Religion, based on Four Noble Truths, associated with Siddhartha Gautama (563–483 B.C.E.), or the Buddha; its adherents desired to eliminate all distracting passion and reach nirvana.
Japanese puppet theater.
Religion emerging from Middle East in the first century C.E. holding Jesus to be the son of God who sacrificed himself on behalf of mankind.
Philosophy, based on the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Kong Fuzi (551-479 B.C.E.), or Confucius, that emphasizes order, the role of the gentleman, obligation to society, and reciprocity.
Powerful territorial lords in early modern Japan.
European knowledge that reached Tokugawa Japan.
Term for centers of urban culture in Japan under the Tokugawa shogunate.
Group founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1540 that maintained high educational standards and served worldwide as missionaries.
Japanese theater in which actors were free to improvise and embellish the words.
Manchurians who conquered China, putting an end to the Ming dynasty and founding the Qing dynasty (1644-1911).
Chinese belief that the emperors ruled through the mandate, or approval, of heaven contingent on their ability to look after the welfare of the population.
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese dynasty (1368-1644) founded by Hongwu and known for its cultural brilliance.
Only city in Japan open to the outside world where only Dutch merchants were permitted to trade.
Philosophy that attempted to merge certain basic elements of Confucian and Buddhist thought; most important of the early Neo-Confucianists was the Chinese thinker Zhu Xi (1130-1200).
System of social organization in which males dominate the family and where public institutions, descent, and succession are traced through the male line.
Chinese dynasty (1644-1911) that reached its peak during the reigns of Kangxi and Qianlong.
Civil servants, selected through rigorous examinations and schooled in Confucian texts and calligraphy, who governed the Chinese empire of the Qing dynasty.
Indigenous Japanese religion that emphasizes purity, clan loyalty, and the divinity of the emperor.
Japanese military leader who ruled in place of the emperor.
Last shogunate in Japanese history (1600-1867); it was founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu who was notable for unifying Japan.
Japanese word for the “floating worlds,” a Buddhist term for the insignificance of the world that came to represent the urban centers in Tokugawa Japan.
Chinese Ming emperor (r. 1572-1620) whose refusal to meet with officials hurried the decline of Ming dynasty.
Neo-Confucian Chinese philosopher (1130-1200).