AP World History Periods 1-3 from college board book

Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations, to c. 600 B.C.E. Concept 1.3.II.D. (Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth). The first states emerged within core civilizations. Pastoralists were often the developers and disseminators of new weapons (i.e., Compound bows and Iron weapons) that transformed warfare in agrarian civilizations. Describe Iron weapons.
Preceded by the Bronze Age, the Iron age, a period of time when iron was the primary metal being used to create various weapons and other tools, led to the usage of iron weapons of which can be traced back to the Hittites of Anatolia c. 1500 BCE (“Iron Age | History;” “Iron Age Revolution”). The use of iron quickly became widespread due to the fact that it was readily available and led to stronger, more reliable weapons (“Iron Age Revolution”).
Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations, to c. 600 B.C.E. Concept 1.3.II.D. (The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies). The first states emerged within core civilizations. Pastoralists were often the developers and disseminators of new modes of transportation (i.e., Chariots and Horseback riding) that transformed warfare in agrarian civilizations. Describe Chariots.
Chariots pulled by horses are a mode of transportation that were mainly used during warfare in the Eurasian area (“Chariot | Vehicle;” Plubins, Rodrigo Quijada). The origin of the chariot cannot be attributed with evidence to a single group of people or date, but one of the earliest documented times of their use was by Hittites of Anatolia and later spread throughout the continent due to the fact that they were fairly easy to maneuver (“Chariot | Vehicle;” Plubins, Rodrigo Quijada).
Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations, to c. 600 B.C.E. Concept 1.3.III.A (The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies). Culture played a significant role in unifying states through laws, language, literature, religion, myths, and monumental art. Early civilizations developed monumental architecture and urban planning (i.e., Ziggurats, Pyramids, Temples, Defensive walls, Streets and roads, and Sewage and water systems). Describe Ziggurats.
Ziggurats are step pyramids that have origins that can be traced back to the Sumerians of Mesopotamia around 4000 years ago to c. 2000 BCE (“Ziggurat | Tower”). Though the exact purpose of the ziggurats is unknown, they are generally accepted to serve religious purposes and possibly non-religious purposes to elevate certain structures (“Ziggurats;” “Gods and Goddesses”).
Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations, to c. 600 B.C.E. Concept 1.3.III.B. (The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies). Culture played a significant role in unifying states through laws, language, literature, religion, myths, and monumental art. Elites, both political and religious, promoted arts and artisanship (i.e., Sculpture, Painting, Wall decorations, and Elaborate weaving). Describe Sculpture.
Sculptures allowed for a cultural outlet in developing civilizations and they provide record of many religious beliefs and figures that were not kept in written record.
Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations, to c. 600 B.C.E. Concept 1.3.III.C. (The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies). Culture played a significant role in unifying states through laws, language, literature, religion, myths, and monumental art. Systems of record keeping (i.e., Cuneiform, Hieroglyphs, Pictographs, Alphabets, and Quipu) arose independently in all early civilizations and subsequently were diffused. Describe quipu.
Quipu is a form of recording quantitative and qualitative data of goods and people using knots formed with rope or string (“Ancient Scripts: Quipu;” “National Geographic Photo Gallery: Inca Culture–Quipus”). This method was developed by the Inca civilization of South America as a form of writing did not yet exist in this area when quipu developed around c. 3000 BCE (“Ancient Scripts: Quipu”).
Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations, to c. 600 B.C.E. Concept 1.3.III.H. (The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies). Culture played a significant role in unifying states through laws, language, literature, religion, myths, and monumental art. Literature (i.e., The “Epic of Gilgamesh,” “Rig Veda,” and “Book of the Dead”) was also a reflection of culture. Describe The “Epic of Gilgamesh.”
The “Epic of Gilgamesh” is one of the oldest known written texts in history originating in c. 2000 BCE from Sumer in Mesopotamia (“The Epic of Gilgamesh” University of Idaho; “The Epic of Gilgamesh” Mr.Barton’s AP World History). This epic gives an insight to the culture and relations surrounding the fertile crescent area during this time period (“The Epic of Gilgamesh” University of Idaho; “The Epic of Gilgamesh” Mr.Barton’s AP World History).
