because they thought it was billions spent for “social engineering,” which in their eyes is a waste of money. As a result of these programs, poverty among the elderly lessened, and the educational performance of underprivileged youth increased. (Obviously, a waste of money). The poverty rate was cut in half from over 20% to about 12%.
Social Security Act of 1965
This act was part of Johnson’s Great Society program. It was designed to provide Medicare and Medicaid “entitlements” to the elderly and the poor. Conservatives oppose this act because they believe it is wasted money. Promoted by Democrats, the Social Security Act was similar to FDR’s Social Security program during the New Deal. This act was part of the “rights revolution” that improves the lives of millions of Americans, saving them from poverty.
Medicare
In 1965, as part of the Social Security Act of 1965, a Medicare bill was passed. It provides health insurance coverage to people aged 65 and over.
Medicaid
Enacted as part of the Social Security Act of 1965, it provides health insurance to the poor in the United States. It is not based on age, like Medicare, but on income. State and federal governments fund Medicaid to help provide health care to the poor of the nation.
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 created an annual limitation of 300,000 visas to be established for immigrants, including 170,000 from Eastern Hemisphere countries, yet no more than 20,000 immigrants per country. The annual limitation from the Western Hemisphere was 120,000 immigrants. The act resulted in a dramatic change in American demographics, as most immigrants no longer came from Europe.
Project Head Start
It originally started as a summer school program for children of poor families to teach them what they need to know by the time they started kindergarten. Congress then expanded it to a year-round program. The Head Start program also funded a television program that eventually became Sesame Street.
VISTA
The Volunteers in Service of America. Created by the Economic Opportunity Act, VISTA was basically a domestic version of the Peace Corps. It fought poverty, created jobs, and provided education (mostly vocational) for underprivileged, low-income communities.
24th Amendment
In the 19th century, many southern states adopted the poll tax, which was a fee for anyone who wanted to vote. This was created to prevent poor people (mostly black) from voting. The 24th amendment, passed in 1964, abolished the poll tax to enable more black people to vote.
Freedom Summer
This was also known as the “Mississippi Summer Project,” which was an effort launched in the United States in June 1964 as an attempt to register as many black voters as possible in Mississippi. Up until that time, black people were not allowed to vote in Mississippi.
Mississippi civil rights workers murders (1964)
This event involved the lynching of an African American and two white students during the Civil Rights movement. This showed people just how dangerous being a civil rights activist in the South could be during this time. The lynching took place around midnight after these three people went to investigate the burning of a church known for civil rights activities. These students were in Mississippi to teach strategies to register African-Americans to vote in the United States. They were found buried in an earthen dam. The murderers included the KKK, aided by local Mississippi law enforcement authorities.
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
The Democratic Party refused to allow black delegates from the MFDP, a faction of the Democratic Party in Mississippi, to take their seats at the party convention. This caused many African-Americans, who had been taught that following a peaceful process would lead to meeting their goals, to be disillusioned. Many Civil Rights Movement activists felt betrayed by Johnson and the liberal establishment. The movement had been promised that if it concentrated on voter registration rather than protests, the Federal government and the liberal wing of the Democratic Party would support it. After the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the Democratic Party included blacks, and almost 100% of black voters in Mississippi vote Democratic today.
Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March
Led by John Lewis on March 7, 1965, this was an attempt to gain voting rights for more blacks. He led a march of 525 people from Selma, Alabama, to the capitol at Montgomery. However, on the way, they were stopped and attacked by Alabama state troopers with tear gas and whips and clubs. ABC News pointed out the similarities in this act of violence to that of the Nazis against Jews. This march is also referred to as “Bloody Sunday,” which inspired the U2 song of the same name. Showing his support for the Civil Rights Movement, Lyndon B. Johnson ordered the Army to protect marchers on March 21, and this time the march, led by Martin Luther King, Jr., from Selma to Montgomery was successful. So, Lewis was tear gassed and beaten, but MLK got the credit!
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Signed into law on August 6, 1965, it prohibits discrimination in voting. It outlawed literacy tests and sent federal voter registrars into a bunch of the southern states to ensure that there were no attempts to deny voting rights to the black populace. Finally, southern African Americans truly were able to vote. In 2013, the conservative majority of the Supreme Court struck down part of the Voting Rights Act, arguing that the federal government was infringing on the rights of the states. Yeah, because the states were doing SUCH as great job protecting the rights of black voters. By the way, within two hours of the Court’s decision, Texas put a voter ID law in place. A photo ID is now required in order to vote. Guess which group is most likely to have a photo ID…that’s right, white people! Expired gun licenses from other states are considered a valid form of identification, but Social Security cards and student IDs are not. And, who is most likely to have a gun license? White people!
Watts Riot
was a riot that occurred in a ghetto in Los Angeles, California in August 1965. The LAPD police chief exacerbated racial tensions by referring to the rioters as “monkeys in the zoo.” It lasted for about 6 days. 31 blacks and 3 whites died. About 1,000 people were injured. It is seen as a protest against police brutality and discrimination. A commission called by the governor of California found that poverty, poor schools, and inferior living conditions caused the riots. Conservatives said it was a communist movement, despite any evidence. This was the worst and most damaging race riot in American history until the Los Angeles riots of 1992.
Malcolm X
Malcolm X was an African-American Muslim minister. Born as Malcolm Little, Malcolm X was inspired by militant black nationalists (people who supported a separate black state) in the Nation of Islam to rise to be a leader. Similar to Elijah Muhammed, the Nation’s founder, Malcolm X abandoned his original name and changed his surname to advertise his “lost” African identity in white America. His views changed after a visit to Mecca; Malcolm X distanced himself from black separatism and moved toward mainstream Islam. Largely because of Malcolm X, Islam was America’s fastest-growing religion and more than 2 million African-Americans converted. In New York City, while speaking to a large crowd, rival Nation of Islam gunmen cut down Malcolm X.
Black Panthers
Active in the United States from 1966 to 1982, the Black Panther Party was an African-American revolutionary leftist party. The party was effective because of its activity in the Black Power Movement. While Malcolm X was preaching black separatism, the Black Panther Party was waving weapons in the streets of Oakland, California. Bobby Seale and Huey P. Newton founded the organization in Oakland, California in 1966, and they called for African-Americans to join together to fight police brutality.
Stokely Carmichael
Stokely Carmichael was a civil rights activist during the 1960s. He became a national figure as the leader of SNCC. Carmichael was later the “Honorary Prime Minister” of the Black Panther Party. His main claim to fame was the popularization of the term “Black Power.” He stated that the Black Power “will smash everything Western civilization has created.”
James Earl Ray
James Earl Ray was convicted in 1969 for the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.
Pleiku
It is a town in central Vietnam. On February 6, 1965, Viet Cong attacked the American airbase there. The Viet Cong fighters raided the base but were fought off with machine guns located on watchtowers surrounding the base. Nine American men were left dead and 128 men were wounded. Most of the injuries and deaths were not actually caused by the bullets, but by the underground fuel tanks that exploded when mortar shells ignited them. Along with the attack on the same day at Qui Nhon, it was the attack that Johnson’s administration used as justification for sending combat troops to South Vietnam, which was in theory providing protection to U.S. installations in S. Vietnam.
