AP World History Unit Three Vocab

Silk Roads
A system of ancient caravan routes across Central Asia, along which traders carried silk and other trade goods.
Black Death
14th century bubonic plague epidemic; decimated populations in Asia and Europe.
Indian Ocean trading network
The world’s largest sea-based system of communication and exchange before 1500 C.E., Indian Ocean commerce stretched from southern China to eastern Africa and included not only the exchange of luxury and bulk goods but also the exchange of ideas and crops.
Srivijaya
A state based on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, between the seventh and eleventh centuries C.E. It amassed wealth and power by a combination of selective adaptation of Indian technologies and concepts, and control of trade routes.
Borobudir
9th-century Mahayana Buddhist Temple in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.
Angkor Wat
A temple complex built in the Khmer Empire and dedicated to the Hindu God, Vishnu.
Swahili Civilization
An East African Civilization that emerged in the eighth century CE from a blending of Bantu, Islamic, and other Indian Ocean trade elements.
Great Zimbabwe
City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state.
Sand Roads
term used to describe the routes of the trans-Saharan trade in Africa
trans-Saharan slave trade
A fairly small-scale trade that developed in the 12th century with west African slaves captured in raids being exported across the Sahara for sale mostly as household servants in Islamic North Africa
American web
The network of trade that linked parts of the pre-Columbian Americas. Provided a means of exchange for luxury goods and ideas over large areas
Thorfinn Karlsefni
1010- led 250 people to vinland, vikings stayed there for about three years
pochteca
Special merchant class in Aztec society; specialized in long-distance trade in luxury items
Sui Dynasty
(589-618 CE) The Chinese dynasty that was like the Qin Dynasty in imposing tight political discipline; this dynasty built the Grand Canal which helped transport the rice in the south to the north.
Tang/Tan Dynasty
(618-907 CE) The Chinese dynasty that was much like the Han, who used Confucianism. This dynasty had the equal-field system, a bureaucracy based on merit, and a Confucian education system.
Song Dynasty
(960 – 1279 AD); this dynasty was started by Tai Zu; by 1000, a million people were living there; started feet binding; had a magnetic compass; had a navy; traded with india and persia (brought pepper and cotton); first to have paper money, explosive gun powder; *landscape black and white paintings
Hangzhou
Capital of later Song dynasty; located near East China Sea; permitted overseas trading; population exceeded 1 million.
economic revolution
growth of towns and the rise of a class of wealthy merchants in Europe; population remains mostly rural and poor; increased wealth of nation; creation of national identity
foot binding
Practice in Chinese society to mutilate women’s feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women’s movement; made it easier to confine women to the household
tribute system
Chinese method of dealing with foreign lands and people’s that assumed the subordination of all non-Chinese authorities and required the payment of tribute to the Chinese emperor
Xiongnu
A confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China. Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these “barbarians,” as they called them, and dispersed them in 1st Century. (168)
Khitan/Jurchen people
“Barbarians” Northern steppe Nomads. Encompassed (created states in) parts of China after Han collapse and again after Tang collapse. Gained so much power ordered Southern Song Dynasty to pay them tribute. One of the groups immersed themselves farthest in becoming Chinese
Silla Dynasty (Korea)
The first ruling dynasty to bring a measure of political unity to the Korean peninsula (688-900 CE); allied w/ Tan Dysnasty
hangul
alphabet that uses symbols to represent the sounds of spoken Korean
chu nom
A variation of Chinese writing developed in Vietnam that became the basis for an independent national literature; “southern script”
Shotoku Taishi
Japanese statesman (572-622) who launched the drive to make Japan into a centralized bureaucratic state modeled on China; he is best known for the Seventeen Article Constitution
bushido
“the way of the warrior”; Japanese word for the Samurai life ; Samurai moral code was based on loyalty, chivalry, martial arts, and honor until the death
Izumi Shikibu
mid-Heian period Japanese poet known for her love poems and romance
Chinese Buddhism
this was China’s only large-scale cultural borrowing before the twentieth century; it entered China from India in the first and second centuries CE but only became popular in 300-800 CE through a series of cultural accommodations; at first supported by the state, it suffered persecution during the ninth century but continued to play a role in Chinese society
Emperor Wendi
Sui emperor (reigned 581-604 CE) who spread Buddhism throughout his state
Quran
Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam.
umma
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community.