We will write a custom essay sample on
Any topic specifically for you
For only $13.90/page
Order Now
Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human
Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E. Concept 2.1.II.C. (The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions). New belief systems and cultural traditions emerged and spread, often asserting universal truths. In the major Daoist writings, the core belief of balance between humans and nature assumed that the Chinese political system would be altered indirectly. Daoism also influenced the development of Chinese culture (i.e., Medical theories and practices, Poetry, Metallurgy, and Architecture). Describe the influence of Daoism on Metallurgy.
A practice of Daoism was alchemy with a goal, as with their ideals, of making things more useful to bringing people closer to the Tao (“Taoism: Alchemy”). These ideas brought to China the practice of metallurgy in attempts to use valueless metals to form gold, the epitome of prosperity at the time (“Influences of Daoism on Development of China – Poetry, Metallurgy;” “Taoism: Metallurgy”).
Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human
Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E. Concept 2.1.IV.B. (The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions). Other religious and cultural traditions continued parallel to the codified, written belief systems in core civilizations. Ancestor veneration persisted in many regions (i.e., Africa, The Mediterranean region, East Asia, and The Andean areas). Describe the region of East Asia where ancestor veneration persisted.
China was a major area in East Asia that believe in ancestral veneration, influencing areas such as Japan Korea in the same manner (Elacqua, Joseph, et al.). Confucianism was very influential in the respect that it placed emphasis on the veneration of elders and superiors and these ideas were also reflected in Japanese and Korean cultures (Elacqua, Joseph, et al.; Julianna Smith).
Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human
Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E. Concept 2.1.V.A. (The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions). Artistic expressions, including literature and drama, architecture, and sculpture, show distinctive cultural developments. Literature and drama (i.e., Greek plays and Indian epics) acquired distinctive forms that influenced artistic developments in neighboring regions and in later time periods. Describe Greek plays.
Greek plays comprised of three categories, tragedy, comedy, and satyr, and were originally performed in honor of the god of celebration, Dionysus (“Ancient Greek Theatre”). Performed outside, many Greeks came together in a united culture not only for entertainment, but also enlightenment as many plays dealt with cultural occurrences or religious beliefs (“Ancient Greek Theatre”).
Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human
Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E. Concept 2.1.V.B. (The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions). Artistic expressions, including literature and drama, architecture, and sculpture, show distinctive cultural developments. Distinctive architectural styles developed in many regions (i.e., India, Greece, The Roman Empire, and Mesoamerica) in this period. Describe the architectural styles developed in Mesoamerica.
Mesoamerican architecture consisted of many stone step pyramids that often housed a temple at the top, elevated from the ground (“Mesoamerican Architecture;” “Mesoamerican Art”). Stone was very commonly seen in Mesoamerican architecture (“Mesoamerican Architecture;” “Mesoamerican Art”).
Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human
Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E. Concept 2.2.I. (The Development of States and Empires). The number and size of key states and empires grew dramatically by imposing political unity on areas where previously there had been competing states. Required examples of key states and empires (Student should know the location and names): Southwest Asia: Persian Empires (i.e., Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sassanid); East Asia: Qin and Han Empire; South Asia: Maurya and Gupta Empires; Mediterranean region: Phoenicia and its colonies, Greek city-states and colonies, and Hellenistic and Roman Empires; Mesoamerica: Teotihuacan, Maya city-states; and Andean South America: Moche. Describe the Achaemenid Persian empire.
The Achaemenid empire was one of the largest in history, encompassing portions of the areas of Southwest Asia, Northeast Africa, and the Mediterranean (Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art). The empire lasted from 550 BCE to 330 BCE when Alexander the Great claimed the empire after over 2 centuries of diverse trade and conquest (Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art).
Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human
Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E. Concept 2.2.II.A. (The Development of States and Empires). Empires and states developed new techniques of imperial administration based, in part, on the success of earlier political forms. In order to organize their subjects, the rulers created administrative institutions in many regions (i.e., China, Persia, Rome, and South Asia). Describe the administrative institutions of China.
China was composed of many different dynasties, giving it diverse government systems, but China has always had a monarchy and for much of history supported a bureaucracy (“4000 BCE-1000 CE: The Early Chinese Empire: The Qin and the Han”).
Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human
Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E. Concept 2.2.III.A. (The Development of States and Empires). Unique social and economic dimensions developed in imperial societies in Afro-Eurasia and the Americas. Cities (i.e., Persepolis, Chang’an, Pataliputra, Athens, Carthage, Rome, Alexandria, Constantinople, and Teotihuacan) served as centers of trade, public performance of religious rituals, and political administration for states and empires. Describe the city of Teotihuacan.
Teotihuacan was a major city in central Mexico that didn’t belong to any specific empire and had unknown origins was at its strongest point during the first century BCE through the initial half of the first millennium in the common era (Hearn, Kelly; “Teotihuacan”). Teotihuacan had very developed, diverse cultures as well as an assortment of structures including large step pyramids as well as residential areas (Hearn, Kelly; “Teotihuacan”).
Period 2: Concept 2.2.III.C. (The Development of States and Empires). Unique social and economic dimensions developed in imperial societies in Afro-Eurasia and the Americas. Imperial societies relied on a range of methods (i.e., Corvée, Slavery, Rents and tributes, Peasant communities, and Family and household production) to maintain the production of food and provide rewards for the loyalty of the elites. Describe the method of Corvée.
Corvée is also referred to as statute labor and is labor that is legally required for a certain duration of time and the laborers do not receive payment (“Statute Labour | Law”). Forms of corvée were found in Rome, Egypt, and Japan for reasons such as taxes (“Statute Labour | Law”).
Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human
Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E. Concept 2.2.IV.A. (The Development of States and Empires). The Roman, Han, Persian, Mauryan, and Gupta empires created political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that they could not manage, which eventually led to their decline, collapse, and
transformation into successor empires or states. Through excessive mobilization of resources, imperial governments caused environmental damage (i.e., Deforestation, Desertification, Soil erosion, and Silted rivers) and generated social tensions and economic difficulties by concentrating too much wealth in the hands of elites. Describe Deforestation.
Deforestation is the process in which natural forests are removed as a result of human impact. The Mediterranean area, including both the Greek and Roman empires, suffered severely from deforestation, adding to the causes of the fall of the Roman empire by decreasing the crop sustainability of the land (“Environmental Damage”).
Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human
Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E. Concept 2.2.IV.B. (The Development of States and Empires). The Roman, Han, Persian, Mauryan, and Gupta empires created political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that they could not manage, which eventually led to their decline, collapse, and
transformation into successor empires or states. External problems resulted from security issues along their frontiers (i.e., Between Han China and the Xiongnu, Between the Gupta and the White Huns, and Between the Romans and their northern and eastern neighbors), including the threat of invasions. Describe the security issues between Han China and the Xiongnu.
The Xiongnu were nomadic peoples north of China in present-day Mongolia that were constant barbaric threats to the Chinese, leading to the construction of the Great Wall by the Chinese to protect them from various raids and attacks from the Xiongnu (“Problems Along the Frontiers”). The Han responded with both peaceful and militarily tactics, eventually splitting the Xiongnu in 51 BCE (“Problems Along the Frontiers;” “Xiongnu | People”).
Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human
Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E. Concept 2.3.II.A. (Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange). New technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange. New technologies (i.e., Yokes, Saddles, and Stirrups) permitted the use of domesticated pack animals to transport goods across longer routes. Describe Saddles.
The development of saddles revolutionized transportation by horse as it made it easier to transport small goods as well as better securing the safety of the traveler.
Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human
Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E. Concept 2.3.II.A. (Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange). New technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange. New technologies permitted the use of domesticated pack animals (i.e., Horses, Oxen, Llamas, and Camels) to transport goods across longer routes. Describe the use of Camels.
The camel quickly became a valuable resource and mode of transportation for long distance trade throughout the African-Eurasian continent and in particular greatly impacted the North African trade systems due to the fact that camels can survive and continue laboring for many days without needing water (Strayer 349).
Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human
Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E. Concept 2.3.II.B. (Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange). New technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange. Innovations in maritime technologies (i.e., Lateen sail and Dhow ships), as well as advanced knowledge of the monsoon winds, stimulated exchanges along maritime routes from East Africa to East Asia. Describe Dhow ships.