Operation Rolling Thunder
After the attack of the American air base at Pleiku, “Operation Rolling Thunder” was in full action. Using this attack as justification for retaliation against North Vietnam, Johnson’s administration released the plan, “Operation Rolling Thunder,” which promoted full scale bombing attacks on North Vietnam. The U.S. dropped more bombs in a single year during this operation than we dropped in all of WWII! But, it failed to force the North to surrender.
William Fulbright
He was the leader of the Committee on Foreign Relations during the time of the Vietnam conflict. This Committee led opposition in Congress to continued involvement in Vietnam. He was an enormous inconvenience to the President of the United States. The President, to retaliate against the damage he did to the public opinion of his actions in Vietnam, staged a series of widely viewed televised hearings defending himself. In 1966 and 1967, the president constantly contacted the public, trying to justify our actions and assure them of our intentions in Vietnam. But, he was able to successfully convince the public to oppose the government’s Vietnam policy. By 1968, a majority of Americans opposed the war.
Credibility gap
When the United States entered the conflict in Vietnam, the public was indecisive. The government, including the president, gave them explanations as to the reasons for the war and the “winnability” of it. Fulbright, along with others, began telling the public that they had been lied to and that the actual reasons were not being told. This led the majority of Americans to believe that the United States had no justification in being in Vietnam. This doubt of the government’s explanations became known as a “this.” In other words, there seemed to be a gap between the truth and what we were being told by LBJ and the military.
Cointelpro
It was a code name for an FBI counterintelligence program against the peace movement. Johnson, though it was a clear violation of the CIA’s charter, ordered the CIA to spy on domestic antiwar activists. Shortly after, Johnson made another corrupt act when he encouraged the FBI to enact a program against the peace movement. It was an acronym for Counter Intelligence Program. This illegal program used media, forged letters, harassment, wrongful imprisonment and assassination to punish their targets. That fixed those dangerous hippies! (MLK, some U.S. Senators, womens’ rights groups, Native American groups, NAACP, and the SCLC were infiltrated and spied upon.)
Viet Cong
During the war in Vietnam, the fighters fought for the North and against the United States and South Vietnam. They often used guerilla tactics instead of direct confrontation with American forces.
Tet Offensive
It was a military campaign during the Vietnam War. Beginning on January 31, 1968, Viet Cong fighters led a series of surprise attacks on cities, towns, and hamlets in South Vietnam. These attacks were considered to be a turning point in the Vietnam War. Since Americans had inflicted such heavy losses on the North Vietnamese up to 1968, the leaders in the North believed that the only way to have a chance at winning the war was to begin an all-out offensive attack. The Offensive convinced many Americans that the President was lying to them when he kept telling them that we were on the verge of victory. When they turned on their televisions, they could see that it wasn’t the truth. (This is why news crews are restricted from battlefields today – so we don’t get to see how bad it is).
Six-Day War
It was a conflict between American-backed Israel and Soviet-backed Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. In June 1967, this war resulted in Israel’s occupation of new territories such as the Sinai Peninsula, the Golan Heights, the Gaza Strip, and the West Bank of the Jordan River. Of its many territorial acquisitions, Israel was able to obtain Jerusalem, an enormous victory for them. After Israel’s victory, nearly one million enraged Palestinian Arabs were now under Israel’s control and about 350,000 Palestinian refugees fled to their neighbor, Jordan. It made existing problems in the Middle East get significantly worse, leading to the Yom Kippur War six years later (when the Egyptians and Syrians tried to regain their territory (and failed)).
Eugene McCarthy
He was a famous Democratic politician originally from Minnesota. He began challenging the president and emerged as his opponent for the 1968 Democratic nomination. As a method to win the election, he gathered a small workforce of antiwar college students to be his campaign workers. This showed the United States that he was against the Vietnam War, a popular opinion among Americans at the time. His campaign gimmick was “clean for Gene,” meaning supporters would shave their faces and cut their hair to show their political support. In New Hampshire, 42% of the Democratic vote was in favor of him. This was an impressive number for a politician running against the president, and it helped convince LBJ not to seek another term.
Robert F. Kennedy (1968)
He was the younger brother of President John F. Kennedy and a candidate for the presidential election of 1968. He was extremely successful, partially because of his family name. He represented the interests of the poor and minorities and was generally antiwar.
Sirhan Sirhan/RFK assassination
On June 5, 1968, unfortunately, an Arab immigrant, who was resentful toward the RFK’s pro-Israel views, shot and killed RFK. This happened on the night of RFK’s exciting victory in the California Democratic primary. If Kennedy hadn’t been shot, he would have had a serious shot at the presidency.
Hubert Humphrey
He was a U.S. Senator from Minnesota, and was Johnson’s liberal vice president. He was the president’s main choice for the Democratic nomination for the election of 1968. He ran a sturdy race against McCarthy by using multiple political tactics. When McCarthy began building his platform on an antiwar stance, he retaliated by promoting a “no mercy” policy that would employ relentless military attacks until the enemy began negotiating. He and McCarthy divided the Democratic Party for this election and handed the election to Nixon.
Richard Daley
He was known best for being the mayor and the undisputed Democratic boss of Chicago for 21 years. He was a supporter of Hubert Humphrey in the 1968 Democratic Party primary. Most historians blame him for the violence at the Chicago Democratic National Convention in 1968 because of his tough-guy, law and order stance towards the demonstrators.
Richard Nixon’s Appeal and Platform
During the campaign, Republican candidate Nixon showed people that he could be calm and collected during a time of war and stress. He appealed to the “silent majority” and anyone else who did not publicly express their opinions. Since most Americans liked law and order and disliked hippies and civil rights, Nixon won the 1968 presidential election with ease. As LBJ had predicted when signing the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Democrats lost the South, but many of those votes went to a third party candidate, George Wallace.
Spiro Agnew
He was the Vice-President for Richard Nixon from 1969-1973. He was the only VP in American history who resigned because of legal reasons. He was under investigation for extortion, bribery (accepting over $100,000 in bribes), and tax evasion. His resignation led to the naming of Gerald Ford as VP.
George Wallace
Former governor of Alabama who ran for the American Independent party in the election of 1968, he had a pro-segregation attitude and once stood in the doorway of a classroom at the University of Alabama to prevent two black students from entering. He and his running mate Curtis Lemay proposed destroying North Vietnam by “bombing them back to the Stone Age.” He won roughly nine million of the popular votes and 46 electoral votes from states in the Deep South. He had the largest third party vote in American history. He famously said, “segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever.” It is a good thing that racism like that has completely disappeared in the South and that blacks no longer need the federal protection of voting rights!
The Beats
This generation was a group of post-WWII writers disillusioned with the conformity and materialism of the 1950s. They are kind of like “pre-hippies,” and experimented with drugs.
J.D. Salinger
he wrote Catcher in the Rye, a rejection of traditional middle-class values signaling the first widely recognized public stand against the cultural conformist pressure of the 1950s.
