APES Topic Outline

Geologic time scales
a timeline that organizes the events in Earth’s history Eon, Era, Period, Epoch in descending order.
plate tectonics
The theory that explains how large pieces of the lithosphere, called plates, move and change shape
earthquake
Shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement along a fault plane of from volcanic activity
volcanism
Any activity that includes the movement of magma toward or onto Earth’s surface
seasons
Caused by the tilt of Earth on its axis as it revolves around the Sun
solar intensity
the spectrum of the radiation emitted by the sun; effected by latitude (closer to equator has higher solar intensity)
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composition
THE MAKEUP OF SOMETHING
structure
how it is put together
weather
The condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place.
climate
Overall weather in an area over a long period of time
atmospheric circulation
redistributes heat over earth’s surface by exchanging warm tropical air with cold polar air.
Coriolis effect
The apparent curvature of global winds, ocean currents, and anything else that moves freely across the Earth’s surface, due to the rotation of the Earth on its axis
– Northern Hemisphere = to the right
– Southern Hemisphere = to the left
– Strongest at poles
– Nonexistent at the equator
ENSO
El Nino Southern Oscillation, trade winds weaken & warm surface water moves toward South America. Diminished fisheries off South America, drought in western Pacific, increased precipitation in southwestern North America, fewer Atlantic hurricanes.
freshwater
Does not contain any saltwater and can be rivers, lakes, streams,ponds, and wetlands
saltwater
Oceans, estuaries, coastal wetlands, shorelines, coral reeds, mangroves
ocean circulation
the large scale movement of waters in the ocean basins. Winds drive surface circulation, and the cooling and sinking of waters in the polar regions drive deep circulation.
surface water issues
– not distributed evenly in space or time
groundwater issues
– Major aquifier extraction at one site and lower water table affecting other properties
conservation
Careful use of resources.
rock cycle
A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
main soil types
Clay,sand,silt,acidic,alkaline
soil erosion
The wearing away of surface soil by water and wind