Dhows were ships that became popular in Indian Ocean, commonly used by Arab traders despite their construction of Indian materials (“Nabataea: Maritime”). These ships were characterized by a very different shape than other boats of their time as the sail was in a triangular shape and the hull of the boat was stitched together which gave longevity as the sea water would have less of a long-lasting impact (“Nabataea: Maritime”).
Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human
Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E. Concept 2.3.III.A. (Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange). Alongside the trade in goods, the exchange of people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals, and disease pathogens developed across far-flung networks of communication and exchange. The spread of crops, including rice and cotton from South Asia to the Middle East, encouraged changes in farming and irrigation techniques (i.e., The qanat system). Describe the qanat system.
Developed by the Persians of modern-day Iran in c. 1000 BCE, the qanat system is a system of tunnels to bring water to the surface from the basins, improving irrigation for farmers and decreasing the amount of labor needed to extract water (“Qanats”).
Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human
Societies, c. 600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E. Concept 2.3.III.B. (Emergence of Transregional Networks of Communication and Exchange). Alongside the trade in goods, the exchange of people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals, and disease pathogens developed across far-flung networks of communication and exchange. The spread of disease pathogens diminished urban populations and contributed to the decline of some empires (i.e., The effects of disease on the Roman Empire and The effects of disease on Chinese empires). Describe the effects of disease on Chinese empires.
Due to the severity of disease impact on China in the early centuries of the common era, people began to turn to Buddhist beliefs, changing the culture of the empire (“The Flow of History”). Disease also greatly contributed the weakening of and eventually the falls of the Han and Tang dynasties due to smallpox and measles as well as the bubonic plague, respectively (“The Flow of History”).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.1.I.A. (Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks). Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks. Existing trade routes flourished and promoted the growth of powerful new trading cities (i.e., Novgorod, Timbuktu, The Swahili city-states, Hangzhou, Calicut, Baghdad, Melaka, Venice, Tenochtitlan, and Cahokia). Describe the growth of Hangzhou.
Hangzhou is located on the Grand Canal, a public works project that connects the Yellow River and the Yangtze which allowed for Hangzhou to to become a cosmopolitan center for trade and the city had a flourishing economy with lessening patriarchal views (“Hangzhou”).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.1.I.C. (Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks). Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks. The growth of interregional trade in luxury goods (i.e., Silk and cotton textiles, Porcelain, Spices, Precious metals and gems, Slaves, and Exotic animals) was encouraged by significant innovations in previously existing transportation and commercial technologies, including more sophisticated caravan organization; use of the compass, astrolabe, and larger ship designs in sea travel; and new forms of credit and monetization. Describe the trade of Silk and cotton textiles.
Silk became the epitome of luxury goods, even lending to the name “The Silk Road.” Textile work blossomed in the Song Dynasty, leasing to a prosperous economy for the empire, despite the fact that socially women were more repressed than the Tang dynasty (Strayer 384-385).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.1.I.C. (Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks). Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks. The growth of interregional trade in luxury goods was encouraged by significant innovations in previously existing transportation and commercial technologies, including more sophisticated caravan organization (i.e. Caravanserai and Camel saddles); use of the compass, astrolabe, and larger ship designs in sea travel; and new forms of credit and monetization. Describe Caravanserai.
Caravanserai had a main function to house traders traveling along the Silk Road, providing refuge and encourage travel along the Silk Road by making the long trips less stressful (“Expansion of Communication and Exchange Networks”).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.1.I.C. (Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks). Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks. The growth of interregional trade in luxury goods was encouraged by significant innovations in previously existing transportation and commercial technologies, including more sophisticated caravan organization; use of the compass, astrolabe, and larger ship designs in sea travel; and new forms of credit and monetization (i.e., Bills of exchange, Credit, Checks, and Banking houses). Describe Banking houses.
Banking houses provided security for the wealth a merchant as well as a simplification for payment to others in the form of credit (“Key Concept 3.1 Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks”).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.1.I.D. (Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks). Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks. Commercial growth was also facilitated by state practices (i.e., Minting of coins and Use of paper money), trading organizations, and state-sponsored commercial infrastructures like the Grand Canal in China. Describe the Use of paper money.
