APES Chapter 7

Body Mass Index
Used by professionals to determine whether a person is overweight or obese. Multiply your weight by 740 then divide that number by your height in inches squared.
Pandemic
A disease that reaches nearly every part of the world and has the potential to infect almost every person.
Persistence
A characteristic of certain chemicals that are extremely stable and may take many years to break down into simpler forms through natural processes.
Bioaccumulation
The buildup of a persistent toxic substance, such as certain pesticides, in an organisms body, often in fatty tissues.
Biological Magnification
The increased concentration of toxic chemicals, such as PCBs, heavy metals, and certain pesticides, in the tissues of organisms that are at higher levels in food webs.
Endocrine Disrupters
A chemical that mimics or interferes with the actions of the endocrine system in humans and wildlife.
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Bisphenol A (BPA)
A chemical used in the manufacture of many hard plastic polycarbonate products, including baby bottles, toys, and sporty drink containers.
Toxicology
The study of the effects of toxic chemicals on human health.
Acute Toxicity
Adverse effects that occur within a short period after exposure to a toxicant.
Chronic Toxicity
Adverse effects that occur some time after the exposure to a toxicant or after extended exposure to the toxicant.
Toxicant
Toxic Chemical
Dose
the amount that enters the body of an exposed organism
Response
the type and amount of damage that exposure to a particular does causes.
LD 50 (Lethal Dose-50%)
the dose lethal to 50% of a population of test animals. Reported in mg of chemical toxicant per kg of body weight.
ED 50 (Effective Dose 50%)
Used for a wide range of biological responses, such as stunted development in the off spring of a pregnant animal, reduced enzyme activity, or onset of hair loss. Causes 50% of a pop to exhibit whatever in under study.
Epidemiology
The study of the effects of toxic chemicals and diseases on human populations.
Additive (Additivity)
When a chemical mixture is _________, the effect is exactly what one would expect, given the individual effects of each component on the mixture.
Synergistic
A ________ chemical mixture has a greater combined effect than expected; two chemicals might have a combine toxicity of 3.
Antagonistic
A ________ interaction in a chemical mixture results in a smaller combined effect than expected, for example, the combined effect of two chemicals, each with toxicity levels of 1, might be 1.3.
Environmental Stressor
changed that tax the environment
Red Tide
Certain species of harmful algae sometimes grow in large concentrations called algal blooms. When some pigmented marine algae experience blooms, their great abundance frequently colors the water red, orange or brown. Known as _______, these blooms may cause serious environmental harm and threaten the heal of humans and animals.
Ecotoxicology
The study of contaminants in the biosphere, including their harmful effects on ecosystems.
Risk
The probability that a particular adverse effect will result from some exposure or condition.
Risk Management
The process of identifying, assessing, and reducing risks.
Precautionary Principle
The idea that no action should be taken or product introduced when the science is inconclusive but unknown risks may exist.