Allen Ginsberg
He was a poet who opposed militarism, materialism and sexual repression. Throughout the 1950s, he was a powerful figure of the Beat Generation. His most famous poem was called “Howl.”
Jack Kerouac
He was one of the founders of the Beat Movement. He wrote On the Road, which attacked the conformity of the 1950s.
James Dean (Rebel Without a Cause)
He was an actor in the 1950s. One of his greatest successes was Rebel Without a Cause; it was released in 1955 and was about troubled, middle-class teenagers. It was a reaction against the conformity expected of teenagers during the 1950s.
Free Speech Movement
This was a series of protests led by students at UC Berkeley in 1964 against the school’s ban on political activities and the use of campus property for political debate. The protests were successful, and the school provided places for political discussion on the school campus. Protest methods consisted of sit-ins and teach-ins.
Hippies/counterculture
A cultural movement that took place in America and Great Britain in the 1960s. It was against the war in Vietnam, and also took up such conflicts as civil rights, women’s rights, and sexual freedom. Many of the younger followers of counterculture were called Hippies (or “Flower Children”). The Hippie movement increased in popularity after the “Summer of Love” in the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco in 1969. Hippies wanted to detach themselves from the traditional restrictions of society. They dressed differently so they could immediately recognize each other and not conform to expected patterns of dress and hygiene. They listened to music like the Beatles and used marijuana, LSD, and other drugs.
Psychedelics
Hallucinogenic drugs that were made popular in the 1960s and 1970s and were used to relax the central nervous system. Such drugs include LSD and mushrooms. Some people, like Timothy Leary, used these drugs to expand the mind and reach a higher state of consciousness.
Timothy Leary
A psychologist who believed in the use of LSD, which he thought could be used for therapy. He created the phrase “turn on, tune in, drop out,” and was labeled the “most dangerous man in America” by President Richard Nixon. He was a Harvard professor who conducted the Concord Prison Experiment.
Concord Prison Experiment
It was conducted in the Concord State Prison in Concord, Massachusetts. The experiment started in 1961 and ended in 1963. This experiment involved young prisoners and mushrooms. They wanted to see whether or not ‘shrooms and psychotherapy could make prisoners have a great social life after leaving prison. To determine if it worked, the young prisoners were compared to the average prisoners in the prison. It seems like it should be illegal to give prisoners ‘shrooms! Anyway, the experiment showed that prisoners who took the drugs were much less likely to commit crimes upon their release from prison than those who hadn’t taken the drugs.
The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test
It was a book written by Tom Wolfe. It was first published in 1968. This book follows a group of hippies that travel the country in a psychedelic bus and tells of their experiences. The characters in the novel were LSD users and they also used other drugs. This book gave people an insight into the hippie lifestyle in America.
Students for a Democratic Society
Founded in 1959, it helped civil rights activists, later they opposed the Vietnam War. In April 1965, they organized a march on Washington in protest of the war, and afterward became a more violent group. In 1969, the SDS divided into other groups, one of which was the Weathermen. By the mid-70s the group basically ceased to function, thanks to the FBI.
Weathermen
The Weather Underground, or this, is an extremely violent spinoff from the Students for a Democratic Society. They protested the Vietnam War and discrimination with baseball bats and wearing football helmets in their “Days of Rage.” They dreamed of overthrowing the government. Many people oppose their terrorist efforts, saying they give a bad name to all activists. The FBI hunted them ruthlessly, but many were never found. Some people claim that Barack Obama has connections to the Weathermen, but, then again, some people think he is a socialist Muslim born in Kenya!
Yippies
They were members of the Youth International Party (YIP). Their leader, Pigasus, was their presidential nominee in 1968. Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin actually led the group. They are known as “highly theatrical, anti-authoritarian and anarchist.” A vast majority of them were hippies, extreme liberals who did drugs and believed in equality and peace. In other words, communist terrorists!
Pigasus
It was a pig (an actual animal) and a candidate for the Presidency of the United States for the Yippies. The name ‘this’ comes from the winged horse in Greek mythology named Pegasus. The pig’s candidacy was announced during the series of massive protests at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Though the candidate was a pig, the Yippies demanded he be treated as a legitimate candidate. The Secret Service protected him and he had foreign policy briefings. Seriously! After he ran for president, he became a member of the Hog Farm group, an organization that was America’s longest running hippie commune. He was also featured in a parade in New York City that marched through Tompkins Square in the East Village. Needless to say, he did not become president, though he would have been better than Nixon!
Chicago Seven
The 1968 Democratic National Convention held in Chicago was full of demonstrators and the police retaliating with violence. The demonstrators were members of the Yippies, Students For a Democratic Society, and also other people protesting the war in Vietnam. About 10,000 protesters were present and the police broke out into a riot against the protesters. The police beat a boy who had taken down the American flag, and protesters then pelted them with food, rocks, bags of urine, concrete, and anything they could get their hands on. They were the seven organizers of the demonstrations. As a result of the riot, the seven members were charged with conspiracy and inciting to riot. They were found not guilty.
Kent State
In 1970, college students at this university in Ohio gathered to protest Nixon’s illegal bombing of Cambodia. Students were already angry because Nixon had promised to end the war during the 1968 campaign, but instead started the draft and expanded the war into neighboring countries! Also, the My Lai Massacre became public knowledge in 1969. An American Army unit set fire to the village of My Lai and conducted a massacre of over 400 people, including the rape and torture of women and children. There, the Ohio National Guard showed up to disperse the crowd, and someone opened fire on the unarmed college students. Four students were killed, and 9 wounded. The killings kicked off a national student strike, shutting down schools all over the country.
War Powers Act
(1973) It is a federal law intended to check the president’s power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of Congress. It was a joint resolution of Congress that declared that the United States President could send troops overseas only with permission from the US Congress. This resolution said that the US President would have to notify Congress within 48 hours of committing armed forces to military action in another country. It also forbade these armed forces from remaining in their location for more than 60 days. Nixon vetoed it, but Congress overrode his veto.
Silent Spring
written by Rachel Carson in 1962, this book detailed the environmental devastation wrought by the widespread use of pesticides. She discussed how chemicals, including DDT, were hidden poisons in our food and water, and how birds such as the bald eagle were adversely affected by these chemicals. The book had such a powerful impact on the public that it began the environmental movement.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
It was proposed by President Richard Nixon and began operation in 1970. It was formed to protect human health and the environment. Before it, the federal government was not able to regulate environmental pollutants. It had been left up to the states, and they did a poor job of it.
Apollo 11
It was the name of the spacecraft that landed the first humans on the moon in 1969. The mission was carried out by the United States and was an enormous success for the US in the Cold War Space Race with the Soviet Union. With three men on board, the commander Neil Armstrong became the first man to step foot on the moon; it was the third lunar mission of NASA’s Apollo program, a mission for Americans to be the first humans on the moon. This mission successfully achieved JFK’s goal to get a man to the moon before the end of the 1960s. The astronauts returned to earth with nearly 50 pounds of lunar rocks.
