AP World History Ming/Qing China, Tokugawa Japan

Ming period of rule
1368-1644
Ming replaced
The Mongols in 1368 (Yuan Dynasty)
Ming replaced by
The Qing dynasty in 1644 (Manchu)
Ming economy
Based on trade and agriculture until 1433 when China began a policy of isolationism. After this point, trade suffered.
Ming government
Efficient system based on Confucian ideals. Scholar-Administrators chosen by examination results. Emperor considered “Son of Heaven” and given power through a “Mandate of Heaven”.
Ming “known for” (4)
1) Sinocentric view
2) Isolationism
3) Art (porcelain especially)
4) Building the “Forbidden City” and Great Wall
Ming factors of decline (4)
1) Isolationism
2) Peasant uprisings (high taxes and famine)
3) Invasions from Manchuria
4) Corruption
Qing period of rule
1644-1911
Qing replaced
The Ming Dynasty
Qing replaced by
Foreign domination and eventually the Chinese Nationalists (Guomindang)
Qing economy
Based primarily on agriculture
Qing government
Adopted Ming examination system. Shared government positions with native Chinese while reserving the top positions for Manchus.
Qing “known for” (4)
1) Continued Sinocentric view
2) Continued isolationism
3) Military expansion of the empire
4) Social segregation of Manchu and Chinese culture
Qing factors of decline (4)
1) Isolationism
2) Rapid population growth and lack of food
3) Government corruption
4) British influence (opium, etc.)
Tokugawa period of rule
1603-1867
Tokugawa replaced
Ashikaga Shogunate
Tokugawa replaced by
Meiji Era
Tokugawa economy
Based on agriculture and internal trade. Became capitalist by 1700s
Tokugawa government
Unified under the absolute power of the Shogun. Daimyo (nobles) were responsible for government at the local level
Tokugawa “known for” (6)
1) Extreme isolationism and anti-foreign sentiments
2) Enforced loyalty of daimyo to shogun
3) Strict social hierarchy
4) Eventual development of capitalism and wealthy merchant class
5) Development of new forms of art (kabuki, woodblock prints)
6) New inferior roles for women
Tokugawa factors of decline (2)
1) Isolationism
2) Feudalism did not meet nation’s needs under capitalism
Confucianism (3)
1) Native to China (then spreads into Japan, Korea…)
2) Based on the teachings of Kung-fu-Tse born 551 CE
3) A philosophy of ethics turned into a religion after the death of Confucius
Confucianism Beliefs (based on The Five K’ing) (5)
1) Courage with good judgment
2) Education and self-criticism
3) Filial duty (emperor, father)
4) Good human relationships
5) Wise and just government
NeoConfucianism (3)
1) Emerged during Song Dynasty (960-1279 CE)
2) Rejected Buddhist faith but adapted their themes to Confucian values
3) Some elements of Taoism
Vinegar Tasters- Confucius
Sour expression (rules)
Vinegar Tasters- Buddha
Bitter expression (suffering)
Vinegar Tasters- Lao Tse
Happy expression (natural)
Lack of Chinese Capitalist Development (5)
1) Dominance of scholar-officials
2) Accepted level of corruption
3) Lack of ambition
4) Investing only in low risk land
5) No need for industrial capitalism to replace labor
Japanese vs. European Feudal System
1) Pope = Emperor
2) King = Shogun
3) Counts/Dukes = Daimyo
4) Lords = Greater Samurai
5) Knights = Samurai
“The Sword and the Chrysanthemum”
Sword = Shintoism and Chrysanthemum = Zen Buddhism; together they influence samurai culture
Shintoism (3)
1) Native to Japan
2) Nationalistic
3) Does not spread
Shinto Virtues (3)
1) Courage
2) (Filial) Loyalty
3) Cleanliness (5-7 pm reserved for bathing)
Shinto Sins (2)
1) Cowardess
2) Theft
Zen Buddhism (3)
1) Made so it can’t be explained
2) Unlike any other religion
3) Setori = enlightenment
Zen Impacts on Samurai Culture (3)
1) Meditation
2) Internal Searching
3) Self-control/Self-discipline
Shinto Impacts on Samurai Culture (4)
1) Courage/Cowardess
2) Loyalty
3) Cleanliness
4) Toughness (mental + physical)
Confucianism Impacts on Samurai Culture (3)
1) Duty
2) Filial loyalty
3) Education
Confucianism Influences on Tokugawa Government (2)
1) Social hierarchy
2) Obedience to ruler
Buddhism Impacts on Japanese Commoners (2)
1) Social behavior
2) Acceptance of status in society
Portugal in Asian Trade (6)
1) First to establish trading post empire
2) Did not conquer territory
3) Focused on controlling trade by forcing merchant ships to pay duties at >50 fortified trading sites
4) Intolerant Catholic missionaries
5) Afonso d’ Alboquerque
6) Controlled Asian trade for most of 1500s
Netherlands/England in Asian Trade (6)
1) Did not conquer territory
2) Controlled trade with less use of force than Portugal
3) No real attempts at religious conversion
4) Had faster, larger, cheaper-to-operate ships than Portugal
5) Known for very efficient commercial stock company
6) Dominated Asian trade from late 1500s to early 1700s
Spain in Asian Trade (3)
1) Conquered and colonized territory by late 1500s
2) Emphasis on conversion to Christianity
3) Philippines was a key link in Spain’s “Manila Galleons” trade
Russia in Asian Trade (3)
1) Focused on creating an expanding land empire into Asia and south to the Caspian Sea
2) Primary commodity was furs
3) Limited, unsuccessful attempts to convert indigenous peoples to Orthodox Christianity
5 Seeds of Change
1) Corn (N to O) animal feed = change human diets, population boom in Europe
2) Horse (O to N) transforms Native American lives
3) Disease (both) kills millions, exterminates civs.