Five Pillars of Islam
true Muslims were expected to follow (principle of Salvation): belief in Allah, pray 5 times a day, giving of alms, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca once in a lifetime
hijra
The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam
sharia
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed, was not followed to some extent in early sudanitic socities as anscestors were traced from the matrilineal line
jizya
Head tax paid by all non-Muslims (Christians/Jews) in Islamic lands.
ulama
the body of mullahs (Muslim scholars trained in Islam and Islamic law) who are the interpreters of Islam’s sciences and doctrines and laws and the chief guarantors of continuity in the spiritual and intellectual history of the Islamic community
Umayyad caliphate
(661-750 CE) The Islamic caliphate that established a capital at Damascus, conquered North Africa, the Iberian Pennisula, Southwest Asia, and Persia, and had a bureaucracy with only Arab Muslims able to be a part of it.
Abbasid caliphate
(750-1258 CE) The caliphate, after the Umayyads, who focused more on administration than conquering. Had a bureaucracy that any Mulim could be a part of.
Sufism
A movement within Islam towards mysticism, spiritualism, and meditative philosophy. Extremely influenced by Plato
al-Ghazali
Brilliant Islamic theologian; struggled to fuse Greek and Qur’anic traditions; not entirely accepted by ulama
Sikhism
A belief system which blends Hindu traditions with Islamic monotheistic traditions. Based in India and Pakistan.
Ibn Battuta
Arab traveler who described African societies and cultures in his travel records, providing historians with much information about the Saharan trade
Timbuktu
Mali trading city that became a center of wealth and learning
Mansa Musa
1312 CE-1337 CE
The tenth ruler of Mali, and devout Muslim, whose extravagant pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca established the empire’s reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world
al-Andalus
A Muslim-ruled region in what is now Spain, established by the Berbers in the eighth century A.D.
madrassas
Formal colleges for higher institutions in the teaching of Islam as well as in secular subjects founded throughout the Islamic world in beginning in the 11th century
House of Wisdom
Combination library, academy, and translation center in Baghdad established in the 800s.
Ibn Sina
A Persian doctor that showed how diseases spread from one person to another.
Nubian Christianity
Emerging in the fifth and sixth centuries in the several kingdoms of Nubia to the south of Egypt, this Christian church thrived for six hundred years but had largelydisappeared by 1500 C.E. by which time most ofthe region’s population practiced Islam.
Jesus sutras
early Chinese language manuscripts of Christian teachings. They are connected with the 7th century mission of Alopen
Ethiopian Christianity
retained basic Christian theology and rituals, reflected the interests of its African devotees. Believed a large host of evil spirits populate the world
Byzantine Empire
(330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.
Constantinople
A place previously known as Byzantium which became the capitol of the Roman Empire or “new Rome”
Justinian
6th century Byzantine emperor; failed to reconquer the western portions of the empire; rebuilt Constatinople; codified Roman law
caesaropapism
-the idea of combining the power of secular government with the religious power, or making it superior to, the spiritual authority of the church // Ceaso – “king” & pap – “pope”
Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Eastern branch of Christianity that evolved following the division of the Roman Empire and the subsequent development of the Byzantine Empire in the east and the medieval European society in the west. The church recognized the primacy of the patriarch of Constantinople
icons
A painting of Christ or another holy figure, used as an aid to devotion in the Byzantine and other Eastern Churches. Disputes occurred over claims that icons were worshiped more than the people themselves.
Prince Vladimir of Kiev
He was the Russian prince who selected Greek Orthodoxy as the national religion. This added cultural bonds to the Byzantine Empire to the already existing commercial ties
Kievan Rus
A monarchy established in present day Russia in the 6th and 7th centuries. It was ruled through loosely organized alliances with regional aristocrats from. The Scandinavians coined the term “Russia”. It was greatly influenced by Byzantine
Charlemagne
800 AD crowned by the Pope as the head of the Holy Roman Empire, which extended from northern Spain to western Germany and northern Italy. His palace was at Aachen in central Europe
Holy Roman Empire
An empire established in Europe in the 10th century A.D., originally consisting mainly of lands in what is now Germany and Italy
Roman Catholic Church
Church established in western Europe during the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages with its head being the bishop of Rome or pope.
Western Christendom
Western European branch of Christianity that gradually defined itself as separate from Eastern Orthodoxy, with a major break in 1054 C.E. that has still not been healed.
Cecilia Penifader
the Crusades
(1095- 1270) Eight crusades done by Western Christians to attempt to win back lands conquered by Muslims, specifically Jerusalem. In 1270, Crusaders believing the Eastern Orthodox religion was heresy, they conquered the Byzantine Empire.
Ghana
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast. Islam was mainly used to reinforce the concept of kingship(A Royal Cult), and much of the population never converted.
Mali
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade. Timbuktu, Sundiata, Griots, juula, Mansu Musa, (GOLD and lots of it) might also come to mind. Was after Ghana Empire but before Songhay Empire.
Songhay
Successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali

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