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Apa System

Referencing using the APA (American Psychological Association) style • About this resource • The APA style • Part 1: In-text Citations • Part 2: Collating a reference list • A sample reference list in APA style • Further reading • Printable copy of this resource (75 KB) About this resource This resource explains some of the more common applications of the APA style.It is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) (2010), pp.

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169–224.

You should always check your unit guide and/or with academic staff (unit chair, lecturer or tutor) to make sure that this is the correct referencing style for your unit. You must reference all material you use from all sources and acknowledge your sources in the body of your paper each time you use a fact, a conclusion, an idea or a finding from someone’s work. This establishes the authority of your work and acknowledges the researchers and writers you have drawn upon in your paper. It is necessary to cite your sources each time you: • reproduce an author’s exact words (quote), that is, copy word for word directly from a text.

A page number must be given. • use your own wording (summarise or paraphrase) to explain or discuss what someone has said. You are encouraged to provide page numbers. If you copy an entire table, chart, diagram or graph or if you take only some of the data contained in such sources, you must provide a reference. Sources such as journals, books, encyclopedias, computer programs and software, information from the internet, reports, newspapers, interviews, radio and television must be cited in the body of your paper and detailed in a reference list at the end. Information from Deakin study guides and readers must also be acknowledged.

The APA style The APA style of referencing consists of two elements: (1) in-text citations giving author, year and sometimes page number in the body of the paper (2) a reference list at the end of the paper providing the complete details for each in-text citation. Part 1 of this resource deals with in-text citations. Part 2 of this resource shows how to present the related reference list entries for the in-text citations. Part 1: In-text Citations One author When you refer to a single author, include the author’s family name and year of publication, using one of the forms shown here.

Clay (2003) argues that having a planned approach to writing essays can be of great benefit. or Essay writing can be made much more manageable if a planned approach is taken (Clay, 2003). For citing an author or authors more than once in any one paragraph, see instructions under Repeat citations of a study within one paragraph. Multiple authors For two authors, include the family name of both authors and year as required. According to Antonakos and Kazanis (2003) there are advantages to keeping design and research methods simple. or There are advantages to keeping design and research methods simple (Antonakos & Kazanis, 2003).

Use ‘and’ when family names are outside parentheses; use ‘&’ when family names are inside parentheses. In the case of three, four or five authors, cite all authors the first time, then in subsequent citations of this work use the family name of the first author plus ‘et al. ‘ and the year as required. Gagliardi, Frederickson and Shanley (2002) argue that in order to provide consistent care, healthcare professionals often face the dilemma of finding similarities in patient responses to illness while at the same time respecting the uniqueness of each individual patient.

However, despite any apparent similarities in symptoms or limitations, Gagliardi et al. contend all patients should be treated differently. Furthermore, according to the Roy Adaptation Model (Roy & Andrews, 1999), nurses need to make comprehensive assessments of each patient. After the first citation of an author or authors in the narrative (i. e. the author’s name does not appear in parentheses), you need cite only the family names/s in the same paragraph (i. e. no date required). For six or more authors use only the family name of the first author plus ‘et al. ‘ in all citations including the first. Use date as appropriate.

Mahon et al. (1997) reviewed how nursing diagnosis content is presented in nursing textbooks. Repeat citations of a study within one paragraph In any one paragraph, if you cite an author/s more than once in the narrative (i. e. the author’s name does not appear in parentheses), include family name/s and year the first time. In subsequent citations in the narrative in the same paragraph you need to cite only the family name/s, provided studies cannot be confused. According to Savage (2004) little attention has been given to the way a nurse might identify and …. Savage argues that in an environment of evidence-based practice …

In discussing ways of researching emotion, Savage (2004) highlights the importance of… When the name of the author/s and year are in parentheses in any one paragraph, the year is included in subsequent citations. Little attention has been given to the way a nurse might identify and … (Savage, 2004). Savage (2004) argues that in an environment of evidence-based practice … Secondary source Sometimes you read one author (secondary) who cites another (primary). In the example that follows, you have read Savage who referred to a publication by Lupton, but you did not read Lupton yourself.

Lupton (as cited in Savage, 2004) distinguishes between “emotional labour” and “emotional work”. Note: The entry in the reference list is under Savage. Article or chapter in an edited book An edited book is one that consists of chapters or articles written by different authors. You need to acknowledge the author of the chapter or article you used. This author is cited in text (that is, in the body of the paper) in the same way as for one or more authors. In the example that follows, Naidoo has written a chapter in a book edited by Thorogood and Coombes. In the body of your assignment cite only Naidoo.

Naidoo (2000) claims that risk factor simulation models… Note: The entry in the reference list gives full details of the publication. Under the name of the author (Naidoo) you need to give the details of the chapter you read plus the details of the book. Group or organisation as author Where the author is a government agency, association, corporate body or the like, which has a familiar or easily understandable acronym, it is cited as follows: Obesity in Australian men and women increased during the 1980s (National Health and Medical Research Council [ NHMRC ], 1997). A single cause for obesity ……. …. ( NHMRC , 1997). Note: The entry in the reference list is under National Health and Medical Research Council. No author name provided If no author is designated, cite the first few words of the title, and the year. Full title details are provided in the reference list entry. Studies suggest that many IVF couples would donate excess embryos to scientific research (“Embryo study,” 2004). Use double quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter. Use italics and no quotation marks in text for the title of a periodical, book, brochure or report with no author.

