A Native American people, living in what is now Mexico and northern Central America, who had a flourishing civilization from before the birth of Jesus until around 1600, when they were conquered by the Spanish. They are known for their astronomical observations, accurate calendars sophisticated hieroglyphics, and pyramids.
(1200-1521) 1300, they settled in the valley of Mexico. Grew corn. Engaged in frequent warfare to conquer others of the region. Worshipped many gods (polytheistic). Believed the sun god needed human blood to continue his journeys across the sky. Practiced human sacrifices and those sacrificed were captured warriors from other tribes and those who volunteered for the honor.
A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The center of their empire was in present-day Peru. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered the empire.
Civilization of north coast of Peru (200-700 C.E.). An important Andean civilization that built extensive irrigation networks as well as impressive urban centers dominated by brick temples. (p. 313)
Powerful postclassic empire in central Mexico (900-1168 C.E.). It influenced much of Mesoamerica. Aztecs claimed ties to this earlier civilization.
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nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)
(Islam) a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine
The Founder of Islam. Muslims believe that Mohammad was God’s last Prophet and that he received the word of God from the angel Gabriel.
make a declaration of faith, pray five times daily, give to charity, fast from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca
Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam.
the Muslim community or people, considered to extend from Mauritania to Pakistan
the divine law, derived from the qur’an and the sunna, encompassing all and setting forth in detail how muslims are to live
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
one of the two main branches of orthodox Islam, a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
one of the two main branches of orthodox Islam; a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs
Dar al Islam
an Arabic term that means the “house of Islam” and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
“people of the book”
what Muslims called Christians and Jews which means that they too only believe in one god.
Successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims
a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life
The 1,100-mile waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire.
Equal Field System
This Chinese system allotted land to individuals and their families according to the land’s fertility and the recipients’ needs.
the only woman to rule China in her own name, expanded the empire and supported Buddhism during the Tang Dynasty.
The Confucian response to Buddhism by taking Confucian and Buddhist beliefs and combining them into this. However, it is still very much Confucian in belief.
Chinese invention that aided navigation by showing which direction was north
Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery; early form of currency
practice in Chinese society to mutilate women’s feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women’s movement; made it easier to confine women to the household
extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
a hereditary military dictator of Japan
a japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
a Japanese warrior who was a member of the feudal military aristocracy
one of Japan’s lower classes; landless laborers who could be bought and sold like slaves
A Japanese religion whose followers believe that all things in the natural world are filled with divine spirits
school of Mahayana Buddhism asserting that enlightenment can come through meditation and intuition rather than faith
one of a seafaring Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of northern and western from the eighth through the tenth century.
belonging or relating to the people from northern France, especially those who invaded England in 1066 and became its rulers, or to the buildings which were made during their rule
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
Religion that rejects the authority of the pope, which is the main difference in religious and moral beliefs dividing it from Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholic Church
Tone of the three major branches of Christianity; arose out of the division of the Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian into four governmental regions… centered in Rome
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
title for the heads of the Eastern Orthodox Churches (in Istanbul and Alexandria and Moscow and Jerusalem)
Time when Christians objected to the practice of using images or icons in worship
Frankish king who conquered most of Europe and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III in the year 800
men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord’s land in exchange for protection
A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.
land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service
a code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages; requiring them to be brave, loyal and true to their word; they had to fight fairly in battle
a way of life in which men and women withdraw from the rest of the world in order to devote themselves to their faith (Monks)
a blending of two or more religious traditions
A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people.
Where the Renaissance began
any of the more or less continuous military expeditions in the 11-13th centuries when Christian powers of Europe tried to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims
Pope Urban II
Leader of the Roman Catholic Church who asked European Christians to take up arms against Muslims, starting the Crusades
A disease that engulfed Europe during the Middle Ages. It killed about one-third of the population and was carried by fleas. Because of this, the feudal system died out.
Hundred Years War
the series of wars between England and France, 1337-1453, in which England lost all its possessions in France except Calais.
prejudice against Jews
The Great Schism
two popes were chosen; divided europe; damaged church – people didn’t know who to worship; ended with election of one new pope