AP World History Chapter 5 Review

what are 2 basic themes of the 3 great classic civi.
expansion and integration
list order of decline for the 3 civilizations
china, mediterranean, india
heritage of classical civi. involved a host of
new ideas, styles, technologies, institutions
what caused these new ideas and institutions to develop
part of process of adjusting to expansion of civilization
list thinkers that arose from the 3 civi. (china=2)
confucius and laozi, buddha, socrates
all 3 thinkers inspired by common need to articulate what
central values in their societies
to unite their expanding civi., china emphasized
centralization generating a political culture
to unite their expanding civi., india and mediterranean remained
more localized and diverse
what was cement of indian civi.
religious values (hinduism)
what is one reason medi. civi. collapsed
achievements spread but involved less of population
how did the china govt. control new territory
had to reign in new S regions and settled some northerners in S
In india, what system spread
caste system
rome combined what to control new territory
local autonomy and tolerance w/ common laws, expansion of citizenship, tight commercial network
all 3 civi. fostered
great inequalities between men and women and between upper and lower classes
did any civi. argue for upward mobility
none
medi. aristocrats treated
locals as clients, offering protection
out of the 3 civi. which was not able to continure after fall of govt.
greek/roman
what 3 areas had contact with the 3 great civi.
NE africa, japan, northern europe
where did cultures evolve entirely independent
in americas
when did interaction between afric and civi. begin
before rise of greece and rome
by 1000 BCE what kingdom flourished in upper nile
kush
kush got writing from
egyptian hieroglyphics
750 BC kush conquered
egypt
what rival kingdom defeated kush
axum
who defeated axum
ethiopia
who did ethiopia trade w/
eastern mediterranean
what 2 religions spread into ethiopia
judaism and christianity
what 2 crops helped african farmers move into new areas
root crops and plantains
what year did japan develope extensive agriculture
200 CE
what was japanese polit. organization based on
tribal chiefs
what was religion in japan
shintoism
what did shintoism believers worship
polit. rulers and nature spirits
explain japanese central ruler
imperial house
did northern europe have a written language
no
scandinavians develoed skills as
sailors
indian group that developed and spread an early form of civi.
olmecs
time of olmecs
800-400 BCE
olmecs lacked
writing
olmec staple food
corn
what animals did olmecs domesticate
turkeys, dogs, guinea pigs
olmec achievements
art in precious stones such as jade, made religious statues and icons
what did olmec successors develop
hieroglyphic alphabet
when did maya civilization appear
400 CE
name of civi. that developed in south america
inca
where were chinese invaders from
central asia
china suffered
internal problems
date of chinese serious decline
100 CE
what dynasty during decline
han
what happened to central govt. control
diminished
what happened to bureaucracy
corrupt
which group took up slack when decline occured
local landlords
which religion produced a great revolutionary effort
daoism
daoist leaders called
yellow turbans
who did yellow turbans attack
emperor and bureauracy
students demonstrated against
govt. morality
where were india invaders from
central asi
guptas had not resolved
tendency to break up into regions
decline of india was less than
less drastic than collapse of han
what groups invaded
huns
indian decline date
500 CE
many invaders went deeper and destroyed
gupta empire
other invaders integrated
warrior caste
what did they form
new ruling group of regional princes
name of smmal group that conrolled small states
rajput
why did indian culture continue
rajput system helped
where were rome invaders from
germanic tribes
crome suffered from
internal problems
when did rome collapse
476 CE
how did roman emperors treat people
brutal habits of mistreatment
what did polit. confusion produce
series of weak emperors and disputes over succession to throne
effect of army intervention
complicated polit. life and contributed to deterioration of rule from top
why couldn’t han push back
decline
what role did epidemic play in chinese decline
killed up to 1/2 of population and toppled han causing chaos
how long did chinese chaos prevail
3 centuries
what threatened chinese culture
buddhism
when did china reviv
end of 6 century
who drove out chinese invaders
strong native rulers in north
what was next chinese dynasty after han
sui
2what dynasty toook over after sui and sponsored on of most glorious period
tang
what was restored during tang
confucianism and bureaucracy
what religion came to china
buddhism
which structures were justtoo strong to be overturned
structures of classical china
what remained current
confucian vaulues and styles of life
what did invaders do
tried join w/ chinese traditions
what happened to buddhism in india
declined
how did hinduism change
beliefs gained ground and worship of devi
aalthough india civi. maintained, what was other threat
muslim arab armies
how did hindu leaders react
emphasized religious devotion
what happened to indian trade
decreased commercial dynamism
what happened to rome population
decreased
who did the roman army have to hire
germanic soldiers
what was the effect of hiring these soldiers
need to pay troops added more debt
what did the upper class focus on
pleasure seeking
what happened to politcial devotion
turned away from it
instead of writing or creating new lit. scholars were contented w/
writing textbooks that summarized earlier achievements
why did the elite stop producing offspring
it seemed incompatible w/ a life of pleasure seeking
how did plagues affect people
weakened society
what part of roman decline was the greatest
decentralization of political and economic authority
who had political power during roman decline
landlords
who is diocletian
emperor who tried to improve tax collection and organized govt. admin.