Two or more publications by the same author in the same year If an author has published two or more works in the same year, a lower case letters a,b,c and so forth are used after the date to distinguish between them. Letters are assigned according to the alphabetical order of the title. According to McDonald (2007c) … McDonald (2007a) first suggested … However it has also been noted that … (McDonald, 2007b). No year of publication provided If there no year is given for a source, use n. d. (which stands for no date) after the author’s name. In a detailed analysis, Jones (n. . ) argues … Personal communication Personal communications can include letters, emails, personal interviews, telephone conversations and the like. Cite personal communications in text only; they are not included in a reference list. J. Robinson (personal communication, May 11, 2010) indicated … … (L. Frazer, Manager, Heathville Community Centre, personal communication, June 4, 2009) Electronic sources The principles for in-text citation of print sources also apply to electronic sources. All electronic sources should therefore be cited according to the name of the author/s.

As for print sources, cite by title if there is no author. Many online articles are pdf files, i. e. copies of print documents, so they usually indicate page numbers. Use these page numbers when you cite information from such sources. Some articles are not pdf files and do not have page numbers. In these cases use paragraph numbers, if these are provided. Smith (2003, para. 3) claims … If paragraph numbers are not provided and the document includes headings, use these headings and count the number of paragraphs. Smith (2003, Conclusion section, para. 3) claims … Quotes

Short quotes (fewer than 40 words) should run on as part of your sentence with double quotation marks to signal where the quote starts and finishes. The page where the quote comes from must be included. Clay (2003) argues that students experience writer’s block because “they have not given sufficient thought to reviewing course content and developing their ideas” (p. 47).. Alternatively, Students experience writer’s block because “they have not given sufficient thought to reviewing course content and developing their ideas” (Clay, 2003, p. 47). Long quotes, known as ‘block quotes’ (more than 40 words) should: • start on a new line be indented about 5 spaces from the left hand margin • be double spaced • omit quotation marks. For example: An important stage in assignment writing is planning. Clay (2003) comments that: Some students are tempted to plunge into writing their assignment, beginning with the introduction but soon find that they experience “writer’s block” and cannot decide what to write next. The problem occurs because they have not given sufficient thought to reviewing course content and developing their ideas about relating the theory to their practice. (p. 47) There are a variety of ways that students can plan …

Part 2: Collating a reference list An important purpose of the reference list is to enable readers to locate sources. Therefore details must be correct and complete. Each in-text citation and the related reference list entry should be identical in spelling and year. A work is listed only once in the reference list, regardless of how many times it is cited in text. Works not cited in the text should not appear in the reference list. In compiling your APA reference list, you should: • list references on a new page with a centred heading titled ‘References’ • include books, journal articles, online sources etc. n one alphabetical listing • order entries alphabetically by family name of author/s • list works with no author under the first significant word of the title • indent second and subsequent lines of each entry (5-7 spaces) • use double spacing. Some examples follow; others can be found at www. apastyle. org Note: The examples are separated and placed under subheadings here to show each form. In a reference list, however, they would be all together in alphabetical order with no subheadings. Book Author, A. , & Author, B. (year). Title of book. City: Publisher.

Capitalise only the first letter of the first word of a book title and any proper nouns. The first letter of the sub-title (if any) is capitalised also. Example: Crawford, P. , Brown, B. , & Nolan, P. (1998). Communicating care: The language of nursing. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. Chapter or article in an edited book Author, A. , & Author, B. (year). Title of chapter. In C. Editor, & D. Editor (Eds. ), Title of book (pp. xx–xx). City: Publisher. Capitalise only the first letter of the first word of an article or chapter title, and any proper nouns. Example: Naidoo, B. (2000).

Evaluating the use of public health risk factor simulation models. In M. Thorogood, & Y. Coombes (Eds. ), Evaluating health promotion: Practice and methods (pp. 99–109). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Book, online Author, A. , & Author, B. (year). Title of book. [details about  the format if available]. Retrieved from web address or doi If a digital object identifier [DOI] is provided then it should be given; if no DOI is available then the web address or uniform resource locator [URL], should be given. Date of retrieval is not required. Example: Munsterberg, H. (1916).

The photoplay: A psychological study. Retrieved from http://www. gutenberg. org/files/15383/15383-8. txt Journal article Author, A. , & Author, B. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers. • The issue number should be indicated only if each issue of a journal begins on page 1. • Capitalise only the first letter of the first word of an article title and subtitle, and any proper nouns. • Capitalise the first letter of every main word in the journal title. • Include a digital object identifier (DOI) if provided. Examples: Antonakos, C. L. , & Kazanis, A. S. (2003).

