AP World History IDs Chapter 5: Classical Civilizations in India and China

provinces
political districts
council of ministers
assistants to princes and emperors of the Mauryan Empire
districts
divisions of provinces
Ashoka Maurya
The grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, he took the Mauryan Empire to its height. Famously converted to Buddhism after the deadly Kalinga Wars
Kalinga
territory in eastern India conquered by Ashoka in 261 BCE; 150,000 abducted and 100,000 killed; drove Ashoka to become a Buddhist
Ceylon
Former name of Sri Lanka
Bactria
Region in northwestern India ruled by Greek-speaking descendants of Alexander’s veterans.
Pataliputra
The capital of both Mauryan and Gupta empires
Ganges River
A river of South Asia that flows southeast from the Himalayas to the Bay of Bengal.
Rock and Pillar Edicts
A series of laws that reminded Mauryans to live righteous lives according to Buddhist principles
Kushan Empire
In India and after the collapse of the Mauryan Empire it arose from a group of nomadic warriors, and then expanded to become a empire known for its trading on the silk road
Gupta Dynasty
320-600 CE. Powerful Indian state-based, like it Mauryan predecessor, on a capitol in the Ganges Valley. Controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture.
Mauryan Dynasty
first ruler was Chandragupta Maurya; unified much of the entire subcontinent; large armies with thousands of chariots and elephant borne troops; developed a substantial bureaucracy with a postal service; autocratic government
Chandragupta Maurya
founder of the Mauryan Empire
White Huns
Caused fall of Gupta Empire
Han Dynasty
(202 BC – 220 AD) dynasty started by Lui Bang; a great and long-lasting rule, it discarded the harsh policies of the Qin dynasty and adopted Confucian principles; Han rulers chose officials who passed the civil service exams rather than birth; it was a time of prosperity
Pax Sinica
China’s “golden age”; a period of relative peace and advancement
Shihuangdi
Chinese emperor who unified China and founded the Qin dynasty, literally means “first emperor.”
Xiongnu
nomadic raiders from the grasslands north of China during the reign of Han dynasty; emperor Wudi fought against them in the mid-100s BC
civil service examination
An elaborate Chinese system of selecting bureaucrats on merit, first introduced in 165 CE, developed by the Tang Dynasty in the seventh century CE, and refined under the Song Dynasty; later adopted in Vietnam and with less success in Japan and Korea. It contributed to efficient government, upward mobility, and cultural uniformity.
Yellow Turban Rebellion
A massive Chinese peasant uprising inspired by Daoist teachings that began in 184 C.E. with the goal of establishing a new golden age of equality and harmony.
Upanishads
A major book in Hinduism that is often in the form of dialogues that explored the Vedas and the religious issues that they raised.
Brahma
The term for The Universal Soul in Hinduism.
dharma
In Hindu belief, a person’s religious and moral duties
karma
the effects of a person’s actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
Mahavir Jain
founder of Jainism, born in 500s C.E.
Jainism
a religion founded in India in the sixth century BC, whose members believe that everything in the universe has a soul and therefore shouldn’t be harmed. Mahavira founded this religion.
Buddhism
Belief system that started in India in the 500s BC. Happiness can be achieved through removal of one’s desires. Believers seek enlightenment and the overcoming of suffering.
ahimsa
Non-violence
Siddharta Gautama
founder of Buddhism
ascetic
One who leads a life of self-denial and contemplation; absent of luxury
enlightenment
the beatitude that transcends the cycle of reincarnation
Four Noble Truths
1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire. 3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirtue. 4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path
Mahabharata
A vast epic chronicling the events leading up to a cataclysmic battle between related kinship groups in early India. It includes the Bhagavad-Gita, the most important work of Indian sacred literature. Mahayana Buddhism, Branch of Buddhism followed in China, Japan, and Central Asia. The focus is on reverence for Buddha and for bodhisattvas, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment.
nirvana
Within several Indian religious this is the peace of mind that comes from ending the cycle of rebirth. For some it is from overcoming suffering while for others it comes from joining with Brahman.
reincarnation
Hindu and Buddhist belief that souls are reborn into new bodies over and over.
monasteries
communities in which a person who teaches his or her religion to people with different beliefs
Ramayana
one of two classical Hindu epics telling of the banishment of Rama from his kingdom and the abduction of his wife by a demon and Rama’s restoration to the throne
Gandhara Buddahs
Indian statues based on Buddahs
inoculations
Vaccines given in liquid or shot form that produces or boosts immunity to a specific disease such as Chicken Pox or Measles
Arabic numerals
A written number system created during the Gupta golden age in India, then adopted by the Islamic Empire before spreading further. Used throughout western civilization today.
Nalanda
A large university in ancient India where Tantrism and Buddhism were practiced & studied
Sarnath
where Gautama preached his first sermon about the Four Noble Truths, area of Nalanda
Confucius
(551 BCE) Chinese philosopher and writer of The Analects, a collection of moral and social teachings, including the concept of the Five Relationships. Also known as K’ung Fu-tzu.
Confucianism
A philosophy that adheres to the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. It shows the way to ensure a stable government and an orderly society in the present world and stresses a moral code of conduct.
Daoism
Chinese religion that believes the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from ‘the way’ or ‘path’ of nature.
Dao De Jing
The collected ideas of Laozi
dao
Believes that people should balance the opposite forces of nature, called yin and yang.
caste system
A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life
varna
A caste in the Hindu caste system
brahmins
The priest varna of the caste system.
kshatriyas
The warrior and aristocrat varna of the caste system.
vaishyas
The artisan and merchant varna of the caste system.
shudras
The landless peasants and serfs of the caste system.
untouchables
LOWEST LEVEL OF INDIAN SOCIETY; not considered a real part of the caste system; often given degrading jobs; their life was extremely difficult
dalits
Untouchables
jatis
“sub-castes”; the castes were divided into hundreds of these; usually linked with a certain occupation; unchangeable, you had to be in that group for the rest of your life
Deccan Plateau
A high area of land at the center of the Indian subcontinent.
Indian Ocean sea lanes
Trade routes through Indian Ocean
Silk Roads
A system of ancient caravan routes across Central Asia, along which traders carried silk and other trade goods.