AP World History Period 4 Quizlet

chattel slavery
ownership of human beings; a system of bondage in which a slave has the legal status of property and so can be bought as sold like property.
indentured servitude
A worker bound by a voluntary agreement to work for a specified period of years often in return for free passage to an overseas destination. Before 1800 most were Europeans; after 1800 most indentured laborers were Asians. reading link: http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/indenturedlabor-pdf—5059580
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians. simple video link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yBe-6JCAD08
an instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets
link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SwDU0VFWlQ8
Slender, long-hulled vessels utilized by Portuguese; highly maneuverable and able to sail against the wind; key to development of Portuguese trade empire in Asia. link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1G7gVC7SUNs
Zheng He
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. Voyages were stopped abruptly.
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-HoyvI_HdL4
physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land
or voodoo is a New World syncretic faith that combines the animist faiths of West Africa with Christianity- here is a video link with more details about Vodun in Haiti today: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-bwZEGp3XPA Another Link: http://www.religioustolerance.org/voodoo.htm
The doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam.
link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LHtpTdT8G4E Another link: http://www.sikhmuseum.com/
a type of japanese drama in which music, dance, and mime are used to present stories- try this link to see what it is like: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=67-bgSFJiKc
Spanish adaptation of the Inca Mi’ta
Mandatory service in the Incan empire. All citizens who could work were required to do so for a set number of days out of a year. All males at the age of fifteen were required to participate in the Mi’ta. This remained mandatory until the age of fifty. The Spanish manipulated this system to profit from silver mines.
Northeast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644, which was the last of China’s imperial dynasties.
Creole elites
Of European ancestry, but born in Latin America. Between the Peninsulares and the ________ was most wealth and power. _______ couldn’t hold the highest gov’t positions, but they were educated and powerful as a class. They were the least oppressed out of all of the groups (including the Peninsulares). They traveled abroad and brought back ideas from other revolutions.
a local official in Mughul India who received a plot of farmland for temporary use in return for collecting taxes for the central government
a Japanese feudal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
person of mixed American Indian and European ancestry
a person of mixed African and European ancestry
Shiism, Shi’a
the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs
Republica de Indios
-made up of hundreds of peasant communities with no real connection to one another
-these villages were shielded from harmful outside influence with non-indians other than priests, corregidores, and alcades mayores forbidden to reside with them
-european diseases continued to reduce indigenous population for a century or more until the native people began developing greater resistance to Old World illnesses
Ottoman devshirme
in the Ottoman Empire, the policy of taking boys from conquered Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers
class of warriors in feudal Japan who pledged loyalty to a noble in return for land
European technological advancements that made transoceanic travel and trade possible
– improved maps
– caravels
– Portuguese school of navigation
– improvement in sails
– magnetic compasses
nice link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FLtCzT5MXhE
reading link: http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/navigtech-pdf—5059583
marine reconnaissance leading to discovery of the Americas (to a greater extent than before)
– Zheng He
– Portuguese school of navigation
– Spanish sponsorship of Columbian and other voyages
– North Atlantic crossings for fishing and settlements
European exploration impact in Oceania and Polynesia
exchange and communication networks were not dramatically affected because of infrequent European reconnaissance in the Pacific, here is a link to what did happen…http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/captiancook-pdf—5059568
Impact of silver flow
– use of Spanish colonies and indigenous and slave labor
– disrupted economies all over
– European nations experienced inflation due to increased silver resources
– Japan pulled into global trade due to possession of silver mines
– China experienced deflation due to governmental hoarding of silver and demand of taxes to be paid in silver
European role in Asian trade
-transportation of goods from one Asian nation to another
– transportation of goods in Indian Ocean Basin trade as well
– in general, middlemen
– joint-stock companies important
– colonies established at times
reading link: http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/europeansinasia-pdf—5059579
Atlantic System
The network of trading links after 1500 that moved goods, wealth, people, and cultures around the Atlantic Ocean basin. (p. 497)
Impacts of the Columbian Exchange
– spread of diseases (smallpox, measles, flu)
– American foods to Europe
– European foods to Americas as cash crops, exploitation of labor
– European domesticated animals to the Americas
– Foods brought to the Americas by slaves
– Increase in European population- better nutrition
– environmental damage in the Americas- deforestation and soil depletion
American Foods to Europe
European cash crops in the Americas and domesticated animals
Slave foods brought over- okra & rice
Changes to Islam due to the spreading to new settings in Afro-Eurasia
– adapted to local religions/cultures
– enhanced split between Sunni and Shi’a
– Sufi practices became more widespread
reading link: http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/islam-pdf—5059581
Protestant Reformation
a 16th century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the Pope’s authority.
video link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h025a8GFlyI
Changes to Christianity as it spreads
– more diversity of Christianity such as the Protestant Reformation and changes to Christianity in Africa (link: http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/christianityinafrica-pdf—5059572)
Traditions that borrow from both the past and present.
causes and impacts of literacy growth
-availability of printing presses (Ottoman Empire and Gutenberg press in Europe)
– spread of literature and concepts of popular authors
– diversity of ideas shared
-increased development of literary forms