Beatles
They were an English rock band, and traveled to the United States in 1964. They massively influenced US culture during the 60s. They broke up in 1970 because of Yoko Ono leading John Lennon astray! They are probably the greatest band ever, though I prefer Led Zeppelin, another band of the late-1960s and 1970s.
Woodstock
It was a music festival in the late 1960s that defined the entire social culture of the 1960s. It was a symbol of the new musical style, free love attitude, and socially acceptable use of drugs. Over 500,000 people attended the festival on a farm in Bethel, New York. Over three days, the hippies gathered to use drugs, have sex, and enjoy the new musical style. There was an enormous amount of sex and nudity. This event was a symbol of the 1960s because it represented the common belief of peace, antiwar sentiment, and promoting the use of drugs. Some of the greatest bands of the time played there, including The Who and Jimi Hendrix.
Nixon Doctrine
It was a foreign policy designed and released to the public by President Nixon that stated that Americans would expect their allies to defend themselves using their own military forces, but the United States would stand by to help if their service was necessary and requested. Nixon made three statements in regard to this new policy, he said, “First, the United States will keep all of its treaty commitments. Secondly, we shall provide a shield if a nuclear power threatens the freedom of a nation allied with us or of a nation whose survival we consider vital to our security. Third, in cases involving other types of aggression, we shall furnish military and economic assistance when requested in accordance with our treaty commitments. But we shall look to the nation directly threatened to assume the primary responsibility of providing the manpower for its defense.”
“Vietnamization”
The term was coined by President Richard Nixon near the end of the Vietnam War. This was an encouragement to the South Vietnamese to take more action in fighting their war. Meaning, Nixon’s goal was to get more South Vietnamese to be fighting the war rather than US soldiers. He hoped that by encouraging them to fight for themselves, eventually and slowly he would be able to withdraw American troops for Vietnam and leave them fighting for themselves. Incidentally, once we did leave, in 1973, it took less than two years for the South to fall to the North.
Fragging
When troops in Vietnam murdered their own officers with frag grenades. This, along with drug abuse, mutiny, and sabotage, displayed the lack of morale in the war effort.
26th Amendment
(1971). This amendment lowered the voting age to 18, mostly in response to the criticism that men could be drafted to fight in the war, but could not vote.
Pentagon Papers
Top-secret documents that were leaked to the New York Times in 1971 by Daniel Ellsberg. They recorded the “blunders and deceptions” of every president from Truman through LBJ. Significant among the papers was proof that we provoked the Gulf of Tonkin incident in 1964, and that every president was aware that we could not win in Vietnam. The Nixon administration did everything in its power to stop the publication of them, saying that Ellsberg was a traitor and communist sympathizer, but failed. They helped to eventually bring down the Nixon presidency, as the press began to be less accepting of the president’s lies.
New York Times v. United States (1971)
This was a US Supreme Court case that upheld the right of the New York Times and Washington Post to publish the classified Pentagon Papers in their newspapers. Government censorship had been the problem because the papers were not allowed to publish these classified documents for the public to read. “Tricky Dick” Nixon argued that he had the executive authority to stop publication of the documents. As a result of this Supreme Court case, however, the papers were granted permission for publication, stating that the government did not have the right to restrain the press prior to publication. The government argued that the information was too sensitive for the American people to read; luckily, the judges remembered that we are still a democracy! The government did not want the people to find out about the lies they had been told to justify the war in Vietnam.
Henry Kissinger
The National Security Advisor during Nixon’s administration. He supported the idea of playing China and the Soviet Union, who had a tense relationship due to their different interpretations of communism, against each other to get them to pressure North Vietnam into peace. He met secretly with the North Vietnamese in Paris to try to negotiate an end to the war. He also encouraged the secret and illegal bombing of Cambodia and Laos. One of his most controversial acts was to support the CIA overthrow of Salvador Allende, elected president of Chile, because he was a “socialist.” The US then supported the replacement of Allende by Augusto Pinochet, a fascist who killed thousands of Chileans, and tortured tens of thousands, including women and children. A quote of his: “The emigration of Jews from the Soviet Union is not an objective of American foreign policy, and if they put Jews into gas chambers in the Soviet Union, it is not an American concern. Maybe a humanitarian concern.” He also referred to Indira Gandhi, prime minister of India, as a “bitch!” What a guy!
Nixon’s visit to China
(1972). In a trip arranged by Kissinger, Nixon visited with Communist leaders in China, after a little sightseeing of course! In this trip, Nixon normalized America’s relationship with China, and we agreed to accept a “one-China” policy, meaning we would see Taiwan more as part of China than as an independent nation. Remember, we had recognized Kai-Shek’s Taiwan as the legitimate government of China instead of Mao’s People’s Republic of China.
Détente
It was an era of relaxed tension between the Soviet Union and China. It occurred when Nixon first made a deal with the Chinese (discussed in the above term), and later with the Soviets (we sold them $750 million worth of food for three years). This state of semi-relaxation allowed us to make deals such as the ABM and SALT treaties.
ABM and SALT
The state of détente between the U.S. and Soviet Russia allowed us to arrange treaties with them. One such treaty was the Anti-Ballistic Missile treaty, which forbade each nation from operating more than two “clusters” of defensive missiles. There were also talks between the U.S. and the Soviet Union concerning the reduction of arms. These discussions, known as the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, focused on ending production of long-range ballistic missiles for five years. Unfortunately, these negotiations were pretty unsuccessful, with both nations ignoring the treaties and increasing their number of weapons. Both sides made over 16,000 new weapons by the 1980s.
Title IX
(1972). A law that forbids any sex discrimination in a federally assisted educational program or activity. It essentially made it so that for every sport available to men, there had to be at least one team for women. “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.”
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
In this case, the Supreme Court ruled against a law that would have prevented the use of any kind of contraception. The Court stated that it violated marital privacy. The concept that women had the right to control reproduction led to Roe v. Wade.
Roe v. Wade
(1973) It was an extremely controversial US Supreme Court case that made a landmark decision concerning birth control. The US Court decided that the rights under the 14th Amendment, the right to privacy under the due process clause, extended to a woman’s decision about abortion. This court case made it legal for a woman to have an abortion up until viability. Viability is when a fetus is potentially able to live outside the mother’s womb with artificial aid. This decision is still extremely controversial today because most conservatives, especially religious people, disagree with abortion altogether, while most liberals agree with mothers having the choice to do as they wish with their bodies.
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
This is the case that established the Miranda warning as standard police procedure. Before police questioning, a suspect must be read his rights, state that he understands those rights, and agree to waive them.
Furman v. Georgia (1972)
Furman v. Georgia was a United States Supreme Court decision that dealt with the death penalty. It formed requirements to regulate the consistency of the death penalty.
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
In this case, along with the School District of Abington Township v. Schempp, the Supreme Court ruled that required prayers and Bible readings in public schools were prohibited, upholding the First Amendment.