Research process in the health sciences: A focus on methods. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, 17, 257–264. Clay, G. (2003). Assignment writing skills. Nursing Standard, 17(20), 47–52. Journal article, online Author, A. (year). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number), page numbers. doi or Retrieved from web address If a digital object identifier [DOI] is provided then it should be given; if no DOI is available then the home page web address of the journal, or uniform resource locator [URL], should be given. Date of retrieval is not required. Examples: Ekwall, A. , Gerdtz, M. Manias, E. (2008). The influence of patient acuity on satisfaction with emergency care: perspectives of family, friends and carers. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17, 800–809. doi:10. 1111/j. 1365-2702. 2007. 02052. x Midford, R. (2005). Australia and alcohol: Living down the legend. Addiction, 100, 891–896. Retrieved from http://www. addictionjournal. org/ Newspaper article Author, A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, p. x. Example: Wroe, D. (2004, June 24). Canberra enlists GPs in war on smoking. The Age, p. 3. Newspaper article, no author Title of article. (year, month day).

Title of Newspaper, p. x. Example: Embryo study nod, OK say IVF couples. (2004, May 31). Herald Sun, p. 10. Newspaper article, online Author, A. (year, month day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from home page web address Example: Nader, C. (2009, June 19). Mental health issues soar among children. The Age. Retrieved from http://www. theage. com. au/ Group or organisation as author Organisation Name. (Year). Details of the work as appropriate to its form. When the author and publisher are the same, use the word Author as the name of the publisher. Example: Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2007). Migration Australia, 2005-06 (Cat. No. 3412. 0). Canberra:Author. Retrieved from http://www. ausstats. abs. gov. au/ausstats /subscriber. nsf/0/E0A79B147EA8E0B5CA2572AC001813E8/$File/34120_2005-06. pdf Up to seven authors Author, A. , Author, B. , Author, C. , Author, D. , Author, E. , Author, F. , & Author, G. (year). Details of the work as appropriate to its form. Provide family names and initials of all authors. Eight or more authors Author, A. , Author, B. , Author, C. , Author, D. , Author, E. , Author, F. , … & Author, M. (year). Details of the work as appropriate to its form.

Provide family names and initials of the first six authors followed by three ellipses points and the last author’s family name and initial. Web page Author, A. , (year). Title of page. Retrieved Month, day, year from web address The title of a web page is not italicised. Retrieval date is given if it is believed the information could change over time. Example: Diabetes Australia. (2010). Gestational diabetes. Retrieved July 22, 2010 from http://www. diabetesaustralia. com. au/Understanding-Diabetes/What-is-Diabetes /Gestational-Diabetes-/ A sample reference list in APA style References Antonakos, C.

L. , & Kazanis, A. S. (2003). Research process in the health sciences: A focus on methods. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, 17, 257–264. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2007). Migration Australia, 2005-06 (Cat. No. 3412. 0). Canberra: Author. Retrieved from http://www. ausstats. abs. gov. au/ausstats/subscriber. nsf /0/E0A79B147EA8E0B5CA2572AC001813E8/$File/34120_2005-06. pdf Clay, G. (2003). Assignment writing skills. Nursing Standard, 17(20), 47–52. Crawford, P. , Brown, B. , & Nolan, P. (1998). Communicating care: The language of nursing. Cheltenham: StanleyThornes. Diabetes Australia. 2010). Gestational diabetes. Retrieved July 22, 2010 from http://www. diabetesaustralia. com. au/Understanding-Diabetes/What-is-Diabetes /Gestational-Diabetes-/ Ekwall, A. , Gerdtz, M. & Manias, E. (2008). The influence of patient acuity on satisfaction with emergency care:perspectives of family, friends and carers. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17, 800–809. doi:10. 1111/j. 1365-2702. 2007. 02052. x Embryo study nod, OK say IVF couples. (2004, May 31). Herald Sun, p. 10. Midford, R. (2005). Australia and alcohol: Living down the legend. Addiction, 100, 891-896. Retrieved from http://www. ddictionjournal. org/ Munsterberg, H. (1916). The photoplay: A psychological study. Retrieved from http://www. gutenberg. org/files/15383/15383-8. txt Nader, C. (2009, June 19). Mental health issues soar among children. The Age. Retrieved from http://www. theage. com. au/ Naidoo, B. (2000). Evaluating the use of public health risk factor simulation models. In M. Thorogood & Y. Coombes (Eds. ), Evaluating health promotion: Practice and methods (pp. 99–109). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Northern Territory Department of Justice. (2007). Step forward: Getting help about sexual violence.

Retrieved from http://www. nt. gov. au/justice/documents/stepforward. pdf Wroe, D. (2004, June 24). Canberra enlists GPs in war on smoking. The Age, p. 3. Further reading Details of all referencing styles used at Deakin can be accessed at www. deakin. edu. au/referencing and in printed form from the Division of Student Life. Burton L. J. (2010). An interactive approach to writing essays and research reports in Psychology (3rd ed. ). Milton, Qld: John Wiley & Sons. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed. ). (2010). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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