Congress of Vienna
(1814) meeting of Napoleon’s victors to devise a stable territorial arrangement: Austria, Britain, Russia, Prussia and France. Restored France to 1790 boundaries and divided up the remaining land to create a Europe that was consolidated mostly into countries with balanced power. Ensure balance of power and protect each other from aggression from the others. Austria and Britain allied to restrain ambitions of Russia and Prussia.
utilized the scorched-earth policy, successfully pushed Napolean out of Russia, took part in the Congress of Vienna, and created the Holy Alliance
(1853-1856) Conflict ostensibly waged to protect Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, in actuality to gain a foothold in the Black Sea. Turks, Britain, and France forced Russia to sue for peace. The Treaty of Paris (1856) forfeited Russia’s right to maintain a war fleet in the Black Sea. Russia also lost the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia.
Key southern Siberian railroad connection completed during the Russian empire (1904) that links European Russia with the Russian Far East terminus of Vladivostok
Revolutionaries who wanted to abolish all private property and governments, usually by violence, and replace them with free associations of groups.
Russian Revolution of 1905
Imperialist ambitions brought defeat at the hands of Japan in 1905 and political upheaval at home. The Bloody Sunday massacre, when the tsar’s troops fired on a crowd of protesting workers, produced a wave of indignation. By the summer of 1905, strikes, uprisings, revolts, and mutinies were sweeping the country. A general strike in October forced Nicholas II to issue the October Manifesto, which granted full civil liberties and promised a popularly elected parliament (Duma). The Social Democrats rejected the manifesto and led a bloody workers’ uprising in Moscow in December. Middle-class moderates helped the government repress the uprising and survive as a constitutional monarchy.
Elected, representative body to advise govt. Promised in October Manifesto. Sat from 1906 to 1916. Superficial attributes of semiconstitutional monarchy. But Nicholas would not allow it any foreign policy power, the budget or govt personnel. Nicholas’ attitude continued to be negative. Duma was attacked from left and right(political orientations). On “right” were Black 100s (Orthodox Church sponsored) responsible for persecution of the peasantry and forced boycotting of Duma. On “left” were Social Revolutionaries and Social Democrats who refused to recognize the Duma. Voting was divided and unequal. Cadets/Constitutional Democrats got majority. Tsar dismissed the Duma. Cadets went to Viborg in Finland. Second Duma, in 1907, Socialists ran and some were elected but govt was in control. Third and Fourth Dumas were ineffectual.
A group of wealthy peasants in Russia. Kulaks were major figures in peasant villages, but were resented by poorer peasants. Around 1920, Kulaks lost their power in villages, as the Russian government organized groups of poor peasants to administer villages
American Commodore who in 1853 steamed into Edo Bay to force diplomatic negotiations to open Japan’s ports; some samurai wanted to resist, but top officials saw what happened to China, so they signed treaty with United States and opened two ports
Large industrial combines that came to dominate Japanese industry in the late 19th Century
“the first great war of the 20th century”; conflict between Japan and Russia over Korea and Manchuria for control of Port Arthur ; Japan’s victory is first Asian victory over West. Japan retains Manchuria.
a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the congress of Vienna, Coalition of Russia, Austria and Prussia created in 1815 at the request of Alexander I of Russia, signed in Vienna on September 26, 1815. Was to instill the Christian values of charity and peace in European political life. Monarchs used this to prevent revolutionary influence (French Revolution) from entering these nations. It was against democracy, revolution, and secularism.
(1868-1918; ruled 1894-1917) Nicholas II, the last of the Romanovs, ruled until his overthrow in the February Revolution of 1917. He is usually seen as both a kind man who loved his family and an incapable monarch who helped bring about the end of the tsarist state; he led his country through two disastrous wars, the Russo-Japanese War (which helped spark the Revolution of 1905), and World War I (which helped cause the 1917 revolutions.) He is best known for his loving marriage to Alexandra and for allowing the crazed monk Grigorii Rasputin to influence court politics while treating the hemophilia of Alexei, the heir to the throne. Nicholas abdicated in 1917 and was shot in 1918.