“Southern strategy”
Nixon knew he had to come up with a clever way to gain votes for the 1972 election. He began to aim his policies in favor of the South by *appointing conservative judges, avoiding civil rights issues, and “opposing school busing to achieve racial balance.”* Along with the *reduction in troops in Vietnam, this strategy led to Nixon winning by a landslide.*
“Peace with honor”
This was when Nixon, after the election, of course, forced the North Vietnamese to negotiate after a brutal bombing campaign. Even though Nixon said it was honorable peace, the final agreement had America leaving South Vietnam in 1973, while allowing the 145,000 Vietcong fighters to stay in the county. It was more of an American retreat than a peace agreement, and South Vietnam fell to communism in 1975.
Fall of Saigon
Saigon was the capitol of South Vietnam. In 1975, the People’s Army of Vietnam and the National Liberation Front captured the capitol. This event *marked the official end of the Vietnam War*. With their capitol occupied, the war was over for the South Vietnamese. The official reunification of the North and South regions of Vietnam began, under communist rule, as a result of the fall of Saigon.
Energy Crisis
(1973). After we backed up Israel in the Yom Kippur War against the many oil rich countries of the Middle East, OPEC enacted an oil embargo on America, as well as other countries that backed Israel. This lack of oil sent the U.S. into an energy crisis, causing people to lower their thermostats and the government to pass national speed limits to conserve fuel. The government also approved the Alaskan pipeline, and support rose for the use of coal and nuclear plants. After lifting their embargo, OPEC quadrupled the price for oil.
Committee to Reelect the President (CREEP)
It was a fundraising organization to promote the reelection of President Nixon and his administration. Though its main focus was fundraising for reelection, the organization also was involved in money laundering and providing slush funds for the President. This extremely controversial organization was directly linked to the scandal at Watergate. About $500,000 raised to re-elect Nixon was instead used to defend the five men who broke into the Watergate building. Today, G. Gordon Liddy, one of the burglars, has his own right-wing radio show on Radio America, a company that claims “a commitment to traditional American values”!
“Dirty tricks”
Strategies used by CREEP against the Democratic Party. These strategies included planting bugs, forging damaging documents, using government agencies to harass enemies of Nixon, stealing from the psychiatrist treating the man who leaked the Pentagon Papers (Ellsberg), and “covering their tracks” with the FBI and CIA.
Watergate
During the 1970s, one of the most enormous political scandals of all time occurred. CREEP organized the break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington D.C. CREEP wanted to steal the Democrats’ election plans. The affair began when burglars were arrested for breaking into the complex. These men were arrested and the FBI quickly associated them with the CREEP organization. Nixon, though he was an untrustworthy scumbag, most likely did not know about the break-in until after the arrests. His crime was to try to cover it up – he ordered the CIA to block the FBI investigation. The main scandal was when it was found that President Nixon had a tape recording system in his offices and had recorded many conversations. These recordings were hints that the president was involved in the crime and that he initially tried to cover up the break-in, showing his involvement. After numerous court battles, Nixon was asked to hand over the tapes, and he eventually consented to turn over the tapes after initially claiming executive privilege (claiming that he was above the law). This scandal destroyed Nixon’s reputation along with any chance of having a political career again. He resigned from the presidency in August 1974, the first and only president in US history to resign.
United States v. Nixon (1974)
In this case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that executive privilege gave Nixon no right to withhold evidence pertaining to criminal activity. This was a landmark court case, stating that even the president wasn’t above the law.
Spiro Agnew
He was the Vice President of the United States under President Richard Nixon. He was a corrupt politician. By 1973, he was under investigation by the US Attorney’s Office for extortion, tax fraud, bribery, and conspiracy. In October 1973, he was formally charged with bribes of more than $100,000 while being in office as Baltimore County Executive, Governor of Maryland, and even as Vice President of the United States. He was the first and only Vice President to resign because of criminal charges. He resigned less than a year before Nixon.
Saturday Night Massacre
It was the name given to the dismissal of Archibald Cox (the independent special prosecutor on Watergate), and the resignations of Elliot Richardson (Attorney General) and William Ruckelshaus (Deputy Attorney General). Nixon had been forced by Congress to name Cox as independent special prosecutor to investigate the Watergate break-in. When Cox subpoenaed the Nixon tapes, Nixon ordered Richardson to fire Cox. Richardson refused and resigned. Then, Nixon ordered Ruckelshaus to fire Cox. He refused and resigned. Nixon then found a stooge, Robert Bork, to fire Cox. Amazingly, this is the same Robert Bork who Ronald Reagan nominated for the Supreme Court in 1987!
Nixon’s “Enemies List”
Nixon’s Enemies List was the name for the list of political opponents that were running against or a threat to Nixon. This list was a secret until it surfaced during the scandals of Nixon’s administration. When White House Counsel John Dean mentioned during hearings with the Senate Watergate Committee that a list was created of people that the President did not like, it was discovered and became public. Dean wrote, “This memorandum addresses the matter of how we can maximize the fact of our incumbency in dealing with persons known to be active in their opposition to our Administration; stated a bit more bluntly—how we can use the available federal machinery to screw our political enemies.”
Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford became President after President Nixon resigned in 1974. He was the only person to be Vice-President and President without being elected to either position in American history. Among his most significant acts as President include the signing of the Helsinki Accords, continuing détente during the Cold War and withdrawing the remaining troops from Vietnam. Unfortunately for Ford, he was the President during a time when most Americans had lost almost complete trust in the government, Americans did not support our troops in Vietnam, and the economy was in shambles. He also made the huge political mistake of pardoning Richard Nixon, thereby costing him the 1976 election against unknown Democratic candidate, Jimmy Carter.
Helsinki Accord
The ________________ of 1975 was an attempt to improve relations between the West and the Communist nations. This Accord was the final act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. 35 states signed the declaration in hope of improving relations. Among the 35 were the United States, Canada and other European states.
Equal Rights Amendment
The Equal Rights Amendment came close to becoming a part of the Constitution. It stated that women had equal rights as men, and that they could not be denied their rights due to their sex. Although it quickly gained massive support and was ratified in 28 states, it did not meet the 38 state minimum for acceptance to the Constitution. Carter supported the amendment, but conservatives successfully defeated the attempt to ratify it.
Phyllis Schlafly
A conservative woman, she toured the country in opposition to the Equal Rights Amendment. She claimed that the amendment would have violated a women’s right to be supported by a husband, and that it would have undermined American families by requiring women to serve in combat and by legalizing gay marriage. She, along with other anti-feminists and the Catholic Church, organized enough opposition to the ERA to prevent it from being ratified.
NOW
Betty Friedan, author of The Feminine Mystique, co-founded the National Organization for Women. It was the leading organization in the second wave of feminism, and campaigned for the Equal Rights Amendment.
WITCH
The Women’s International Terrorist Conspiracy from Hell, a radical, feminist movement that branched off of NOW and was widely known for protesting at the Miss America pageant in 1986. Members crowned a sheep Miss America and threw “symbols of women’s oppression” (bras, girdles, dishcloths) into trashcans.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)
In this case, the Supreme Court ruled that the University of California could not reject Bakke due to his color (he was white). Bakke claimed that the university was favoring minority applicants. The Supreme Court ruling was confusing in that it said that application preference could not be give to any racial group, minority or majority, on the basis of race, but at the same time said that colleges could take race into account when trying to form a diverse student body.
