APPROACHES TO MANAGEMENT Dr. M. Thenmozhi Professor Department of Management Studies Indian Institute of Technology Madras Chennai 600 036 E-mail: [email protected] ac. in APPROACHES TO MANAGEMENT 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Empirical Approach Human Behaviour Approach Social System Approach Decision Theory Approach Mathematical Approach Socio-Technical Systems Approach Systems Approach Contingency Approach Operational Approach REASONS & PROBLEMS 1) Semantic problems in management literature. 2) Contributions from different disciplines. 3) Misunderstanding of principles. EMPIRICAL APPROACH • • • – – – –
Study of managerial experiences and cases(mgt) Contributors: Earnest Dale, Mooney & Reiley, urwick. Features Study of Managerial Experiences Managerial experience passed from participationer to students for continuity in knowledge management. Study of Successful & failure cases help practicising managers. Theoretical research combined with practical experiences. • – Uses Learning through experience of others • – – Limitations No Contribution for the development of management as a discipline Situations of past not the same as present. HUMAN BEHAVIOUR APPROACH • – – Organisation as people ) Interpersonal Behaviour Approach - Individual Psychology b) Group Behaviour Approach - Organisation Behaviour • – – – – Features Draws heavily from psychology & sociology. Understand human relations.
Emphasis on greater productivity through motivation & good human relations Motivation, leadership, participative management & group dynamics are core of this approach. HUMAN BEHAVIOUR APPROACH Contd.. • Uses – Demonstrates how management can be effective by applying knowledge of organisation behaviour. • Contributors – Maslow, Herzberg, Vroom, Mc Cleland, Argyris, Likert, Lewin, Mc Gregor, etc. Limitations – Treating management as equivalent to human behaviour. – Talks about organisation & organisation behaviour in vague terms. SOCIAL SYSTEM APPROACH • • Understanding the behaviour of groups & individuals. Features 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Social System, a system of cultural relationship Relationship exist between external and internal environment of the organisation. Formal Organisation - Cultural relationships of social groups working within the organisation. Co-operation necessary Efforts directed - harmony between goals of organisation & goals of groups.
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SOCIAL SYSTEM APPROACH Contd… • Contributors – Pareto, Chester Barnard • Uses – Organisational decisions should not be based on desires of one group alone but should reflect the interests of all the parties. • Limitations – Broader than management & its practice – Overlooks many management concepts principles & techniques that are important to practising managers. DECISION THEORY APPROACH • Manager – Decision maker • Organisation – Decision making unit. • Features – Management is decision making. – Members of Organisation - decision makers and problem solvers. Decision making - control point in management – Increasing efficiency - the quality of decision – MIS, process & techniques of decision making are the subject matter of study. DECISION THEORY APPROACH • Contributors – Simon, Cyert, Forrester, etc. • Uses – Tools for making suitable decisions in organisations. • Limitation – Does not take the total view of management – Decision making - one aspect of management MATHEMATICAL APPROACH • • • Management- logical entity Actions- Mathematical symbols, Relationships and measurable data. Features 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Problem Solving mechanism with the help of mathematical tools and techniques.
Problems Expressed in mathematical symbols. Variables in management – quantified. Scope - Decision making, system analysis & some aspect of human behaviour. Tools - Operations research ,simulation etc. MATHEMATICAL APPROACH Cont.. • Contributors – Newman, Russell Ackoff, Charles Hitch, etc. • Uses – Provided Exactness in management discipline. • Limitations – Not a separate school – Technique in decision making. SOCIO -TECHNICAL SYSTEMS APPROACH • Features – Social & technicals systems interact. This interaction is important for organisational effectiveness. – Organisation – governed by social laws as well as psychological forces. Technical aspects of organisation modified by the social aspects. • Contributors – Trist, Bamforth, Emery etc. • Uses – Organisational effectiveness depends on looking at people and their interactions and also at the technical environment in which they operate. – Change in technology – Change in social interactions at work place SOCIO -TECHNICAL SYSTEMS APPROACH • Limitations – – – – Lack of total managerial view Concentrate on factory or other production system No new contribution People aware about the role of technology of the social system of the work place
SYSTEMS APPROACH • • • • • • • An enterprise Man-Made system Internal parts Achieve established goals External parts Achieve interplay with its environment Manager integrates his available facilities with goal achievement. • Uses – Quick Perception – Better Planning • Limitations – Complicated – Expensive CONTIGENCY SCHOOL • In developing management concepts the environment within which the concepts are to be applied has to be considered. • Internal environment – Structure, Processess, Technology. • External Environment – Social, Economic, Political etc. • Features Appropriateness of a management technique depends on situation. –
If - Then approach. OPERATIONAL APPROACH • Management is a process. • Universalist / Classist / Traditional Approach. • This school concentrates on the role and functions of managers and distills the principles to be followed by them. • Features – – – – – Functions of managers remain same Functions of management core of good management Framework of management Principles of management • Contributors – Fayol, Lyndall Urwick ,Harold Koontz, Newman, Mc Farland, Taylor. • Uses – Flexible & practical but not universal.
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