emancipation of the serfs
This was the end of rigorous serfdom in 1861 in Russia by Tsar Alexander II. However serfs did not gain any political rights and were required to stay in villages until they were able to repay the aristocracy for land. Yet, it was still more generous than the emancipation of the slaves in America
Reforming minister in late 19th century. In 1897 Russia went on gold standard. Began industrialization seriously. Railway network doubled, telegraph lines x 5, number of post offices tripled, and trade increased. But Russia was still dependent on Western machines and chemicals, etc. There were social changes as Middle Class and Working Class began to grow. Witte oversaw many of these developments and promoted them.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov Lenin
opponent of Tsarist Russia, began to immerse himself in Marxian socialist ideas as a law student. He then went on to form the Bolsheviks, and tried to start a revolution in July 1917. It failed, he went into hiding, but regrouped in Petrograd, where he and his partner Trotsky gained power. He then moved on government buildings, and was declared the head of the new Bolshevik government
During the remainder of the 18th century, a school of Dutch medicine became established in Japan. By the midcentury there were schools of Dutch Studies in the main cities of Japan, and instruction was available in some domains as well. While medicine was the primary occupation of those who studied Dutch, knowledge of Western geography, botany, physics, astronomy, chemistry, and arts also entered Japan. A sudden expansion in Dutch studies occurred after Commodore Matthew Perry’s visit to Japan. During the 1860s Dutch studies became Western Studies. Overall, it was not a major influence on Tokugawa thought.
Reforms introduced by the Russian minister Stolypin intended to placate the peasantry in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; included reduction in redemption payments, attempt to create market-oriented peasantry.
commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate to teach reading, writing, and Confucian rudiments; by mid-19th century resulted in the highest literacy rate outside of the West.
Okubu Toshimichi convinced Japanese regions to join him in overthrowing the feudal shogunate of Tokugawa and reinstate the emperor’s rule. This included an 8 point plan that urged resignation instead of civil war. Restoration led to abolishment of feudalism, centralized taxation, established equality of social classes, abolished restrictions on internal migration and trade, introduced individual property rights, and gave people the freedom to enter into and practice any trade.
Fought between China and Japan. Japan desired Korea and claimed they sought Korea’s independence from China. the 1885 Li-Ito Agreement permitted China and Japan to distribute equal influence on Korea. When Korea requested Chinese aid for a rebellion, Japan deployed troops to make the contribution to suppress the rebellion equal. Afterward, Japan refused to withdraw troops in attempting to keep Korea independent from China. (Japan also desired access to the Liaodong Peninsula) Japan defeated China, forcing China to recognize Korean independence and pay war reparations. The triple intervention (Germany, France, and Russia) disapproved of Japan’s diplomacy and had Japan give up the Liaodong Peninsula in a monetary exchange.
marked the beginning of the Russian Revolution Movement in 1825. In December of 1825 in St. Petersburg, Russia, a group of military officials staged a revolt against Czar Nicholas l. These rebels were liberals who felt threatened by the new ruler’s conservative views. They were, however, defeated by the tsar’s forces. As a result of this revolt, Nicholas I implemented a variety of new regulations to prevent the spread of the liberal movement in Russia.
(1855-1881) viewed Russia’s inability to repel an invasion force on its own soil as proof of its backwardness (Russia had no railroads, was forced to transport military supplies by carts to Crimea); abolition of serfdom would permit a well-trained army to exist without fear of rebellion, and would create a system of free labor so necessary for industrial development; 1861- emancipated the serfs
Alexander II created this in 1864 – a system of provincial and district councils which were elected by various groups including peasants. It was to deal with education, medical relief, public welfare, food supply, and roads in their areas. Did help develop civic sentiment and gave some administrative experience. Many liberals urged a similar body for all of Russia – a Duma, but Alexander II refused.
these people who were inspired by the radical phase of the French Revolution (they were more prone to violence)
a revolutionary group to seize control of Russia, A faction within the Russian Communist movement led by Lenin that successfully took control of the country in 1917
Japanese parliament established as part of the new constitution of 1889; part of Meiji reforms; could pass laws and approve budgets; able to advise government, but not to control it.
Began over American resentment of Japan and Japanese resentment of America. Americans were fearful of the Japanese taking over jobs in America and began segregating children.