United States v. Wheeler (1978)
In this case, the Court declared that Indian tribes had a “unique and limited” sovereignty, which could be regulated by Congress, but not by individual states.
Jimmy Carter
He was the 39th President of the United States. He was a Democratic politician known for his awful presidency. Among the famous negative events of his presidency were inflation, the energy crisis (another one), the Soviet war in Afghanistan, and hostages in Iran. On the plus side, he strongly emphasized human rights, signed the Panama Canal Treaty, actually had a national energy plan, and oversaw the Camp David Accords. Though many saw him as an honest politician, his gloomy presidency killed his political career.
Panama Canal Treaties
The Panamanian people were not happy that Americans had control of the canal, so Carter returned control of the canal to Panama in 1979. It was very controversial, as some Americans felt that we should not give it back.
Camp David Accords
The Egyptian President and Israeli Prime Minister, following secret negotiations at Camp David, signed these. The two agreements were signed at the White House and were witnessed by President Jimmy Carter. It is considered a turning point in Egypt-Israeli relations.
Three Mile Island
It was a nuclear generating station located near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Three Mile Island had a partial core nuclear meltdown in 1979. It was the worst nuclear disaster in US history.
Iran Hostage Crisis
It was a diplomatic crisis between Iran and the United States. 52 United States citizens were held captive for 444 days from November 4, 1979 to Jan. 20, 1981 when a group of Islamic students and militants took over the US Embassy in support of the Iranian Revolution to overthrow the Shah. Ayatollah Khomeini replaced the Shah, and he referred to the US as “the Great Satan” and “Enemy of Islam.” At first, Carter tried to wait until there was a more stable government in place with whom to negotiate, but over time he grew impatient and sent in a rescue team. The rescue attempt failed and several men died, further frustrating and embarrassing Americans. The hostages were finally released in 1981 at the same time that Ronald Reagan was being sworn in as Carter’s successor. Allegations surfaced that William Casey, director of the Reagan campaign, and some CIA operatives, secretly met with Iranian officials in Europe to arrange for the hostages’ release, but not until after the election. If true, dealing with a hostile foreign government to achieve a domestic administration’s defeat would have been grounds for charges of treason.
“Malaise” Speech
Carter’s speech, in which he chastised Americans for being too materialistic, in response to growing public discontent resulting from rising oil prices. While he was right to say what he said and be so honest, it really hurt him politically. People saw the speech as the president blaming them for America’s economic problems.
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
In 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, putting them in a position close to the rich oil supplies of the Middle East. Carter acted quickly and embargoed our exports of wheat and technology to the Soviet Union. Unfortunately, this event also ended any chance of the SALT II treaty to limit nuclear weapons becoming successful. The conflict dragged on for a decade and became known as “Russia’s Vietnam.” The US, by the way, trained and armed the mujahedeen, including Osama bin Laden, fighting the Soviets!
Olympic boycott
This was one of Carter’s methods used to protest the Soviet Union’s invasion of Afghanistan. He encouraged countries not to attend the upcoming Winter Games in Moscow in 1980. Again, it was a huge political mistake, as many Americans viewed the boycott as punishing athletes who had trained for years to be in the Olympics.
Ronald Reagan
He was the 40th president of the United States. He was a conservative and strict opponent of Soviet communism. Before being president, he was a radio announcer and then a movie star in Hollywood. After nearly 50 performances in an array of different movies, including starring alongside a chimp, he realized that acting was not his true calling. He found that his true destiny was in politics. He, being president directly after Nixon, Ford, and Carter, had a lot of political and economic messes to clean up when he was sworn into office. He is remembered now as an effective leader who was able to “save the Republican Party.” George Bush, his Vice President, replaced him after 2 full terms, the first since Eisenhower to accomplish this.
New Right
It was a conservative political movement that formed in the late 1970s. Contributing factors might have been the increased average age of Americans, the countercultural protests of the 60s, and the movement of Americans to the South and West. These activists didn’t care so much about the economy, but focused on social issues such as abortion, pornography, homosexuality, feminism, and affirmative action.
Moral Majority
An organization formed by Jerry Falwell, an evangelical minister from Virginia. It was against “sexual permissiveness,” abortion, feminism, and gay rights. The group televised and marketed their message, and ended up helping between 2 and 3 million voters register to vote Republican.
October Surprise (1980)
It is a conspiracy theory that concerned the presidential election of 1980 between Carter and Reagan. At the time 52 Americans were being held hostage in Iran. Some believe that Reagan convinced the Iranians not to release the Americans until after the election, to prevent Carter from gaining a lot of votes. It just so happened that 20 minutes after Reagan was inaugurated, the Iranians freed the hostages. As a reward, the new Reagan administration sold American weapons to the Iranians, and allowed them access to their money in U.S. banks.
Neoconservatism
The group of conservatives from whom Reagan got advice during his campaign. Against what they thought were the “excesses of 1960s liberalism,” they supported free-market capitalism and deregulation. They held very anti-Soviet views and disliked welfare, unions, and affirmative action programs.
Chappaquiddick
The location of an accident involving Edward Kennedy’s young female assistant. In 1969, on this Island in Massachusetts, Kennedy and his assistant took a wrong turn and drove off a bridge. The assistant was found dead in the river the next day, after Kennedy had waited all night to report the incident. Edward Kennedy pleaded guilty to the charge of leaving the scene of an accident after causing injury, and was sentenced to 2 months in jail, which was suspended. The event ruined Kennedy’s chance of winning the Democratic nomination in 1980.
Proposition 13
The “tax revolt” in California in 1978 that resulted in cuts in property taxes and government services. This event caused more movements across the country.
“Reaganomics”/ “Trickle-Down Economics”
The economic policies of President Ronald Reagan were often known as this or this. There were four pillars to Reagan’s economic policy. *1). Reduce government spending.* *2). Reduce Income Tax and Capital Gains Tax.* *3). Reduce government regulation.* *4). Control the money supply to reduce inflation.* His intentions were to reduce taxes while increasing defense spending, something that had not been attempted by his predecessors. Unfortunately, he spent more money than any president before him, still reduced taxes, and presided over the largest deficit increases in American history (to that point). While the economy began improving by 1983, Reagan’s economic success was based upon massive borrowing. The deficit nearly tripled!
Sandra Day O’Connor
She was the first female member of the Supreme Court of the United States. From 1981 to her retirement in 2006, she served as an Associate Justice. Reagan appointed her. In 2001, the Ladies’ Home Journal named her the second most powerful woman of all time. To Reagan’s consternation, she became one of the more liberal justices on the Court.
