a small Spanish or Portuguese sailing vessel of the Middle Ages and later, usually lateen-rigged on two or three masts.
A charter city is a city in which the governing system is defined by the city’s own charter document rather than by state, provincial, regional or national laws.
a sovereign state consisting of an autonomous city with its dependencies.
coerced labor systems
forced labor: indentured slaves, serfs, slaves.
A conqueror, especially one of the 16th-century Spanish soldiers who defeated the Indian civilizations of Mexico, Central America, or Peru.
A group or class of persons or a member of such a group or class, enjoying superior intellectual, social, or economic status.
a group of nations or peoples ruled over by an emperor, empress, or other powerful sovereign or government.
any infectious disease that develops and spreads rapidly to many people.
to stop communicating with a person or peoples.
of, pertaining to, or like the feudal system, or its political, military, social, and economic structure.
noting or having the relation of a child to a parent.
the body of doctrine, myth, belief, etc., that guides an individual, social movement, institution, class, or large group.
of, like, or pertaining to an empire.
joint- stock companies
partnership between two companies.
group of people related by blood or marriage.
to release from slavery or slavitude.
economic theory that stressed governments’ promotion of limitation of imports from other nations.
a person sent by a church to spread their religion and help others.
life, system, condition having to do with monasteries.
the belief that there is only one god.
noble class or body of nobles in a country.
a women member of a religious order.
a form of social organization in which the father is the supreme authority in the family, clan, or tribe and descent is reckoned in the male line.
a person who travels to a foreign or holy place for their religion.
the belief that there is more than one god.
a person whose office is to perform religious rights.
any Western Christian who is not an adherent of a Catholic, Anglican, or Eastern Church.
the activity, spirit, or time of the great revival of art, literature, and learning in Europe beginning in the 14th century and extending to the 17th century, marking the transition from the medieval to the modern world.
something regarded as possessing a sacred character or mysterious significance.
texts that a religion believes to be sacred or of central importance.
a formal division within, or separation from, a church or religious body over some doctrinal difference.
the condition of a slave.
the business or process of procuring, transporting, and selling slaves.
the hierarchical or vertical division of society according to rank, caste, or class.
taxing of certain imported goods by the government.
government income due to taxation.
the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life, society, and the environment.
the relocation of a large population of a particular people group from one place to another triggered by economics.
the goods that are being trading between people.
in the city.
the lending or practice of lending money at an exorbitant interest.