the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad’s birthplace and site of the Ka’ba; pilgrimage site
the founder of the Islam religion; to Muslims, Muhammad is the ultimate and final prophet; born into nomadic trading community and raised by his uncle. Had contact with Christianity and Judaism. Recieved revelations from angel Gabriel and developed following.
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran; based on egalitarianism, ethical codes giving importance to charity, and tolerance.
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca.
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community.
a believer or follower of Islam
Office established in succession to the Prophet Muhammad, to rule the Islamic empire
Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad ; the sacred text of the religion of Islam.
First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs (661 to 750). From their capital at Damascus, the Umayyads ruled one of the largest empires in history that extended from Spain to India. Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate.
Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad’s son-in-law Ali. Shi’ism is the state religion of Iran.
Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries.
Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad’s uncle, al-Abbas, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad (founded 762) from 750 to 1258.
Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Medina; this event marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar
the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
a supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government
Islamic holy war
The stone cubical structure in the courtyard of the Great Mosque of Mecca, believed to have been built by Abraham and regarded by Muslims as the sacred center of the earth
Tax for charity; obligatory for all Muslims
the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni’s as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi’ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad’s death.
A person of a non-Muslim religion whose right to practice that religion is protected within an Islamic society
traditions of the prophet Muhammad