The first great Persian empire (558-330 BCE) which began under Cryus and reached its peak under Darius.
The Persian empire (323 – 83 BCE) founded by Seleucus after the death of Alexander the Great.
The Persian empire (247 BCE- 224 CE) that reached its peach under Mithradates 1.
Persian administrators, usually of royal, who governed a satrap.
Persian religion based on the teaching of prophet Zarathustra; its emphasis on the duality of good and evil and on the role of individuals in determining their own fate would influence later religions.
an extensive group of states or countries under a single supreme authority; emperor or empress.
An ancient capital of Persia; was also a monument to the Achaemenid Empire.
Payment made periodically by one state or ruler to another, especially as a sign of dependence.
Coins that Darius introduced that had a value, expanded and improved trade.
Persian underground canal.
Free and Unfree Labor
Free classes contained most of Persian society that received income from agricultural process; unfree were slaves that worked as domestic servants or on construction projects.
Member of a priestly caste of ancient Persia.
An ancient highway reorganized an rebuilt by Darius the Great, Achaemenid empire in the 5th century, it was 2,575 kilometers stretching from Aegean Sea to Sardis through Mesopotamia to Susa, Iran and an extension to Pasargadae and Persepolis.
An official in government department , one perceived as being concerned with procedural correctness at expense of people’s need.
Cyrus the Great
The first Achaemenid emperor who founded Persia and was known to be a great conqueror.
Darius the Great
King of Persia (522 to 486 BCE) who built the Royal Road, invented the standardized coin and built Persepolis.
The son of Darius who became king, and had difficult relations with subject people.
Alexander of Macedon
King of Ancient Greece kingdom, Macedon, who invaded Persia and burned down Persepolis and battled with the Achaemenids.
Philosophy based on the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Kong Fuzi (Confucius) that emphasizes order, the role of the gentleman, obligations to society and social order.
The Confucian term meaning kindness and being selfless.
The Confucian term meaning proprietary or certain rules to follow.
The Confucian term meaning the devotion and care towards the elders in one’s family.
Castrated males, originally in charge of the harem, who grew to play major roles in government eunuchs were common in China and other societies.
A concept originating with Confucianism that outlines the way in which family members should interact with each other.
The custom of worshiping deceased ancestors who are considered still part of the family.
Key element in Chinese philosophy that means “the way of nature” or “the way of the cosmos”.
Chinese philosophy with origins in the Zhou dynasty; it is associated with legendary philosopher Laozi, and it called for a policy of non competition.
Chinese philosophy from the Zhou dynasty that called for harsh suppression of the common people.
Warring States Period
A period in Ancient China following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the victory of the state, Qin; created unified China under Qin.
The collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher Confucius and his contemporaries.
A series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials; built along an east to west line to protect the Chinese empire.
Compulsory enrollment for nationaln service: the obligatory enrollment of citizens in the armed forces.
Authority or control; control or dominating influence by one person of group, especially by one political group over society.
Kong Fuzi (Confucius)
Chinese philosopher whose Analects contain a collection of his sayings and dialogues complied after his death. His philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctnsss or social morality, correctness, of social relationships, justice and sincerity.
Chinese emperor; founder of the Han dynasty 202 BCE.
The seventh emporer of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141-87 BCE; reign lasted 54 years.
A type of religious belief that focuses on the roles of the various gods and spirits in the natural world and in human events. Animist religions are polytheistic and have been practiced in almost every part of the world.
A person who has attained prajna or enlightenment but postpones going to Nirvana in order to help others attain enlightenment: individual Bodhisattvas are subjects of devotion in certain sets; represented in painting and sculpting.
A social structure in which classes are determined by heredity; popular in China.
Study of old cultures; the study of civilizations that flourished in the distant past, like Greece and Rome.
People who have settled far from their original homeland but who still share some measure of ethnic identity.
The action or state of attaining or having attained spiritual knowledge or insight, in particular (in Buddhism) that awareness which frees a person from the cycle of rebirth.
Buddhist concept of a state of spiritual perfection and enlightenment in which distracting passions are eliminated.
Phase in Greek history (328-146 BCE) from the conquest of Greece by Phillip of Macedon until Greece’s fall to the Romams; this era was a more cosmopolitan age faciliated by conquests of Alexander the Great.
System of rule by monarch: a political system in which a state is ruled by a monarch; a hereditary head of state.
Assigned tasks: a special task givenbto a person or a group to carry out; spread the word of religions such as Buddhism.
Monsoon/ monsoon winds
Rainy season; heavy rainfall in summer for India. Affected trade.
A prince, chief, or ruler in India or East Indus.
Rebirth of soul; in some systems of belief the cyclic return of a soul to live another life in a new body.
Free and equal representation of people; the Freeman’s equal right of every person to participate in a system of government.
Political system with elected representatives; a political system or form of government in which people elect representatives to exercise their power.
Indian religion associated with the teacher Vardhamana Mahavira (540-468 BCE) in which every physical object possessed a soul Jains believe on complete nonviolence to all living things.
Indian kshatriya who achieved enlightenment and became known as the Buddha, the founder of Buddhism.
Lao Tzu (Tse)
The Chinese philosopher who is traditionally regarded as the founder of Taoism.
Indian reflections that reflected basic Hindu concepts/ “Wisdom” early collections of prayers and hymns that provided info about the Indo-European Aryans who migrated into India around 1500 BCE/Song talking about human nature and the purpose of life.
All three were philosophers from Ancient Greece who contributed to math and science.
Was a Roman general, statesman, consult, and notable author; played critical role in the events that led to the rise of Roman Empire and demise of Roman Repubic.
The first emperor of the Roman Empire and the founder of the Roman Empire.
Channel for water; a pipe of channel fof moving water to a lower level, often across great distances; Popular amoung thhe Roman Empire.
Roman term for “the father of the family” a theoretical implication that gave the male head of the family almost unlimited authority.
Impassively; emotional indifference, especially admirable paitence and endurance in the face of adversity.
The king of the state of Qin who conquered all other warring states and united China in 221 BCE.
Of the Han dynasty. He is regarded as the father of Chinese historiography because of his highly praised works.