age of reason
An era during which rational thought is prominent or esteemed, especially the Enlightenment in western Europe.
Akbar the Great
a ruler of the Mughal empire from 1542-1605, he pursued tolerance for all religions and cultures; he expanded the empire and led the golden age of the Mughal empire
Atlantic slave trade
took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 16th through to the 19th centuries; most slaves transported to the new world
John calvin
founder of the Christian Protestant sect called Calvinism which develops Luther’s doctrine of justification by faith alone and emphasizes the grace of God and the doctrine of predestination.
Colombian exchange
the exchange of plants. animals, diseases, and technologies between the peoples of the Americas and the old world and opening the way to Spanish conquest and colonization
In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World.
Dutch East India company
established in 1602; was the first company to issue stock and considered to have been the first multinational corporation in the world; established to carry out colonial trade and activities in Asia
encomienda system
a grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies; it provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindias
English bill of rights
established in 1689; ensured the power and rights of parliament (therefore taking away from the power of the monarchy and ensuring the power of the parliament)
a philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and that were just as scientific as the laws of physics
european exploration
started with the Spanish expanding into the new world, after this happened the race for land and the extortion of resources occurred; European countries soon set off around the world colonizing land and getting rich at the expense of their conquered peoples
Gutenberg’s printing press
improved the Chinese printing press; Johannes Gutenberg made a printing press that efficiently; device applies pressure to a print medium that rests on an inked surface made of movable type, thereby transferring the ink. Typically used for texts, the invention and spread of the printing press are widely regarded as among the most influential events in human history, revolutionizing the way people conceive and describe the world they live in, and ushering in the period of modernity.
hacienda system
a rich European (In Spanish speaking colonies, Spanish Europeans) held a large area of land on which serfs and slaves worked. They worked the land for the land owner and were bound there; landowners owned the workers
Henry VIII
separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic church; became supreme head of the church of England; only did this because the Roman Catholic church denied him a divorce
heliocentric theory
the theory that the sun is the center of the Solar System and not the Earth
holy roman empire
the loose federation of mostly German states and principalities headed by an emperor elected by the princes; lasted from 962-1806
the forgiveness of the punishment due for past sins, granted by the Catholic Church authorities as a reward for a pious act (people paid the church to be forgiven of their sins); inspired reformation movements
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century; the trained Christian boys taken from Christian families in the Ottoman empire
Manchu (Qing dynasty)
Manchu: federation of Northeast Asian peoples who founded the Qing empire; Manchus overthrew the Ming empire in 1644, the Quing controlled Manchuria, Mongolia, Turkestan and Tibet, the last Qing emperor overthrown in 1911
Martin Luther
leader of the reformation act against the Roman Catholic church and father of the Protestants; wanted to reform the church because of its corruptions and the indulgence system; posted a 95 thesis
term used by Spanish authorities to describe someone of mixed Amerindian and European descent
term used by Spanish and Portuguese colonies to describe someone of mixed African and European descent
Peter the Great
a Russian tsar that introduced and encouraged Russia to become like a Western state; introduced technology, culture, language, style, etc
a term used by Spanish colonies to describe someone born of Spanish descent (directly from Spain)
Phillip II of Spain
Spain was in debt and King Phillip II imposed a heavy sales tax and tried to enforce Catholic orthodoxy (did this to the Netherlands who soon revolted)
protestant reformation
religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the “protesters” forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England
scientific revolution
the intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had lad the groundwork for modern science.
Suleiman the magnificent
the most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire; ruled from 1520-1566; also known as Suleiman Kanuni, “The Lawgiver”; he significantly expanded the empire in the Balkan and Eastern Mediterranean