what did diocletian attempt
to direct political loyalties to his own person, pressuring people to worship emperor as god
why did he have conflicts w/ christians
they would not give caesar preference ovver their god so he persecuted them
emperor constantine ruled when
312-337 CE
where did he set up the second capital city
constantinople
what did he use to try to unify the empire
religious force of christians
what was the effect of division of the empire
made weakness of western half worse and tax revenues declined
what ahppened when the germanic invasions began
peasants actually welcomed the barbarians
why did the peasants welcome them
were burdened by social and economic pressures of the decaying empire
why did the greek/roman culture not last like china and india
itsits fall split unity of the mediterranean islands that were won w/ much hard work
rome’s collapse was profound but not
even
how many zones were the mediterranean world divided into
3
which part of the roman empire did note fall
eastern
what was the name of this eastern empire
byzantine empire
describe the eastern empire
more deeply entrenched (in a position of strength) and fewer pressures from invaders
what emperor tried to recapture the roman empire
justinian
when did justinian try to recapture rome
527-565 CE
what was justinian’s most famous compilation
compilation of roman law in code w/ his name
name of the empire that flourished in the tigris-euphrates region
parthian
what areas did these conquerors take over
NW india
they did not produce much culture of their own. so whose culture did they adopt
persia
what happened in 227 CE
persian rebellion displaces parthians
what new empire was created
sassanid
what religion revived
zoroastrianism
what happened to trade with china and india
traded goods and artistic and lit. styles w/ greek-speaking world
what happened to the sassanids
overthrown by arabs
what happened to northern middle east
persian rule continued in one part until arabs attacked which still didn’t destroy persian culture
where was the second zone located
north africa and se shores of the mediterranean
what religion spread into this area
christianity
african christianity produce what church
coptic
located where
egypt
what new doctrines came in
islamic doctrines
what happened in the western part of the empire
crude, regional germanic kingdoms developed
what disappeared
trade
what was the only vital force
spread of christianity
what happened to culture and literature
could not be sustained
why did christian scholars apologize
inability towrite well or to understand earlier doctrines
between 550 and 400 BC, classic civi. produced all these seminal thinkers but
muhammad
civi. pushed forward indepently without contact with any of the 3 great classic civi. in
the americas
decline of 3 classic civi. between 200 and 600 CE were all characterized by
outside invasions
one important early symptom of rome’s decline was
drop in population
first kingdoms in africa below sahara showed influence of
egypt and hellenism
end of gupta empire differed from decline of rome in that it did not involve
introduction of new religion
despite major differences, christianity, hinduism, and buddhism all show interest in
life after death
compared to hinduism, christianity is more likely to
disapprove of other beliefs
eastern part of roman empire had less decline than western part for all except
resisted spread of christianity
all constitute distinctive features of late-roman christianity but
weak hierarchy of church officials

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