4) Potato (N to O) “The World’s Perfect Food”, fed Europe’s poor
5) Sugar (O to N) main catalyst of African slavery
Age of Exploration Technology (8)
1) Magnetic compasses
2) Astrolabe
3) Lateen sails
4) New ships (caravel, carrack, galleons)
5) Improved guns/powder
6) Stern rudder
7) Printing press
8) Sailing strategies (volto do mar)
New Spain Government Hierarchy
1) King/Queen (Spain)
2) Council of the Indies (Spain)
3) Viceroys (Americas)
4) Local Officials (Americas)
4 Viceroyalties of Spain
1) Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico + Cali)
2) Viceroyalty of Granada (Colombia + Central Am.)
3) Viceroyalty of the Rio de La Plata (Central SA)
4) Viceroyalty of Peru (Peru + Chile)
New Spain Social Class Ladder
1) Peninsulares (Born on Iberian Peninsula; 100% Spanish blood)
2) Creoles (100% Spanish blood; Born in New Spain)
3) Mestizos (1/2 Spanish 1/2 NA blood; Born in New Spain)
4) Native Americans
Encomienda
Grant of labor rights for conquistadores in the New World
Repartimiento
The “draft” for encomiendas
Hacienda
Huge plantations
Spanish Overseas Empire Explorers (4)
1) Christopher Columbus
2) Hernan Cortes
3) Francisco Pizarro
4) Magellan
Spanish Overseas Empire Locations
Mexico, Western South America, Caribbean, Florida, Southwest USA, California, Central America, Philippines
Spanish Overseas Empire Economic Activities (3)
1) Gold/silver
2) Plantations (sugar)
3) Settlements
English Overseas Empire Explorers (2)
1) Cabot
2) Drake
English Overseas Empire Locations
East Coast USA, Newfoundland, East Canada, Belize, Coastal India
English Overseas Empire Economic Activities (3)
1) Settlements
2) Plantations (sugar, tobacco)
3) Fishing
Portuguese Overseas Empire Explorers (3)
1) Prince Harry
2) Vasco de Gama
3) Dias
Portuguese Overseas Empire Locations
Brazil, Azores, Coastal Western Africa, Macao
Portuguese Overseas Empire Economic Activities (3)
1) Asian trade
2) Plantations (sugar)
3) Brazilwood
Dutch Overseas Empire Explorer
Hudson
Dutch Overseas Empire Locations
NYC, northern NJ, Tip of Africa, Indonesia, Suriname, Guyana, Malaysia, Singapore
Dutch Overseas Empire Economic Activities (2)
1) Asian trade
2) “Carrying trade”
French Overseas Empire Explorers (3)
1) de Champlain
2) Marquette
3) La Salle
French Overseas Empire Locations
Mississippi River Basin, Great Lakes, Central Canada, French Guiana
French Overseas Empire Economic Activities (2)
1) Furs
2) Some plantations (sugar)
Goals of Mercantilism (2)
1) Stockpile precious metals
2) “Positive Balance of Trade” (export > import)
Elements of Mercantilism (3)
1) “Mother Country” will buy cheap, raw materials from colony
2) Restrictions on colonial manufacturing and trade forces colony to buy expensive “finished goods” from “Mother Country”
3) Colony was forced to use/pay for “Mother Country” ships to transport goods
AE Changes in Influx of Gold/Silver to Europe (3)
1) The Commercial Revolution
2) Greater disparity between social classes leads to unrest
3) Rapid inflation contributes to downfall of Spain
AE Changes in Expansion of World Trade (2)
1) Increased variety of goods
2) Increase in slave trade
AE Changes in Mercantilism (2)
1) Quest for colonies to improve European nation’s balance of trade and power
2) Colonial areas drained of resources
Age of Exploration Brings Dramatic Increase in..
Knowledge
AE Changes in Conflict between/within Cultures (3)
1) Era of European domination begins
2) Largest genocide in history (disease)
3) Slavery expands/Conflict in Africa
AE Changes in Demographics (2)
1) Vast migration of people
2) Population growth in Europe and Africa
The Commercial Revolution (5)
1) Shift in center of trade from Italy to Northern Europe, Spain, and Portugal
2) Increase in modern capitalism
3) Increased mass production/domestic system replaces guilds
4) Increased investments (joint stock companies)
5) Increased banking and insurance