The use of paper money is believed to have began in c. 1120 CE during the Song Dynasty, and this innovation led to easier exchange of goods rather than barter due to a standard of units and a far easier means of transportation of the monetary possessions of a person (“The Song Dynasty in China | Asia Topics in World History”).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.1.I.D. (Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks). Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks. Commercial growth was also facilitated by state practices, trading organizations (i.e., Hanseatic League), and state-sponsored commercial infrastructures like the Grand Canal in China. Describe the Hanseatic League.
The Hanseatic League was an organization of German towns in North Europe that formed together to dominate North European trading from the 1200s to the 1400s (“Hanseatic League | German Trading Organization”).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.1.II.A. (Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks). The movement of peoples caused environmental and linguistic effects. The expansion and intensification of long-distance trade routes often depended on environmental knowledge and technological adaptations (i.e., The way Scandinavian Vikings used their longships to travel in coastal and open waters as well as in rivers and estuaries, The way the Arabs and Berbers adapted camels to travel across and around the Sahara, and The way Central Asian pastoral groups used horses to travel in the steppes) to it. Describe The way Central Asian pastoral groups used horses to travel in the steppes.
Horses were a common means of travel for the Central Asian steppes as they had adapted to climbing in the area, could travel quickly, made hunting easier, and had many other recreational uses (“Article: The Horse in Mongolian Culture”). Empires such as the Mongolian empire chose horses as their main source of transportation (“Article: The Horse in Mongolian Culture”).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.1.II.C. (Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks). The movement of peoples caused environmental and linguistic effects. Some migrations and commercial contacts led to the diffusion of languages (i.e., The spread of Bantu languages including Swahili and The spread of Turkic and Arabic languages) throughout a new region or the emergence of new languages. Describe The spread of Turkic and Arabic languages.
Turkic and Arabic languages were spread through means of conquest by various pastoral people and the spread of the Islamic religion through trade and conquest, as well.
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.1.III.B. (Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks). Cross-cultural exchanges were fostered by the intensification of existing, or the creation of new, networks of trade and communication. In key places along important trade routes, merchants set up diasporic communities (i.e., Muslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean region, Chinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia, Sogdian merchant communities throughout Central Asia, and Jewish communities in the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean basin, or along the Silk Roads) where they introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture. Describe Chinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia.
Urban Chinese communities began to develop along the Southeast Asian coasts of the Indian Ocean due to the increase in international trade and ease of access to ocean ports that were more efficient than land trade (“Countries and Their Cultures” ).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.1.III.C. (Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks). Cross-cultural exchanges were fostered by the intensification of existing, or the creation of new, networks of trade and communication. The writings of certain interregional travelers (i.e., Ibn Battuta, Marco Polo, and Xuanzang) illustrate both the extent and the limitations of intercultural knowledge and understanding. Describe Xuanzang.
Xuanzang traveled from China to India in c. 630 CE to gain a deeper understanding of Buddhist beliefs from many of the original texts and beliefs and brought back scriptures, statues, and relics to increase the Chinese knowledge of Buddhism (Strayer 356-357).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.1.III.D. (Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks). Cross-cultural exchanges were fostered by the intensification of existing, or the creation of new, networks of trade and communication. Increased cross-cultural interactions resulted in the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions (i.e., The influence of Neoconfucianism and Buddhism in East Asia, Hinduism and Buddhism in Southeast Asia, Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, and Toltec/Mexica and Inca traditions in Mesoamerica and Andean America). Describe The influence of Neoconfucianism and Buddhism in East Asia.
Buddhism was very influential not only in China, but also Japan and Korea in both the arts and the core values that remained blended in with various cultures due to perception (Bishop, Haley). Neoconfucianism, being relatively new, changed many political and social structures within Southeast Asia as well as developing new technologies (Bishop, Haley).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.1.III.E. (Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks). Cross-cultural exchanges were fostered by the intensification of existing, or the creation of new, networks of trade and communication. Increased cross-cultural interactions also resulted in the diffusion of scientific and technological traditions (i.e., The influence of Greek and Indian mathematics on Muslim scholars, The return of Greek science and philosophy to Western Europe via Muslim al-Andalus in Iberia, and The spread of printing and gunpowder technologies from East Asia into the Islamic empires and Western Europe). Describe The spread of printing and gunpowder technologies from East Asia into the Islamic empires and Western Europe.
