Some of the more influential economic reforms of the eighteenth century were suggested by a group of economists in France called the physiocrats. What reforms did they support?
They urged the government to deregulate the grain trade, make the tax system more equitable, and abolish urban guilds that prevented free entry into the trades
What new texts did abolitionists use in their petitions and campaigns to end the slave trade and slavery in the New World?
Firsthand accounts of slavery written by freed slaves
What role did eighteenth-century Parisian salons play in the spread of Enlightenment ideas?
They gave intellectual life an anchor outside the royal court and church-controlled universities by providing a forum for philosophes to discuss ideas
The Gordon riots that devastated much of London in 1780 demonstrated the fact that
Popular demonstrations did not always support reform or religious toleration
Voltaire’s campaign to restore Jean Calas’s reputation helped to bring about the extension of civil rights to French Protestants as well as what additional reform?
The abolition of the legal use of torture
Oxford-educated John Wesley (1703-1791) was the founder of which of the following reform movements?
What was Empress Catherine II’s response to the Pugachev rebellion, a massive uprising by the long-oppressed serfs of Russia in 1773?
She increased the nobles’ power over their serfs and harshly punished anyone who criticized serfdom
Why did the Seven Years’ War have such a significant impact on American-British relations?
The war removed the threat of French invasion from the north, which made the colonists less dependent on British naval might and thus more willing to act on their grievances
Why did Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s theory of “the social contract” pose a direct threat to the perceived legitimacy of eighteenth-century governments?
It argued that individuals in a community entered into a contract with one another, not with their ruler
Over the course of the eighteenth century, what was the trend in the number of out-of-wedlock births?
They quadrupled, as more women began to move to cities and out of the control of their families
The artistic and architectural style known as neoclassicism gained popularity in the eighteenth century thanks to what cultural phenomenon?
The rise of “grand tours,” in which upper-class youths traveled to Greek and Roman ruins
Why did Louis XVI restore the parlements in 1774, despite the fact that they had been abolished by his predecessor, Louis XV?
He succumbed to the demands of the aristocrats, who viewed the dissolution of the parlements as an attack on privilege
In the Treaty of Paris of 1763, France officially acknowledged its defeat overseas, ceding which of its territories to Great Britain?
Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), the most influential German thinker of the Enlightenment, established the doctrine of idealism, which was based on
The belief that true understanding can only come from examining the ways in which ideas are formed in the mind
How did the Encyclopedia contribute to Enlightenment goals of social reform?
It promoted the spread of knowledge that could be used to make informed decisions about social problems
Who among the following leaders was the only enlightened ruler to end the personal aspects of serfdom?
Joseph II of Austria
The eighteenth-century belief that God created the universe to follow set, logical principles but does not intervene in its functioning is known as what?
What was the opinion of Enlightenment writers on the role of religion in society?
They did not necessarily oppose organized religion, but they strenuously objected to religious intolerance
What new artistic movement developed in the eighteenth century in reaction to what some saw as the Enlightenment’s excessive reliance on the authority of human reason?
In his 1755 book The Natural History of Religion, the Scottish philosopher David Hume made what argument about religion?
That belief in God was rooted in fear and superstition
In 1772, the territory of Poland-Lithuania was divided among which three European states?
Prussia, Russia, and Austria
By the mid-eighteenth century Prussia had vastly increased the size and efficiency of its army, vaulting itself to great power status with the
Institution of the “canton system.”
Adam Smith’s concept of laissez-faire economics argued that
In order to maximize the effect of market forces and the division of labor, the economy should be free of government intervention and control
Which event dramatically changed the outcome of the Seven Years’ War?
The death of Empress Elizabeth of Russia, after which her successor immediately reversed her anti-Prussian policy, allowing Frederick the Great to escape a crushing defeat
Although eighteenth-century food riots were a direct response to the lack of available food, they were also a reaction to
The lower classes’ lack of access to the political system and their desire for government regulation of the price of grain
In the late eighteenth century, European women greatly benefited from the expanding interest in
Reading and books
What main critique of organized Christianity did Voltaire include in his influential Philosophical Dictionary (1764)?
That Christianity had been the prime source of fanaticism and brutality among humans
Although most intellectuals of the Enlightenment publicly embraced the doctrine of religious toleration, many of them were still intolerant of which group?
Why did Masonic lodges continue to multiply throughout the eighteenth century, despite the condemnation of Freemasonry by the papacy in 1738?
They offered a kind of secular religion and a way of declaring one’s interest in the Enlightenment and reform
What label have historians given to eighteenth-century rulers who aimed to promote Enlightenment reforms without giving up their absolutist powers?
In 1784, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant used which of the following phrases to represent what he felt the Enlightenment stood for?
Sapere aude (“Dare to know”)
Why did the Enlightenment flourish in France?
The political atmosphere in France was ripe, as the French monarchy alternated between encouraging ideas for reform and harshly censuring criticisms
Which Enlightened absolutist, whose reforms and accomplishments included the abolition of torture and the support of religious toleration, boasted, “I am the first servant of the state”?
Frederick II of Prussia
Of all the various positions espoused by Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), why is his theory of the primacy of “the general will” the most difficult to comprehend and apply to society?
Rousseau’s theory advocated the subordination of individual conscience to the good of the community at large without providing any legal protections for individual rights
Why do many historians and philosophers consider the Enlightenment to be the origin of modernity?
It advanced the secularization of European society and the idea that human reason, rather than theological doctrine, should govern social and political life
What did the writers of the Enlightenment call themselves?
How did the rise of public opinion as a force independent of court society influence European politics in the eighteenth century?
It forced leaders, including monarchs, to engage with their citizens and take reform and opposition to reform seriously
The militarization of Prussian society in the late eighteenth century led to which of the following effects?
It kept the peasants enserfed to their lords and blocked the middle classes from access to estates or high government positions
The Sorrows of Young Werther (1774), by the German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832), is considered to be a reaction against the Enlightenment because its hero
Indulges in intense love, intense melancholy, and suicide
Why was the nobility of western Europe more open to the new ideas of the Enlightenment than the nobility of eastern and southern Europe?
Western European nobles had sometimes married into middle-class families and formed with them a new elite, united by common interests in reform and new cultural tastes