Iran-Contra Scandal
It took place in the United States in 1986 during Reagan’s administration. Senior Reagan officials had secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran (the country who had recently held 52 Americans hostage for 444 days!), the subject of an arms embargo. Congress had expressly forbidden the Reagan administration from supporting the Contras. Reagan officials had hoped that these sales of arms to Iran would be a way to illegally divert the funds to pay for support of the Nicaraguan Contras. The Contras were “freedom fighters,” according to Reagan, who fought to get rid of the “communist” government of Nicaragua. According to Human Rights Watch, however, the Contras weren’t so kind: “Rosa had her breasts cut off. Then they cut into her chest and took out her heart. The men had their arms broken, their testicles cut off. They were killed by slitting their throats and pulling the tongue out through the slit.”
Oliver North
The man in Reagan’s National Security Council who began the diversion of money from arms sales in Iran to antigovernment coups in Nicaragua. This was illegal and caused the Iran-Contra scandal. He took all of the blame for the Iran-Contra Scandal, even though it is completely implausible that a colonel ran the foreign policy of the US without the president’s knowledge. Supposedly, Reagan knew nothing, which makes him either ignorant or a liar.
Star Wars
The Strategic Defense Initiative, called “this” by its critics, was Reagan’s plan to provide a missile shield over the US against Soviet missiles. This shield would be provided by ground and space-based strategic nuclear ballistic missiles designed to shoot Soviet missiles out of the sky! Despite the scientific community’s assessment that the system was technologically impossible (but who listens to scientists?), Reagan and succeeding presidents have spent over $100 billion on this project. While Reagan plotted on how to build a Death Star, he cut the school lunch program by $1 billion, and his USDA classified ketchup as a vegetable!
John Hinckley, Jr.
A “crazy” man who tried to assassinate Reagan. He was trying to impress Jodie Foster, an actress who starred in a movie about assassinating a presidential candidate by becoming a prominent historical figure. His shot collapsed Reagan’s left lung and nearly killed him.
“yuppies”
*Y*oung, *u*rban *p*rofessionals. These wealthy people bought expensive things and were symbolic of the gap between the wealthy and the poor, and of the materialism of the 1980s. They were a very small group of people, numbering at only 1.5 million.
Lebanon (1983)
The Israelis sent troops to invade the guerilla bases here, which had been harassing the country. The U.S. sent in troops to help with an international peacekeeping operation. Soon after, a suicide bomber killed more than 200 marines on October 24, 1983. Incredibly, this event had no impact on Reagan’s popularity.
Teflon president
The nickname given to Reagan by Democrats after the Lebanon bombing incident. It was the idea that whatever bad events occurred they would not affect Reagan’s popularity or stick with him.
Invasion of Grenada
In October 1983, Reagan sent a large force of U.S. troops here to defeat a military regime that had usurped the prime minister and established a communist government. Our soldiers defeated the rebels in less than two months, displaying our military power. Even though it was a dinky little island and an easily defeated enemy, the event made Americans feel good about themselves.
Geraldine Ferraro
A Congresswoman from New York, she was chosen to run as vice president for Walter Mondale in 1984, and made history as the first woman to appear on a major party presidential ticket. Of course, she and Mondale were slaughtered in the election!
Mikhail Gorbachev
Installed to the position of chairman of the Soviet Communist party in March 1985, he became the new leader of the Soviet Union. He was personal, energetic, imaginative, and wanted to make major reforms in the Soviet Union. He promoted the ideas of glasnost and perestroika. These policies required the Soviets to shrink their massive military and focus on the economy. Even though Americans like to give themselves credit for winning the Cold War, the credit really goes to him.
Glasnost
Meaning “openness,” it was the policy of reducing the secretive nature of the Soviet Union by introducing free speech and some political liberty.
Perestroika
Meaning “restructuring,” it was the policy of reviving the Soviet economy by introducing several free market ideas like the profit motive.
Savings and Loan Crisis
Deregulation and risky real estate lending caused over 20% of savings and loans institutions to fail. Lasting throughout the late 1980s and into the 1990s, it required a bailout that ended up costing the taxpayers $500 billion. You’d think we’d learn that deregulation is a dumb idea, but history repeated itself during George W. Bush’s presidency in 2007.
“Black Monday”
After events like the S&L crisis, the country was in a depression, and more banks had closed than at any other time since the Great Depression. It, on October 19, 1987, was the day when scared investors sold their stocks on massive levels. The stock market fell 508 points, the largest one-day decline in history, and the market lost 22% of its value that day.
1988 Election
George H. W. Bush, former head of the CIA and VP for Reagan, easily defeated Democrat Michael Dukakis. Bush’s running mate, Dan Quayle, was widely ridiculed as limited intellectually (in 1992, he corrected an elementary student’s spelling of “potato,” which the kid had spelled correctly!) During the campaign, Bush promised, “Read my lips, no new taxes,” a promise he soon came to regret.
Fall of the Wall
After Eastern European countries, beginning with Poland, began to overthrow their communist leaders, East Germany soon followed and defeated their communist oppressors. The Berlin Wall fell in 1989, and signaled the end of the Cold War.
Tiananmen Square
The location at which hundreds of *thousands of pro-democracy demonstrators marched before being brutally suppressed by the Chinese government in June 1989*. Unlike in Europe, the Chinese communist leadership remained firmly entrenched in power (although they *did make a number of economic reforms*).
Disintegration of the Soviet Union
Gorbachev’s *policies of glasnost and perestroika began a noncommunist movement* in the Soviet Union that went out of Gorbachev’s control. In 1991, the Soviets attempted to oust Gorbachev in a military coup, but failed to do so. Finally, the *USSR broke up into fifteen smaller nations, which formed the Commonwealth of Independent states*. *Boris Yeltsin* became the leader of the new Russia.
Invasion of Panama (1989)
President Bush sent in U.S. paratroopers to *capture Panama’s dictator and drug lord*, *Manuel Noriega*. We kicked him out of power and a new president was elected. US soldiers blasted “Panama” by Van Halen at the Presidential Palace for days until Noriega surrendered! Interestingly, Noriega worked for the CIA from the 1950s-1980s, and the US government looked the other way while he built a drug empire. But, in our defense, *once Noriega stole the election* (monitored by Jimmy Carter), *the US acted.*
Persian Gulf War (Desert Storm)
Saddam Hussein, the leader of *Iraq, was faced with economic troubles as his country ended a war with Iran that lasted eight years*. To generate more money, *Hussein decided to invade Kuwait to capture their oil fields*. He aspired to eventually control the Persian Gulf region and *have control over the world’s oil supply*. On August 2, 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait and quickly captured the country. The *U.N demanded that they withdraw, and imposed an embargo on Iraq*. When the *embargo didn’t work, Operation Desert Storm was launched*. The U.S. led a force of 709,000 troops from the U.S., France, Britain, Saudi Arabia, and other countries. The *war lasted only four days; the U.S. and its allies launched a bombing campaign to soften Hussein’s forces before overrunning them with ground troops*. The war was extremely popular with the American people, and Bush’s popularity rose to 90%! Unfortunately for him, it did not last, as the economy sputtered.
Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
This act *prohibited discrimination against any of the 43 million Americans with some kind of physical or mental disability.*
Clarence Thomas
An *African American man nominated by Bush for the Supreme Court in 1991*, despite the fact that he had been a judge for less than 1 year! He is *against affirmative action and abortion*, and his appointment was *opposed by groups like the NAACP and NOW*. Anita Hill, once Thomas’ subordinate, accused him of sexually harassing her. After several votes in the Senate, Thomas was appointed to the Supreme Court, becoming the 2nd African American to ever hold the position (he replaced Thurgood Marshall, the 1st). Today, he is one of the most conservative members of the Supreme Court.
“Read my lips”
In his 1988 campaign, *Bush declared that he would never raise taxes*. However, after the *deficit continued to skyrocket, reaching $250 billion at one point, he signed a bill that included $133 billion in new taxes, breaking his promise*. It really hurt him politically with his own Republican base.
1992 Election
*George Bush ran for re-election against Bill Clinton*, a relatively unknown Democratic governor from Arkansas. *A third party candidate also ran, Ross Perot*. Perot received 19% of the popular vote, but no electoral votes. During the election, *Bush was hurt by a poor economy and breaking his promise on taxes.* Bush and Perot both hammered at Clinton’s character, attacking him on *dodging the draft during the Vietnam War* (he was a college student), *had used marijuana* (Clinton claimed that he had tried it, but “didn’t inhale”), *met with communists during a student trip to Russia* in the 1960s, and had *extramarital affairs*. The attacks hurt Clinton, but he still won easily.
Clinton tax increase
Clinton *decided to fight the deficits amassed by Carter, Reagan, and Bush.* Reagan had cut the top income tax rate from 70% to 28% while increasing military spending. This caused the deficit to triple. Clinton reversed that trend. During his presidency, he *raised tax rates on the highest incomes and cut military spending*. By the end of his presidency, the US actually *ran a budget surplus for his last 4 budgets*. Unfortunately, his successor, *George W. Bush returned to the trickle-down policies of Reagan by cutting taxes for the wealthy and increasing military spending*. As a result, the deficit doubled during Bush’s presidency. Clinton, on the other hand, presided over the largest peacetime expansion of the economy in US history.
NAFTA
The *North American Free Trade Agreement* came into force in 1994. It created a *trade union between Canada, the US, and Mexico*. It was very controversial, as many Americans blame the loss of manufacturing jobs on the agreement. *Lots of US companies moved their manufacturing across the border into Mexico, as labor is cheaper and environmental and safety restrictions are more lax.*
National Health Care
One of Clinton’s first acts was to *try to gain access to health care for all Americans.* Conservatives, the American Medical Association, and the health insurance industry assaulted this effort, and they *defeated the health care proposal through skillful use of the media*. They convinced Americans that national health care would take away our ability to choose our doctors. As a result, *Republicans, promising a Contract With America, won overwhelming victories in the 1994 Congressional elections*. Another result is that millions of Americans were left without access to affordable health care.
Family and Medical Leave Act
(1993). This *law requires large employers to allow employees to take unpaid leave for pregnancy or a serious medical condition*. Believe it or not, companies could fire women for taking time to be with their babies! In fact, they still can if the company is small.
Brady Bill
(1993). A *5-day waiting period was imposed on handgun purchases*. I don’t need to tell you how conservatives felt about this!
“Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell”
Clinton *allowed gay men and women to serve in the military as long as they stayed in the closet*. The military was not allowed to ask people about their sexual orientation. It was a *compromise between Clinton, who wanted to allow gay people to serve, and conservatives, who felt that gay people in the military would harm our ability to fight.* In my opinion, *Clinton should have used an executive order to integrate the armed forces, like Truman did with African Americans*. President Obama repealed the policy in 2011. Since then, the American military has completely fallen apart, as gays have corrupted straight soldiers and distracted them from their missions.
Defense of Marriage Act (1996)
This law *defined marriage for federal purposes as the legal union of one man and one woman, allowing individual states to refuse to recognize gay marriages performed in other states*. Clinton signed it to appeal to moderates and social conservatives prior to the 1996 election. *Clinton claimed that he signed it to head off even more conservative measures, like a constitutional amendment to ban gay marriage.*
Somalia
(1993). *Somalis shot down two US Black Hawk helicopters in Mogadishu, trapping Americans behind enemy lines. 18 US soldiers died.*
Rwandan genocide
(1994). *Hutus in Rwanda conducted the mass slaughter of Tutsis, and the UN did nothing to stop it*. Clinton later acknowledged that it was his biggest failure.
Election of 1996
*Clinton ran for re-election against Bob Dole, Republican Senator from Kansas, and Ross Perot*. Clinton won easily, as the economy was booming.
Osama bin Laden
*Leader of Al-Qaeda from 1988-2011*, bin Laden attempted to assassinate Clinton in 1996. From that point on, *Clinton made it US policy to get bin Laden*. Tragically, he failed, despite sending missile strikes into Afghanistan and Sudan.
Impeachment
*The House voted to impeach Bill Clinton for perjury and obstruction of justice in 1998*. Clinton had illegally *lied about and covered up his relationship with 22-year-old White House intern Monica Lewinsky*. So, essentially, the president was impeached for lying about having an affair. The *Senate refused to convict him. Both Maine Republican Senators broke with the Republican Party to vote to acquit.*
Kosovo
In order *to stop ethnic cleansing in Yugoslavia, Clinton authorized the use of US Armed Forces in a NATO bombing campaign in Yugoslavia* in 1999. *Kosovo, a region in Yugoslavia was placed under UN administration to protect the population from murder and rape.*
Columbine High Massacre
*Two students killed 13 other students and teachers at a high school in Colorado*. It *led to increased security at schools across the nation*, the end to the MVHS history department firing muskets behind the parking lot, and high-tech security measures like locking the doors.
U.S.-China Relations Act of 2000
It was an *act that granted permanent normal trade relations with China, signed by Clinton in 2000*. The bill made it much *easier for Chinese products to enter US markets*, so now we can get our cheap junk at Walmart even cheaper!
Bush v. Gore (2000)
The *SCOTUS overruled the Florida State Supreme Court and stopped the manual recount of Florida’s votes*. After a machine recount, *George Bush led Al Gore by 327 votes out of approximately 6 million cast*. By state law, the challenger could request a manual recount, and Gore did so. *Once the Court stopped the vote count, Bush became president, despite receiving a million fewer votes nationally.*
Sept. 11 Attack (Sept. 11, 2001)
*Two hijacked aircraft crashed into the World Trade Center* in New York City, while a *third smashed into the Pentagon* in Arlington, Virginia, and a *fourth into a field* near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, in a series of coordinated suicide attacks by 19 members of Al-Qaeda. Altogether, *2,996 people were killed.*
War on Terror
With the nation scared to death, *President Bush moved quickly to hunt down the planners behind the terrorist attack*, which almost immediately was discovered to be *Osama bin Laden, Al Qaeda, and the Taliban government*. Bin Laden was headquartered in Afghanistan, and *NATO almost immediately decided to invade. The war in Afghanistan lasted until December 2014*. Bin Laden was finally killed in 2011 by a secret operation ordered by President Barack Obama.