Printing technologies that developed in East Asia served as a basis for printing in the Western civilization in the Eurasian continent and the spread of this technology helped not only the East Asian economy, but allowed for the spread of culture and history with the increase in ease for printing (“Four Inventions of Ancient China: Paper Making, Gunpowder, Printing, Compass”). Gunpowder technologies were a military innovation for the West that changed many of their weapons to include it, such as cannons (“Four Inventions of Ancient China: Paper Making, Gunpowder, Printing, Compass”).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.1.IV.A. . (Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks). There was continued diffusion of crops and pathogens throughout the Eastern Hemisphere along the trade routes. New foods and agricultural techniques (i.e., Bananas in Africa; New rice varieties in East Asia; and The spread of cotton, sugar, and citrus throughout Dar al-Islam and the Mediterranean basin) were adopted in populated areas. Describe Bananas in Africa.
Bananas were first domesticated in Southeast Asia in c. 5000 BCE, however they were not introduced to African civilizations until c. 400 BCE where cultivation prospered providing new nutritional sources and trade exports (“AP WORLD FINAL GUIDE”).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.2.I.A (Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions). Empires collapsed and were reconstituted; in some regions new state forms emerged. Following the collapse of empires, most reconstituted governments, including the Byzantine Empire and the Chinese dynasties — Sui, Tang, and Song — combined traditional sources of power and legitimacy (i.e., Patriarchy, Religion, and Land-owning elites) with innovations better suited to the current circumstances. Describe patriarchy.
Patriarchal societies are societies dominated by the male sex with females serving as a subordinate class commonly found in most historical cultures (Strayer 96-98).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.2.I.A (Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions). Empires collapsed and were reconstituted; in some regions new state forms emerged. Following the collapse of empires, most reconstituted governments, including the Byzantine Empire and the Chinese dynasties — Sui, Tang, and Song — combined traditional sources of power and legitimacy with innovations (i.e., New methods of taxation, Tributary systems, and Adaptation of religious institutions) better suited to the current circumstances. Describe Tributary systems.
The tributary system allowed foreigners access to China’s trade and bestowals in exchange for acknowledgement of China’s superiority and the offering of valued goods (Strayer 387).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.2.I.B. (Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions). Empires collapsed and were reconstituted; in some regions new state forms emerged. In some places, new forms of governance emerged, including those developed in various Islamic states (i.e., Abbasids, Muslim Iberia, and Delhi Sultanates), the Mongol Khanates, city-states, and decentralized government (feudalism) in Europe and Japan. Describe the Abbasids.
Preceded by the Umayyads, the Abbasids were an Arab dynasty with a capital in Baghdad, allowing for a prosperous civilization both economically and culturally (Strayer 484-485).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.2.I.B. (Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions). Empires collapsed and were reconstituted; in some regions new state forms emerged. In some places, new forms of governance emerged, including those developed in various Islamic states, the Mongol Khanates, city-states (i.e., In the Italian peninsula, In East Africa, In Southeast Asia, and In the Americas), and decentralized government (feudalism) in Europe and Japan. Describe city-states In the Italian peninsula.
City-states in the Italian peninsula flourished economically and culturally due to the forthcomings of the Renaissance allowing for artistic, scientific, and philosophic ideas to develop, despite the lack of political unity among the city-states (“Renaissance;” Strayer 442).
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.2.I.C. (Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions). Empires collapsed and were reconstituted; in some regions new state forms emerged. Some states synthesized local and borrowed traditions (i.e., Persian traditions that influenced Islamic states and Chinese traditions that influenced states in Japan). Describe Chinese traditions that influenced states in Japan.
Through interactions with China, Japan used China’s writing, religion, philosophy, social structures, and political structures as their basis for their own developing culture. For example, Buddhism and Confucianism influenced Japan’s religion that became known as Shinto.
Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 C.E. to c. 1450. Concept 3.3.I.A. ( Increased Economic Productive
Capacity and Its Consequences). Innovations stimulated agricultural and industrial production in many regions. Agricultural production increased significantly due to technological innovations (i.e., Champa rice varieties, The chinampa field systems, Waru waru agricultural techniques in the Andean areas, Improved terracing techniques, and The horse collar). Describe the horse collar.
The development of the restraining device of the horse collar allowed for horses to be better suited for agricultural labors.