AP World History Unit 2 Review

qin shihuangdi
Ruler of China who united China for the first time. He built road and canals and began the Great Wall of China. He also imposed a standard system of laws, money, weights, and writing.

*significant because he contributed to Chinese language and coinage/currency.

qin dynasty
the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall

*significant because the Great Wall was built in this dynasty, first centralized empire.

republic
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

*significant because it shows how republics today are similar or dissimilar.

Han Dynasty
(202 BCE-220 CE) This dynasty continued the centralization of the Qin Dynasty, but focused on Confucianism and education instead of Legalism.

*significant because Confucianism is used a lot during this time period.

confucius
Chinese philosopher (circa 551-478 BC)

*significant because he founded Confucianism and is still widely practiced today.

plebeians
the poorer majority of the roman empire; the working class; couldnt be part of government; could vote but not hold office; couldnt be in army

*significant because it shows us patterns in roman empire with social/gender classes/divisions

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civil service exams
Confucian exam to acquire a position in the Chinese bureaucracy

*significant because it shows us how important it was to know material and have good values was to Confucius.

empire
the domain ruled by an emperor or empress

*significant because it shows patterns with empires and emperors/empress’

patricians
the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners

*significant because it shows patterns of the social classes in Classic Rome

Silk Road
an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)

*significant because it spread many goods such as spices, silk, and gunpowder, and religions such as buddhism and christianity throughout asia and much of europe.

Julius Caesar
Dictator of Rome Circa 100-44 BCE

*significant because under his rule did the Roman Republic become an empire.

Pax Romana
“the Roman peace”, A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.

*significant because it shows periods of prosperity in the roman empire

Scholar Gentry
the educated upper classes in China

*significant because it shows social class divisions in the golden age of china.

Twelve Tables
the earliest written collection of Roman laws, drawn up by patricians about 450B.C., that became the foundation of Roman law

*significant because it is the foundation of roman laws which in turn lay the foundation for many laws still active present day.

slaves
people who were regarded as the property of their masters

*significant because slaves have been used throughout world history and are still used today in Africa by African tribes.

satrap
a governor of a province in the Persian empire

*significant because it shows the organization of persian government

Diocletian
Roman emperor who divided the empire in two and oversaw the eastern part

*significant because he was responsible for the influence of both parts of what was the roman empire.

Polis
Greek city-state

*significant because it shows the organization of City States in Greece- Athens and Sparta

Constantine
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)

*significant because he popularized christianity and was a famous emperor of rome.

Sparta
Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts

*significant because Sparta was involved in the Peloponnesian war

Germanic Tribes
the groups of invaders who took over the Western Roman Empire

*significant because they helped continue the decline of the roman empire

Athens
the capital and largest city of Greece

*significant because it set the tone for republics around the world throughout history.

Pericles
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen’s political and cultural supremacy in Greece

*significant because he contributed to politics and culture in greece.

Herodotus
the ancient Greek known as the father of history

*significant because he was the father of history

Jesus
Religious leader and founder of Christianity

*significant because he founded the one of the worlds major religions.

Christians
people who believe Jesus was the Messiah

*significant because they contributed to culture in many societies

Monarchy
state ruled over by a single person, as a king or queen

*significant because many religions today are monarchies

tyrant
a cruel and oppressive dictator

*significant because many emperors in many empires have been tyrants and have changed the organization of said empires.

hoplite
Heavily armed Greek infantry who carried long spears and fought in closely spaced rows

*significant because this is the warfare use for many centuries to come.

persian wars
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire

*significant because these wars help us understand the different cultures battling

oligarchy
a system of government in which a small group holds power

*significant because sparta was an olligarchy

constantinople
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome.

*significant because this is a place where one can visit to see the incomplete fall of the roman empire.

democracy
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them

*significant because democracys are widely used today

justinians code
A law code created by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian about 530 CE. It was a revision of the old Roman law system.

*significant because it was a revision of popular roman laws

homer
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)

*significant because he told us much about greek culture and religion

socrates
Greek philosopher; sentenced to death for corrupting Athens youth

*significant because he is responsible for the socratic method of questioning

Philosophy
a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school

*significant because we study philosophy in school/ college

Plato
ancient Athenian philosopher; was Socrates’ student

*significant because he had ideas of ideal governments and how knowledge based on consideration of ideal forms outside the material world

Aristotle
Greek philosopher; teacher of Alexander the Great;

*significant becausehe believed that knowledge was based on observation of phenomena in material world

Gupta Empire
Golden Age of India; ruled through central government but allowed village power;

*significant because it restored Hinduism

Varna
four classes into which the Aryans divided people

*significant because it was the caste system

Vedas
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.

*significant because they were the earliest texts that pertained to Hinduism written in Sanskrit.