video link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y1vl2j24Mtk

areas where traditional peasant labor grew:
– frontier settlements in Russian Siberia
(reading link: http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/siberia-pdf—5059584)
– cotton textile production in India
– silk textile production in China
reason for increased demand of labor
growing global demand for raw materials and finished products
continuities in African slave trade (patterns that existed before)
– export of slaves to the Mediterranean
– export of slaves to the Indian Ocean Basin
– use of slaves in households
impact of Colonial economies on labor systems
– increased demand for coerced labor
– indentured servitude
– chattel slavery
– encomienda and hacienda systems
– Spanish adaptation of the Inca Mit’a system
Spanish colonists formed large, self-sufficient farming estates known as these.
reasons for new political and economic elite groups
imperial conquests and widening global economic opportunities
examples of new political and economic elites
– Manchus in China
– Creole elites in Spanish America
– European Gentry
– Urban commercial entrepreneurs in trade ports around the world
(reading link: http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/socialpoliticalelites-pdf—5059588)
existing political and economic elite troubles
– confronted political challenges posed by increasingly powerful monarchs and leaders
– Zamindars in Mughal India
– Nobility in Europe
– Daimyo in Japan
reading link: http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/challengestoexistingelites-pdf—5059569
class of people having high birth or rank
examples of gender and family restructuring
– dependence on European men on Southeast Asian women for trade
reading link: http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/southeastasianwomen-pdf—5059593
– smaller size of European families
reading link: http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/smallereurofamily-pdf—5059586
examples of art that rulers used to consolidate and legitimize their power
– monumental architecture
(Versailles- http://en.chateauversailles.fr/homepage)
(Taj Mahal- http://tajmahal.gov.in/home.html)
(British Royal Palaces-http://www.hrp.org.uk/TowerOfLondon/stories/buildinghistory/)
– urban design
– courtly literature
– visual arts
examples of religious ideas rulers used to legitimize their rule
– divine right (European Monarchs)(link: http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/divineright-pdf—5059576)
– Safavid use of Shiism
– Mexica/Aztec use of human sacrifice
– Songhay promotion of Islam
(link: http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/songhayislam-pdf—5059589)
– Chinese Emperor public performance of Confucian rituals (link: http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/confucianrituals-pdf—5059574)
divine right
the idea that monarchs are God’s representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
Aztec human sacrifice
Ceremonial and very common practice in the _________. Their sun god needed nourishment to help civilization. This occurred very often.
What Chinese emperors did to legitimize their rule
Public performance of Confucian rituals
How states treated ethnic and religious groups
– treated them in way to use economic contributions, while not giving power
Ottoman treatment of non-Muslims
They did not require conquered peoples to convert to Islam but extended to them the status of dhimmi (“protected people”). In return for their loyalty and payment of a special tax known as jizya, dhimmi communities retained their personal freedom, kept their property, practiced their religion, and handled their legal affairs. In the ——- empire, for example, autonomous religious communities known as millet retained their civil laws, traditions, and languages. Millet communities usually also assumed social and administrative functions in matters concerning birth, marriage, death, health, and education.
Manchu policies toward the Chinese
They not only outlawed intermarriage between Manchus and Chinese but also forbade Chinese from traveling to Manchuria and from learning the Manchurian language. Qing authorities also forced Chinese men to shave the front of their heads and grow a Manchu-style queue as a sign of submission to the dynasty.
These are examples of how rulers used bureaucratic elites and military officials to maintain centralized control
Ottoman devshirme
Chinese examination system
Salaried Samurai
Chinese examination system
a political feature of Chinese empires. Scholar-bureaucrats took state-sponsored exams in order to become government scribes
reading link: http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/chineseexaminationsystem-pdf—5059570
challenges to state consolidation and expansion
– competition over trade routes
– state rivalries
– local resistance
examples of competition over trade routes
– Omani-European rivalry in the Indian Ocean Basin
– Piracy in the Caribbean
reading link: http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/piracy-pdf—5059582
examples of state rivalries
-Thirty Years War
– Ottoman-Safavid Conflict
reading link: http://www.mybigcampus.com/library/items/staterivalries-pdf—5059590
examples of local resistance
– food riots
– Samurai revolts
– Peasant uprisings
Ottoman Empire
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453 to 1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
Mughal Empire
Muslim state founded by Babur (a descendant of Timur), which extended over India. Experienced prosperity, peace, and little outside threats under Akbar’s rule. For a while was an example of religious harmony between Muslim and Hindu religions.
Qing Empire
Empire established in China by Manchus who overthrew the Ming Empire in 1644. At various times they also controlled Manchuria, Mongolia, Turkestan, and Tibet. The last emperor of this dynasty was overthrown in 1911 by nationalists.
Russian Empire
The beginnings of the empire was due to Muscovite princes after the defeat of the Mongols in the late 1400s. In doing so, the princes absolved the authority of local princes. Ivan III used the Cossacks, the Russian version of the American western settlers, to expand and take over additional land. Meanwhile, Ivan solidified a centralized rule and claimed divine ordination. He proclaimed Moscow to be the new capital of the new empire.

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